Theism: The Witness of Reason and Nature to an All-Wise and Beneficent Creator.

by John Tulloch


John Tulloch, a beloved professor at the University of St Andrews, was a moderate liberal theologian who sought to reconcile the insights of higher criticism of the Bible with the tenets of Christian orthodoxy. For example, Tulloch had published a critical essay in response to Ernest Renan, who had read Scripture so reductionistically that he denied the divinity of Christ and the existence of miracles. Tulloch’s Theism argues for God’s existence using inductive reasoning, following the same logic as the scientific method. In the 19th century (and today as well), academia had largely discounted anyone who claimed to have found conclusive proof for God’s existence. Aware of his hostile audience, Tulloch responds to them specifically in various portions of the essay. Ultimately, the essay served as a precursor to Tulloch’s major work of apologetics, Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy.

Kathleen O’Bannon
CCEL Staff

About John Tulloch

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Picture of John Tulloch
Picture of John Tulloch
Born: June 1, 1823
Died: February 13, 1886
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