KRAPF, JOHANN LUDWIG: Pioneer missionary; b. at Derendigen, near Tübingen, Jan. 11, 1810; d. at Kornthal (5 m. n.w. of Stuttgart) Nov. 26, 1881. He studied at the Latin school at Tübingen, at the school of the Basel Mission, and at the University of Tübingen; after a short experience as vicar and teacher, he was sent in 1838 to join the Abyssinian mission of the Church Missionary Society, but the attempt there was rendered abortive through hostile Roman Catholic influence. In 1839 he went to Shoa, south of Abyssinia, and won the confidence and protection of the king of that region, but in 1842 Roman Catholic interference again interrupted his work. In 1844 he established himself in Mohammedan territory at Mombasa (see AFRICA, II., British East Africa Protectorate), where he occupied himself in missionary labors, in the study of the languages, the compilation of dictionaries, and in the work of Bible translation. In consequence of surveys of the territories carried out in frequent missionary journeys, the mission work in East Africa was systematically planned. In 1855 he returned to Kornthal, where, except for two journeys to Africa, on special missions, he carried on his lexicographical work and that of translating the Bible into the languages of Eastern Africa.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Von W. Claus, Johann Ludwig Krapf, Basel, 1882.

KRAUS, FRANZ XAVER: Roman Catholic; b. at Treves Sept. 18, 1840; d. at San Remo (26 m. n.e. of Nice), Italy, Dec. 28, 1890. He studied at Treves, and at the universities of Freiburg and Bonn, and after residing for a time in Paris, was appointed to a benefice at Pfalzel, near Treves, in 1865. In 1872 he was appointed associate professor of the history of art in the University of Strasburg, whence he was called, in 1878, to Freiburg, as professor of church history. In 1904 the Kraus-Gesellschaft was founded in his honor at Munich to promote the deepening of the Christian life and to further harmony between Roman Catholics and Protestants. Among Kraus's numerous publications mention may be made of his Beiträge zu Trierschen Archäologie und Geschichte (Treves, 1868); Die christliche Kunst in ihren frühesten Anfängen (Leipsic, 1872); Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte für Studierende (4 vols., Treves, 1872-76); Roma sotteranea; die römischen Katakomben (Freiburg, 1873); Kunst und Altertum in Elsass-Lotharingen (4 vols., Strasburg, 1876-92); Charakterbilder aus der christlichen Kirchengeschichte (Treves, 1879); Synchronistische Tabellen zur christlichen Kunstgeschichte (Freiburg, 1880); Realenzyklopädie der christlichen Altertümer (2 vols., 1882-86); Die Miniaturen des Codex Egberti in der Stadtbibliothek zu Trier (Freiburg, 1884); Die Wandgemälde der S. Georgskirche zu Oberzell auf der Insel Reichenau (1884); Die Miniaturen der Manesse'schen Liederhandschrift (Strasburg, 1887); Die Kunstdenkmäler des Grossherzogtums Baden (in collaboration with J. Durm and E. Wagner; 6 vols., Freiburg, 1887-1904); Die christlichen lnschriften der Rheinländer (2 vols., 1890-94); Die Wandgemälde von St. Angelo in Formis (Berlin, 1893); Geschichte der christlichen Kunst (2 vols., Freiburg, 1895-1908); Essays (2 vols., Berlin, 1896-1901); Dante, sein Leben und sein Werk, sewn Verhältnis zur Kunst und zur Politik (1897); Die Wandgemälde der St. Sylvesterkapelle zu Goldbach am Bodensee (Munich, 1902); and Cavour, die Erhebung ltaliens im neunzehnten Jahrhundert (Mainz, 1902).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: K. Braig, Zur Erinnerung an Franz Xaver Kraus, Freiburg, 1902 (contains complete list of his writings); E. Hauviller, Franz Xaver Kraus: Lebensbild aus der Zeit des Reformkatholizismus, Colmar, 1904.


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