KRAUSS, SAMUEL: Hungarian Jewish scholar; b. at Ukk, county of Zala, Feb. 18, 1866. He studied at the rabbinical seminary at Budapest and the university of the same city (1884-89), then in Berlin, taking the degree of Ph.D. at Giessen in 1893 and receiving the rabbinical diploma from the seminary at Budapest in 1894. In 1894 he became professor of Hebrew at the rabbinical seminary at Budapest, and in 1906 professor at the similar institution in Vienna. He was the managing editor of the Hungarian translation of the Bible made by him in collaboration with W. Bacher and J. Bánóczi. In theology he is a progressive conservative. Besides a Hungarian translation of the Talmudic tractate Derekh Erez (Budapest, 1895), he has prepared a Hebrew commentary on Isaiah (Zhitomir, 1904) and written Rendszeres Zsidó Vallás es Erkölcstan (a manual of systematic instruction in the Jewish religion; Budapest, 1895); Griechische und lateinische Lehnwörter im Talmud, Midrasch und Targum (2 vols., Berlin 1898-99); David Kaufmann, Biographie (1901); Das Leben Jesu nach jüdischen Quellen (1902); and Bad und Badewesen im Talmud (Frankfort, 1908).

KRAUTH, CHARLES PORTERFIELD: One of the most prominent theologians of the English Lutheran Church in America; b. in Martinsburg, Va., Mar. 17, 1823; d. in Philadelphia Jan. 2, 1883. At the age of ten he came to Gettysburg, where his father, the Rev. Charles Philip Krauth, was president of Pennsylvania college and afterward professor in the theological seminary of the General Synod. He was graduated from Pennsylvania College in 1839 and in 1841, having finished his theological course in the seminary, he took charge of a mission


station at Canton, a suburb of Baltimore. From 1842 to 1855 he served congregations in Baltimore, Martinsburg, and Winchester, Va. On account of the sickness of his wife he spent the winter of 1852-1853 in the West Indies, and temporarily supplied the pulpit of the Dutch Reformed Church in St. Thomas. In 1855 he took charge of the First English Lutheran Church in Pittsburg, and in 1859 of St. Mark's Church, Philadelphia. After a short pastorate at St. Mark's he became editor of The Lutheran, which he made a powerful weapon against the so-called "American Lutheranism" then in vogue in the General Synod of the Lutheran Church in America. When the ministerium of Pennsylvania, in its conflict with the General Synod, resolved to establish its own theological seminary at Philadelphia, Dr. Krauth, as a matter of course, was called to the chair of systematic theology. At the formal opening of the new seminary and the installation of its first faculty (Oct. 4, 1864), he, the youngest of the faculty, delivered the inaugural address defining its theological and churchly position. A new field of activity was opened, when the first steps were taken toward the organization of the General Council (see LUTHERANS). While up to this time Dr. Krauth's literary work had been preeminently of a polemical character, the task was now to lay a strong foundation on which a general Lutheran body could be organized in the unity of the faith of the fathers. He composed the Fundamental Articles of Faith and Church Polity, adopted at the Reading Convention in 1866, as the basis for the constitution of the "General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America." He was also the author of the Constitution for Congregations, finally adopted by the General Council in 1880. When the question on the principles of church fellowship became burning in the General Council, he wrote a series of fourteen scholarly articles on this subject in The Lutheran (1875-76), which were afterward summed up in 106 theses on Pulpit and Altar Fellowship, written by order of the General Council (1877). These articles and theses may be said to represent the height of his fully matured convictions on this perplexing and delicate subject. He takes the strictly confessional position that pulpit and altar fellowship means church fellowship and that all syncretism and unionism in the pulpit and at the altar are to be rejected on principle. For ten years Dr. Krauth was president of the Council, until his failing health forbade his attendance on the conventions of that body.

Dr. Krauth's eminent gifts and comprehensive scholarship were readily appreciated beyond the limits of his own church. Soon after he became professor in the theological seminary he was elected a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1868 he was appointed professor of mental and moral philosophy in that institution. In 1873 he was made vice-provost, and during a long vacancy performed all the duties of the provost. In 1881, in addition to his other duties, he undertook the department of history at the University of Pennsylvania. He was a member of the American Committe for the Revision of the English Version of the Bible, and was assigned to the Old-Testament company. His literary activity covers the field of philosophy as well as that of theology. Among his more important publications may be mentioned: An English translation of Tholuck's commentary on the Gospel of St. John (Philadelphia, 1859); a new edition of W. Fleming's Vocabulary of Philosophy (1860; in enlarged form 1875); an English translation of the Augsburg Confession, with introduction and annotations (1868); The Conservative Reformation and its Theology (1872), his principal work, in which he collected the most valuable of his essays and treatises; and a new edition of Berkeley's Principles of Human Knowledge, with introduction and annotations (1874). At the request of the ministerium of Pennsylvania he had undertaken an extended English biography of Martin Luther for the Luther jubilee of 1883, but did not live to complete this work.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Spaeth, Charles Porterfield Krauth, vol. i., New York, 1898; B. M. Schmucker, in Lutheran Church Review, July, 1883; American Church History Series, iv. 416 sqq., et passim, New York, 1893.


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