KAYE, kê, JOHN: Bishop of Lincoln; b. at Hammersmith, London, Dec. 27, 1783; d. at Riseholme (2 m. n. of Lincoln), Lincolnshire, Feb. 18,


1853. He studied at Christ's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1804; M.A., 1807; B.D., 1814; D.D., 1815), where he became fellow in 1804. He was tutor of Christ's College, 1808-14, master 1814-30, vice-chancellor of the university 1815, and regius professor of divinity after 1816. In this capacity it was his peculiar service to recall theological students to the study of the Fathers. He was consecrated bishop of Bristol in 1820, and translated to Lincoln in 1827. His episcopal administration was marked by aggressiveness and efficiency. He increased the number of resident clergy in the diocese of Lincoln, revived the office of rural dean, and was the first bishop to require candidates for orders to pass the theological examination of the University of Cambridge which up to that time had been voluntary. His principal works are: The Ecclesiastical History of the Second and Third Centuries, Illustrated from the Writings of Tertullian (Cambridge, 1825); The Writings and Opinions of Justin Martyr (1829); The Writings and Opinions of Clement of Alexandria (London, 1835); The Council of Nicæa, in Connexion with the Life of Athanasius (1853) ; The External Government and Discipline of the Church of Christ during the First Three Centuries (1855). All of these, with his sermons, charges, and miscellaneous writings, were collected in his Works (8 vols., London, 1888).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Memoir is prefixed to the Works, ut sup. Consult DNB, xxix. 252-253.

KAYSER, kai'zer, AUGUST: German Protestant theologian; b. at Strasburg Feb. 14, 1821; d. there June 17, 1885. He was educated at the university of his native city, and was appointed assistant librarian in 1840. From 1843 to 1855 he acted as private tutor at Havre and Gebweiler. In 1858 he was appointed pastor at Stossweier, Upper Alsace, whence he went to Neuhof, near Strasburg, in 1868, and nine years later became associate professor of theology at the University of Strasburg. Influeneed by his teacher, Eduard Reuss, Kayser was especially attracted to the study of the Old Testament, althougn his first scientific investigations dealt with the literature and theology of the first centuries of the Christian era. The results of these investigations were embodied in La philosophie de Celse et ses rapports avec le Chriatianisme (Strasburg, 1843), De Justini Martyris doctrina dissertatio historica (1850), and Die Testamente der zwölf Patriarchen (in Reuss and Cunitz, Beiträge zu den theologischen Wissenachaften, iii., 1851).

By comparing the commandments with the historical traditions of the Pentateuch Kayser had early come to the conviction that the Elohistic code could not possibly antedate the restoration of the Jewish commonwealth under Persian rule. He had just prepared a work on this question when C. H. Graf's Die geschichtlichen Bücher des Alten Testaments (Leipsic, 1866) appeared, voicing the same view. Kayser therefore refrained from publishing his own book, and devoted himself to the problem from the point of view of literary history. The results of his studies appeared under the title Das vorexilische Buch der Urgeschichte Israels und seine Erweiterungen (Strasburg, 1874). He wrote the posthumous Die Theologie des Alten Testaments in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung dargestellt (Strasburg, 1886).



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