JESSUP, jes'up, HENRY HARRIS: Presbyterian; b. at Montrose, Pa., Apr. 19, 1832. He was graduated at Yale in 1851 and Union Theological Seminary in 1855. In the latter year he went to Tripoli, Syria, under the auspices of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, remaining there until 1860, when he went to Beirut, where he has since remained. Since 1870 he has worked under the auspices of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, and has been professor of church history, theology, and homiletics in the Syrian Theological Seminary, Beirut. He was a member of the Turco-American commission on indemnities after the massacres of Oct., 1860-July, 1861. In theology he is Calvinistic according to the Revised Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church, and has written Women of the Arabs (New York, 1874); Syrian Home Life (1874); The Mohammedan Missionary Problem (Philadelphia, 1880); and The Life of Kamil (1894). He has in preparation A History of the Syria Mission (2 vols.).

JESUATE, jez'yu-Ít: A religious order, originally called Clerici apostolici Sancti Hieronymi, founded at Sienna about 1360 by Giovanni Colombini, a wealthy merchant and senator. After living with his wife in continence for some time, he separated entirely from her and placed her in a convent, with his daughters, giving them a portion of his property. The rest he bestowed on the religious and poor and, with his friend Francesco Miani, lived in poverty, caring for the sick and preaching. Expelled from Sienna, he continued his work in Arezzo and elsewhere. In 1367, when Urban V. returned from Avignon to Rome, he was besought by Colombini and his followers to permit them to found an order and to assign them a habit; but this was refused for some months because of a suspicion that the Jesuates were connected with the heretical Fraticelli. This Colombini was able to disprove, and the order was confirmed. After the founder's death (July 31, 1367), Francesco Miani assumed control. The Jesuates devoted themselves chiefly to the care of the sick and to works of mercy, and consisted of lay brothers with minor vows. Their rule was originally a mixture of Benedictine and Franciscan elements, but later was changed to a somewhat modified Augustinian rule. In 1668 the order, which had already been reformed by Paul V. in 1606, became so worldly that it was suppressed by Clement IX. The female branch of the order, founded at Sienna by Caterina Colombini (d. 1387),


a kinswoman of Giovanni Colombini, preserved the original vigor of its rule, and consequently survived the male Jesuates fully two centuries.

(O. Z÷CKLER†.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Vita J. Columbini, in ASA July, viii. 354-398, and by G. Bonafide, Rome, 1642. Later working over of the material is given in the lives by F. Posel, Regensburg, 1846; and Countess Rambuteau, Paris, 1889. Consult: Helyot, Ordres monastiques, iii. 407 sqq.; Heimbucher, Orden und Kongregationen, ii. 240-242; KL, vi. 1371 sqq.


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