KRAWUTZCKY, kra-wuts'kî, ADAM: German Roman Catholic; b. at Neustadt (59 m. s.e. of Breslau), Upper Silesia, Mar. 2, 1842; d. in Breslau in Jan., 1907. He studied in Breslau (1860-62), Tübingen (1863-64), and Munich (1864; D.D.,1865), and at the seminary for priests at Breslau (1864-65). He was ordained to the priesthood in 1865, and after being curate at Kanth and Breslau, became subdirector of the seminary and privat-docent in the University of Breslau in 1868. In 1885 he was appointed associate professor of moral theology at Breslau, and professor in 1888. He wrote Zählung und Ordnung der heiligen Sakramente in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung (Breslau, 1865); De visione beatiftca in Benedicti XII. constitutionem "Benedictus Deus" (1868); Petrinische Studien (2 parts, 1872-73); Des Bellarmin kleiner Katechismus mit Kommentar (1873); and Einleitung in das Studium der katholischen Moraltheologie (1890).

KRELL (CRELL), NIKOLAU Saxon statesman and religious reformer; b. in Leipsic c. 1550; beheaded at Dresden Oct. 9, 1601. He was the son of the jurist Wolfgang Krell, and studied at the Royal School at Grimma and at the University of Leipsic (B.A., 1572; M.A., 1575), concluding his education with a journey to Switzerland and France. It was here, no doubt, that he obtained the degree of doctor of law. He soon achieved great renown at Leipsic as a university instructor, as well as a practical jurist. In 1580 he was appointed aulic councilor by Elector Augustus, and in 1581 he was delegated as counselor and preceptor to Prince Christian. When the latter assumed the government in 1586 he pursued a policy which materially diverged from that of his father. Whereas heretofore public officers and the clergy were required to subscribe the Formula of Concord, this practise now fell away. The higher clergy who had continued loyal to the Formula of Concord were supplanted by men with Philippist views; and when Court Preacher Mirus objected, he was put under custody at Königstein. This attack on Lutheran orthodoxy in the interest of Crypto-Calvinism was


attributed to Doctor Krell, who had been appointed privy councilor in 1586, and chancellor in 1589. In fact Krell wrote to John Casimir, "I'll get even with the parsons in short order; they must dance as I pipe." Moreover, a new catechism was prepared by the Dresden court preachers Steinbach and Salmuth; by the latter, too, an edition of the Bible was set afoot, with Calvinistic elucidations. A great uprising occurred when the form of exorcism was stricken out of the order of baptism. A butcher in Dresden, cleaver in hand, compelled the baptism of his child in the earlier manner; at Wittenberg the new superintendent's house was stormed and scenes of turbulence ensued on every side. Krell, nevertheless, believed himself sure of complete triumph. The territorial estates, nobles and public officers feared some prejudice to their vested rights. The elector had retrenched the official power of the former court positions and given Chancellor Krell almost unlimited power. Besides, there was dissatisfaction with the foreign policy. Henry of Navarre was supported with troops and funds in violation of a promise given by the elector in 1588; and the discontent was enhanced when the campaign of 1591 totally miscarried. But the sudden death of Christian Oct. 5, 1591, put an end to Krell's activity. Even before the burial of his patron, he was thrown into prison at Königstein, where he languished for ten years. Under the regency of Frederick William of Saxe-Weimar, a zealous Lutheran, all public officers and clergymen were again pledged to the articles of faith as expressed in the Formula of Concord. Although the estates interceded for Krell in a measure, the judicial suit against him was protracted year after year. There were manifold articles of complaint lodged against him. The Meissen Commissioner's Diet of Feb. 1, 1600, advanced four charges: seduction of the elector to Calvinism, instigation to the French campaign, alienation of the emperor, and civil division. The court of appeal at Prague condemned him to execution by the sword. The sword with which the sentence was executed is still preserved. It bears the inscription Cave, Calviniane.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: An extensive list of literature is given in Hauck-Herzog, RE, xi. 85. Consult: M. Ritter, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Gegenreformation, i. 644-645, ii. 44-61, Stuttgart, 1889-95; idem, in ADB, xvii. 116-122; A. V. Richard, Der kurfürstliche sächsische Kanzler . . . Nicolaus Krell, Dresden, 1859; F. Brandes, Der Kanzler Krell, Leipsic, 1873; F. von Bezold, Briefe des Pfalzgrafen Johann Casimir, ii. 419, Munich, 1884; G. Droysen, Das Zeitalter des dreissigjährigen Krieges, pp. 364-375, Berlin, 1888; J. Janssen, Geschichte des deutschen Volkes, vols. v.-viii. passim, Freiburg, 1893-94, Eng. transl., St. Louis, 1896-1905; G. Kawerau, Reformation und Gegenreformation, pp. 267, 274-276, Berlin, 1899; B. Bohnenstadt, Dae Prozeesverfahren gegen den kursächeischen Kanzler N. Krell, Halle, 1901; Moeller, Christian Church, iii. 297-298; Cambridge Modern History, iii. 711, 713, New York, 1905.


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