1. Organization and Discipline of the Society.

      Qualifications of Candidates (§ 1).
      Analysis of the Constitutions (§ 2).
      On the Virtue of Obedience (§ 3).
      Rules and Other Manuals (§ 4).

  2. History of the Society.
      Privileges and Exemptions (§ 1).
      Early Achievements in Italy, Portugal, and France (§ 2).
      In Germany and Austria (§ 3).
      In Belgium, Holland, and England (§ 4).
      Mission Work in America (§ 5).
      Unethical Teachings and Practises (§ 6).
      Internal Development and Moral Declension (§ 7).
      Decline and Proscription (§ 8).
      Illicit Continuance and Restoration (§ 9).
  3. Female Orders in Imitation of Jesuits.

The Jesuits (Societas Jesu, "Company of Jesus") is " the most wide-spread of all the religious orders founded in modern times." For an account of the founding of the order see IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA.

I. Organization and Discipline of the Society:
1. Qualifications of Candidates.

The Constitutiones Societatis Jesu cum earum declarationibus, having been approved by Paul III., Julius III., and Paul IV., and commended after careful examination by the Council of Trent, was again emphatically approved and confirmed by Gregory XIII. (Feb., 1582) and printed in Rome in 1583. The text is accompanied by marginal declarations or explanatory notes printed in italics, with a full alphabetical index. The end of the society is declared to be the salvation and perfection of the souls of its members as well as of men in general. The ordinary vows of obedience, poverty, and chastity are required of all members, and that of poverty is explained so as to exclude absolutely not only individual but collective possessions. Receiving compensation for masses, sermons, lectures, or any sort of religious service, even in the form of alms, is absolutely prohibited (Examen, i. 3). An exception is made in the case of colleges and houses of probation with their buildings and revenues. Scholars take the three ordinary vows of poverty, obedience and celibacy and promise to enter the higher ranks of service if the glory of God should require it. Coadjutors or helpers, whether in spiritual or in temporal things, take only the same. Their promotion to the ranks of the Professed depends on their faithfulness and efficiency in the things committed to them. The Professed, or members of the inner circle, who possess the secrets of the order, and from whom the officers are chosen, take in addition to these vows a special vow to the pope, that they will journey without parleying and without asking for traveling expenses, whithersoever he may order, whether among believers or unbelievers. A fourth class is made up of those whose position in the order has not yet been determined, but who are in readiness to enter either grade that the superior may direct. A period of probation (novitiate) usually lasting for two years, in which the candidate is trained in obedience and thoroughly tested as regards aptitude, mental, physical, moral, and spiritual, for the purposes of the order, precedes entrance into any of the grades mentioned (Examen, i. 12). Inquiry is to be made of each candidate whether he has ever been separated from the Church by reason of denial of the faith or falling into errors or into schism; whether he has perpetrated homicide or become infamous on account of enormous sins; whether he has belonged to another order; whether be has been bound by the chain of matrimony or servitude; whether he is afflicted with poor judgment. Affirmative answers to these questions disqualify for admission (Examen, ii.). Careful inquiry, is further to be made respecting name, age, birth-place, legitimacy of birth, religious character of ancestors, names, occupations, and worldly condition of parents (similar inquiries about brothers and sisters); whether he is under obligation to marry, whether he has any son, whether he is in debt or has civil liabilities, whether he has a trade and can read and write, whether be has any disease, has received ecclesiastical ordination, or is under a vow; what have been his habits of religious devotion, reading, and meditation; whether he entertains any religious opinions different from those of the Church, whether he is ready to leave the world and to follow the counsels of our Lord Jesus Christ, whether he fully purposes to live and die in the society; and when, where, and by whom was he first moved to take this position. The answers expected to these inquiries are manifest (ibid. iii.). The candidate is required to relinquish his possessions, if not immediately, at latest after one year. Intercourse with relatives is restricted and practically prohibited. He must agree to have all his defects and errors pointed out to him. He must submit to training in the "Spiritual Exercises," and spend a month doing menial work in a hospice and another month in traveling as a mendicant. For the rest of the two years of probation many other tests are applied, the aim being to make the candidate as a "corpse or a staff" in the hands of his superior. The candidate must express a willingness to become a secular coadjutor or whatever his superiors may determine to be for the greater glory of God and to be willing in all things to submit his own feeling and judgment to that of the society (ibid. v.). For coadjutors and scholars a still further testing of absolute obedience and requisite efficiency is provided (ibid. vi.-viii.).

2. Analysis of the Constitution.

The body of the work consists of eight books. Part I. treats of "Admission to Probation." To the general belongs the final decision as to whether an applicant shall be accepted or rejected. The qualities sought in those to be admitted are given in detail: good appearance, health, youth, physical


strength and endurance, sound doctrine or aptitude for learning it, discretion in doing things or good judgment for acquiring it, good memory, avidity for all virtue and spiritual perfection, quietness, constancy, strenuosity in service, zeal for the salvation of souls, gracefulness of speech, honorable appearance, nobility, wealth, good reputation (these last not necessary, but highly desirable). Detailed directions are given (Part I.) concerning the manner of admitting those who seem to have in sufficient measure the qualities desired. Part II. pertains to dismissing those who have been received on probation and have proved unfit. The main thing here is to satisfy the person to be dismissed that no injustice is done him, but that the greater glory of God requires his dismission, and so to retain his friendship, and to satisfy the rest of the household that he has not been arbitrarily dealt with. Part III. treats of the training and promoting of those who remain in probation. The cultivation of all the mental, moral, and spiritual elements that are considered desirable, especially of prompt and cheerful obedience and deep interest in the purposes of the society, and such hygienic living as will conserve and increase the physical fitness of the probationer, are described in detail. No stress is laid upon asceticism, perfect physical condition being the thing sought. Part IV. treats of the education of the members and education as a means of influence upon those that are without. Conditions of admission, discipline, and curricula, with prescribed texts, in theology and in liberal arts, science, and philosophy are somewhat minutely given. Public schools to be open to non-Jesuits are to be conducted in connection with the colleges. Universities are to be established under the auspices of the society; but it is not thought wise for the society to burden itself with faculties of law or medicine. The ultimate aim of all educational effort was evidently to gain an absolute mastery over the pupil and the devotion of his powers to the purposes of the society. Part V. treats of the things that pertain to admission into the body of the society, that is, into the rank of the "professed." The right of admitting belongs to the general, but he may delegate it to subordinates when he thinks it expedient to do so. Only those are to be admitted into the inner circle who have manifested the possession in a high degree of the gifts and graces, the acquisitions, the enthusiasm, the efficiency, the absolute devotion to the interests of the order that the system was designed and adapted to produce. Out of this body come the officials, including the general. Part VI. deals with the demeanor and duties of the professed. The utmost stress is laid upon obedience and the scrupulous execution of the constitution and rules of the society. They must love poverty as the strong wall of religion and preserve it in its purity. Part VII. treats of the things that pertain to the distribution of the professed throughout the Lord's vineyard for the good of mankind (proximorum). Their obligation to go without questioning wherever the pope or the general may direct and to devote themselves unsparingly to the accomplishment of what ever tasks may be assigned is much emphasized. Part VIII. deals with methods to be employed in keeping the parts of the organization in close touch with the head and with each other. The utmost importance is attached to the vital unity of the body, and frequent and full correspondence with the head and among those charged with various enterprises is insisted upon. Provision is also made for general congregations for the discussion and settlement of important matters. It is thought to be in the interest of unity that the general reside in Rome, where he can always be reached, and that each provincial reside continuously at the point determined upon in his province. In case of the death or retirement of the general, a general congregation is to be called for the election of his successor, and detailed directions are given for the election. The general is expected to appoint a vicar to assist him and to summon the general congregation in case of his demise. Part IX. deals with the functions and authority of the general and of the authority and watch-care of the society over the general. The society controls the expenses and manner of living of the general. He is subject to constant watching, to admonition, and to deposition in case his conduct or teaching should warrant it. He must confess regularly to a properly authorized confessor. The provincials are to lead in proceedings against the general. Part X. (and last) treats of the manner in which the whole body of the society may be conserved and increased in its good estate. The vow taken by the professed closes the work. He promises that he will never consent to a change of the ordinances concerning poverty, "unless at any time from just cause of exigent affairs it seems that poverty ought rather to be restricted," that he will never directly or indirectly put forth effort to secure his own election or promotion to any office or dignity in the society, that he will never seek or consent to be elected to any office or dignity outside of the society unless compelled by obedience to higher authority, that he will report on any brother that he knows to be seeking office or promotion, that if he should accept an ecclesiastical position he would have constant regard to the obedience due to the general.

For "The Spiritual Exercises," see EXERCITIA SPIRITUALIA.

3. "On the Virtue of Obedience."

Ignatius' tract "On the Virtue of Obedience" stands side by side with the Spiritual Exercises and the Constitution as one of the foundation books of the society. It is a letter of less than 4,000 words addressed in April, 1553, to "the brethren of the Society of Jesus who are in Lusitania." He wishes his brethren, while being perfect in all spiritual gifts and ornaments, to be preeminent in the virtue of obedience:

" The only virtue that inserts the other virtues in the mind and guards those that have been inserted. While this flourishes, beyond doubt the rest will flourish. . . . Our salvation was wrought by Him who 'became obedient unto death.' . . . We may the more easily suffer ourselves to be surpassed by other religious orders in fastings, vigils, and other asperity of food and clothing, which each by its own ritual and discipline holily receives: I could wish, dearest brethren, that you who serve our Lord Jesus Christ in this society should be conspicuous indeed in true and perfect obedience and abdication of will and especially of judgment


and for the true and germane progeny of this same society to be distinguished as it were by this note, that they never look upon the person himself whom they obey, but in him look upon Christ the Lord for whose sake they obey. Even if the superior be ornamented and furnished with prudence, goodness, and whatever other gifts, he is not to be obeyed on account of these things, but solely because he is God's vicegerent by whose authority he performs his functions, who says 'he that heareth you heareth me,' 'he that despiseth you despiseth me': nor, on the contrary, even if the superior should be somewhat deficient in counsel or prudence, ought there to be any remission of obedience on that account, so long as he is one's superior; since it has reference to the person of Him whose wisdom can not be deceived: and He will supply whatever may be wanting to his minister, whether he be lacking in probity or in other ornaments--seeing that when Christ had said in express words 'The Scribes and Pharisees sit on Moses' seat,' he straightway added 'All things therefore whatsoever they have said to you, observe and do, but refuse to do according to their works.' "

He proceeds to show that mere outward obedience to a superior, with inner disapproval of the command, is the "lowest and utterly imperfect form of obedience, not worthy of the name of virtue unless it ascends to another grade, which makes one's own the will of the superior and so agrees with it that not only the execution appears in the effect, but also the consent in the affection, and so both will the same thing and disapprove the same thing." Obedience is declared to be " the sacrifice of one's own will, which is the highest part of the mind," the highest possible offering we can make to God. He warns his readers never to attempt to bend the will of a superior to their own. This would be not to conform your will to the divine, but to wish to regulate the divine will by the standard of your own. As a third degree of obedience, which he would have his readers attain, he urges that they should not only will the same, but also think the same as the superior; they should subject their judgment to his. The devout will is able to sway the intelligence, so that "whatever things the superior commands and thinks may seem to the inferior right and true." The best way to accomplish this "holocaust" so essential to personal peace and tranquillity, alacrity, and diligence, and to the unity and efficiency of the society, is "not to look upon the person of the superior as a man obnoxious to errors and miseries, but as Christ himself, who is the highest wisdom, immeasurable goodness, infinite love, who can neither be deceived nor does he wish to deceive you; and since you are conscious within yourselves that by the love of God you have subjected yourselves to the yoke of obedience, that in following the will of the superior you follow more certainly the divine will, do not allow yourselves to doubt that the most faithful love of the Lord will go on by his own ministry which he has appointed over you to govern you from step to step and lead you in right ways. Therefore the voice of your superior and his orders receive not otherwise than as the voice of Christ." On Jan. 1, 1604, Acquaviva, general of the society, prescribed the reading of this tract by every member of the society every two days. It is appended to the Regulae Societatis Jesu in the edition published in Rome in 1616 and frequently afterward.

4. Rules and Other Manuals.

Early in the history of the society a body of rules was printed for the guidance of members in private and in public life. The edition of 1616, published in Rome by Bernardus de Angelis, secretary of the society, embraces additions made by the Seventh General Congregation. It begins with a summary of the Constitution. "Common rules" to be observed by all regarding general deportment, religious exercises, reading, etc., follow. Next come the "Rules of the Provincial," the responsible leader in a province, and his assistants; those of the provost of the house of the professed; those of the college rector; those of the examiner who has to pass upon the qualifications of candidates for admission into the society; those of the master of the novices (with a list of ascetical books suitable for his use); instruction for rendering an account of one's conscience, comprising fourteen questions to be answered in confession and intended to cover all experiences of soul for six months (a year in case of the professed) follows. Rules for those who go on pilgrimages, for assistants of provosts and rectors, consultors (experts without office available for the settlement of difficulties that may arise in any institution of the society), the monitor (whose function is to admonish superiors and report to consultors, to collect the letters of consultors and send them to superiors, etc.). A formula for writing letters by superiors to provincials and by provincials to the general, and directions for the preparation of the annual catalogue of each institution with full information about each member, follow. Rules for prefects, priests, preachers, proctors, librarians, sextons, those who have the care of the sick, etc., are also given.

The Institulum Societatis Jesus (Rome, 1606, Lyons, 1607) and the Corpus Institutionum S. J. (Antwerp, 1709) include a collection of the works already mentioned, with the "Decrees and Canons of the General Congregations," the "Ordinances of the Generals," and some ascetical works.

In 1614 there was published at Cracow what purported to be the secret instructions given to members of the society as to the means to be used to acquire influence over the rich and the noble and to get the advantage of members of other orders and of secular priests in the confessional and other kinds of service. It abounds in worldly-wise advice and recommends the use of all kinds of chicanery for the enrichment and aggrandizement of the society. It consists of seventeen short chapters. It has been frequently reprinted and translated into many languages, thus becoming widely circulated. It seems highly probable that Hieronymus Zahorowski, who had recently severed his connection with the society, published the book with the co-operation of Count George Zbaraski and other Polish enemies of the order. The repudiation of the work by the society is no conclusive evidence of its spuriousness. It has been its policy from the beginning to deny all discreditable reports and to take the chances of being proved unveracious. If the Monita Secreta was really written by Jesuit officials, it is probable that it was never printed by them and that copies in manuscript were very closely guarded before and especially after the publication of 1614. On the other hand, there is no conclusive proof of the genuineness of the work. It embodies in true


Jesuit style what was believed to be the actual practise of members, and if it be formally a fabrication, it was written by one who was thoroughly conversant with the society's literature, modes of thought, and practise at that time. There is nothing in the work that is more cynical or immoral than much that is found in acknowledged Jesuit writings.

II. History of the Society:
1. Privileges and Exemptions.

The popes from Paul III. to Urban VIII. bestowed one after another almost every imaginable privilege and exemption upon the society, including the performing of religious services of all kinds without regard to the rights of the clergy and of other orders and even when an interdict is in force. Nothing seems to have been omitted that would add to their influence and authority (cf. Litterae apostolicae, quibus institutio, confirrnatio, et varua privilegia continentur Societatis Jesu, Antwerp, 1635, and often, with later documents, and Compendium privilegiorum et gratiarum Societatis Jesu, Antwerp, 1635). These privileges and exemptions covered nearly all cases ordinarily reserved to the popes and all cases ordinarily reserved to the bishop, ordination, unction, chrism, adjuration, exorcism, confirmation, distribution of indulgences, granting divorces, baptizing bells, making new statutes, dispensing from fasts and prohibited foods for members of the order and others, neglecting canonical hours for worship and masses, and acting as advocates, judges, and guardians in all sorts of cases, criminal, civil, or mixed. Gregory XIII. ordered that all refusing to assist them in work of this kind be excommunicated. He expressly commanded archbishops, bishops, and other clergy to assist the Jesuits laboring within their jurisdiction with their power and resources and never to permit them to be impeded, molested, expelled, or deprived of their possessions. In 1575 he appointed Jesuits as pontifical librarians and charged them with the censorship of books. Armed with such privileges, and with the resources of the whole papal church at their command, it is so wonder that they multiplied in numbers and planted their institutions of learning and their religious houses throughout the world; nor that they became arrogant and oppressive. That they should have incurred the jealousy and hatred of the other religious orders, of the secular clergy, and of the prelates, and that they should have struck terror to the hearts of Protestants in regions exposed to their ravages, might have been expected. A learned Roman Catholic writer (Caspar Scioppius [?] in his Anatomia Societatis Jesu, n.p., 1668) charges them with attempting to establish for themselves a monopoly of things of the greatest necessity and dignity:

"Of grace with God, that nobody may be able to be in God's grace nor to obtain indulgence or absolution of sins save through the Jesuits; of grace with princes and magnates, that no one may be able to obtain honors, offices or wealth from them, save through the Jesuits; of the Catholic faith, that no one may be able from being a pagan to become a Christian or from being a heretic to become a Catholic, save by the work of the Jesuits; of perfection, that no one may be able to be perfect or holy, save through the Jesuits, i.e., unless he be received into their society; of learning, that no one may be able to learn divine and human letters, unless he avail himself of Jesuit masters; of virtue or good morals, that no one may become well moralised, save through the admonitory examples of the Jesuits; of reputation or good name, that no one may be esteemed good or learned, save by their votes, or at least with the suffrance of the Jesuits" (p. 11; for several other classified and tabulated statements against the society cf. pp. 9-23).

2. Early Achievements in Italy, Portugal, and France.

Having approved of the constitution of the society and conferred upon it extensive privileges, Paul III. proceeded at once to employ its members in the most difficult and responsible undertakings. In fact his eagerness to send his associates on missions was embarrassing to the founder, who feared that such prominent service would interfere with the maintenance of obedience, humility, and poverty that he thought essential. They soon came into sharp rivalry with the Dominicans, the recognized leaders in philosophy and theology, and formerly the promoters and executive officers of the Inquisition (see DOMINIC, SAINT, AND THE DOMINICAN ORDER). In the Council of Trent, especially the later sessions, they were the confidential spokesmen of the papal teaching and policy and took a leading part in the revival and the establishment of the Inquisition wherever it was practicable. In Italy the influence of the society soon became paramount. The Collegium Romanum, endowed with special privileges and most generously supported by the pope and his friends, carried on the educational work of the society with the greatest enthusiasm and success (1550 onward). Side by side with this the Collegium Germanicum was established by Gregory XIII. (1753) for the education of those who were to carry forward the Counter-Reformation in German-speaking countries. It was the policy of the pope and of the Jesuit administration to fill this college with students of noble birth, though it was not found practicable to make the restriction absolute. About the middle of the seventeenth century the nobles were in the majority (cf. documents cited by Reusch in ZKG, xiii. 269-270, 1892). The king of Portugal invited Francis Xavier (q.v.) and Simon Rodriguez d'Azendo, two of Ignatius' earliest and most zealous associates, to his court and committed himself to the fullest cooperation with the society. Rodriguez became his chief counselor and Xavier went on his great mission to India and China under the king's patronage. The Jesuits were soon in control of the college at Coimbra, and until a reaction occurred in 1578 they virtually ruled the state. In Spain their conquest was less rapid and complete. They were opposed to the policy of conciliation in relation to Protestantism that had been adopted by Charles V. The Dominicans, who had gained great prestige in Spain because of their leadership in the drastic measures against Mohammedans and Jews as well as against nascent Protestantism, bitterly opposed the society, partly because of its early manifestation of Pelagian tendencies. Melchior Cano (q.v.) denounced the Jesuits as the forerunners of Antichrist (II Tim, iii. 2). Philip II., though in accord with their uncompromising hostility to Protestantism and influenced to some extent by them, never surrendered himself completely to their domination. The winning of Francis of Borgia (q.v.),


duke of Gandia, who had been a courtier of Charles V., and had been employed in important administrative offices, to membership (1548) was no doubt the most important addition to the personnel of the society since it received papal recognition. He was to prove one of the ablest and most enthusiastic workers and to become the third general (July 2, 1565). The universities of Alcala and Salamanca resisted strenuously the efforts of the Jesuits to gain control; but they finally succeeded in establishing themselves in these centers of influence. Further progress was less difficult. The society encountered antipathy and mistrust in France. A number of youths sent by Ignatius to the University of Paris in 1540 were driven away. The archbishop of Paris, the parliament of Paris, and the Sorbonne united their forces in opposition to the aggressions of the body. The cardinal of Lorraine supported the society. The Jesuits did not succeed until 1661 in establishing a college in France, and this (Clermont) was long denied university privileges. The Jesuits Auger and Pelletian preached and labored with such efficiency in Lyons (1559) as to cause an uprising against the Huguenots that resulted in the burning of their books, the banishment of their preachers, and the suppression of their worship. A Jesuit college was established there in commemoration of their triumph. They persistently opposed Henry of Navarre in his struggle for the crown, refused to pray for him after his submission to the pope, and denounced the Edict of Nantes. Henry did everything in his power to conciliate them, recalled a decree of banishment that had been issued against them, made a Jesuit his confessor, and sought to use the Jesuits in defending himself against Spain, where the Dominicans were highly influential. He was not content with giving to the Jesuits a foremost place in France, but he sought to secure their restoration to Venice, whence they had been expelled in 1606, and to extend the sphere of their influence in other lands. He eagerly promoted the canonization of Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier (1608). Yet he was distrusted by the society and when, as he was on the point of marching an army against the emperor and his allies, he was assassinated by Frangois Ravaillac, the Huguenots charged that Jesuit influence had compassed his death, though direct instigation could not be proved. After the death of Henry IV. the society became still more powerful in France, and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (q.v.) and the destruction of the Huguenots (q.v.) were largely due to their persistent efforts. The Jansenists asserted that their theology was Pelagian and that their morals were lax (q-v.; see also ARNAULD; DU VERQIER DE HAURANNE, JEAN; PASCAL, BLAISE; PORT ROYAL; QUESNEL, PASQUIER).

3. In Germany and Austria.

Germany and Austria were the scenes of their greatest triumphs. The first Jesuit to enter Germany was Lefèvre, who, in 1640, accompanied Ortiz, deputy of Charles V., to the Diet of Worms. In the city of Worms he found only one priest that was not a concubinary or polluted with crime, so with a zeal rarely surpassed he undertook to rally the demoralized Catholic forces and to inspire with love for Romanism and hatred for Protestantism the few priests and laymen that were amenable to his influence. He participated in the Diet of Regensburg (Apr., 1641), at which Butzer and Melanchthon represented the Evangelical interests. Deeply lamenting the lack of zeal and efficiency in the Catholics present, he invited bishops, prelates, electors, ambassadors, vicars-general, theologians, and others to his courses in training in the Spiritual Exercises. He was made the confessor of the son of the duke of Savoy. Germans, Portuguese, Spanish, and Italians eagerly sought his spiritual guidance. He extended his efforts to Nuremberg. Having been ordered by the general to Portugal, his place was taken by LeJay, whose chief work was to train the priests for aggressive work against heresy and to inspire the nobles with the conviction that heresy must be exterminated at whatever cost. He was soon reinforced by Bobadilla, who in 1541 had achieved a great success in the diocese of Viterbo, had formed an intimate acquaintance at Innsbruck with Ferdinand I., king of the Romans, won him to the Jesuit way of thinking, and accompanied him to Vienna, and had supported the Catholic cause in a number of diets. A college was established in Vienna, which soon became affiliated with the university. LeJay succeeded in filling with enthusiastic zeal against Protestantism many priests who had been idle and indifferent and in enlisting many nobles in the coercive and educational measures proposed by the society. Lefèvre returned to Germany in 1642 and made his influence powerfully felt in Speyer, Mainz, Brandenburg, and other places. Peter Canisius (q.v.) was even more important than Lefèvre or LeJay in organizing Jesuit work in Germany and in establishing training-schools for the propagation of Jesuit principles. From 1559 onward Munich was the chief Jesuit center, and came to be known as the "German Rome"; and the college established there attracted many noble Protestant youths, who were won over by their instructors. All the chief cities of Germany where Catholics had retained the ascendancy and many where Protestantism had made great headway felt the influence of these enthusiastic and dauntless missionaries. Under their guidance Albert V. of Bavaria gave his Protestant subjects the choice of becoming Catholics or leaving the country. With their help Baden was cleared of Protestants in two years (1570-71). Similar measures were carried out in the territory of the abbot of Fulda, in Cologne, Münster, Hildesheim, Paderborn, and Würzburg. In 1595 the bishopric of Bamberg was cleared of heretics, and about 1602 the work was completed in the archbishopric of Mainz. From 1578 onward Jesuits led in the work of exterminating Protestantism in the Austrian provinces. The Counter-Reformation had largely accomplished its work in Austria and its dependencies before the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618; q.v.). It was rapidly pressed to completion from this time onward. For the details of Jesuit activity in the Counter-Reformation and in the revived Inquisition, see COUNTER-REFORMATION and articles there referred to; also INQUISITION.


4. In Belgium, Holland, and England.

From 1542 onward the Jesuits had been active in Belgium. They were expelled from the country during the early years of the war with Spain, but were readmitted, under the patronage of Alexander Farnese, after Spanish authority had been reestablished, and were protected by Philip II., who had formerly opposed them (1581-1584). Within a few years they had almost taken possession of the land and made it the base of successful propagandism in the Protestant Netherlands. By 1692 twenty-two Jesuits and 220 secular priests, most of whom had been educated in their colleges, were working in the United Netherlands, and the Catholic membership had increased from a few thousand scattered and discouraged souls to 345,000. The assassination of William of Orange (1584) was commonly attributed to Jesuit influence on the ground that, as was asserted, Baltha sar Gerard claimed the blessing of the rector of the Jesuit college at Treves before committing the crime.

The Jesuits early addressed themselves to the task of reestablishing papal supremacy in England. In 1542 Paschasius Brouet and Alphonso Salmeron (q.v.) made a secret and rapid tour through Ireland and in thirty-four days succeeded in inflaming the Catholics of Ireland against the government of Henry VIII. and against Protestantism. But the Jesuits met with little success in Scotland. In England they carried on for more than a century a secret but effective propaganda. In 1569 William Allen (q.v.), afterward a cardinal, established at Douai (q.v.) a training-school for Jesuit missionaries to England, where a large number of British Catholic youths were prepared for the extremely perilous work of restoring papal authority in Britain. Sacked by the Protestants of Flanders at the instigation of the English government, the college was reopened at Reims under the patronage of the archbishop, and continued to train men for English work and martyrdom. In 1579 an English college was opened in Rome for the same purpose. The moat active leaders of the Jesuit work in England were Robert Parsons and Edmund Campian (qq.v.). In Scotland Jesuits attached themselves to the court of Mary Stuart (c. 1587), and by encouraging her aspirations after the English crown wrought her destruction. The "Gunpowder Plot" (1605) was commonly attributed to their machinations.

5. Mission Work in America.

The missionary efforts of the Jesuits, under French patronage, in North America among the Indians (see INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA, MISSIONS TO; MISSIONS TO THE HEATHEN, A) and the French colonists were from their own point of view highly successful. In Florida, Mexico, South America and Central America, and California they established their great mission compounds where captured natives, sometimes guarded and forced by Spanish and Portuguese troops, were employed as laborers and compelled to conform to Roman Catholic observances. Their work among the North American Indians, as well as among the natives of India, China and Japan, displayed heroic self-sacrifice of the highest order along with a willingness to receive a very superficial knowledge of Christianity as evidence of its acceptance. Those whom they baptized, even clandestinely, they claimed as members of the Christian Church.

6. Unethical Teachings and Practises.

Attention has already been called to the obligation of absolute and unquestioning obedience inculcated by Ignatius that involved the suppression or destruction of the individual conscience. The doctrine of Probabilism (q.v.) was not originated by the Jesuits, but was wrought out by their writers during the seventeenth century with more minuteness than by earlier Roman Catholic writers. According to this teaching one is at liberty to follow a probable opinion, i.e., one that has two or three reputable Catholic writers in its favor, against a more probable or a highly probable opinion in whose favor a multitude of the highest authorities concur. To justify any practise, however immoral it might be commonly esteemed, a few sentences from Catholic writers sufficed, and these were often garbled. Some Jesuits and some popes repudiated this doctrine. In 1680 Gonzales, an opponent of the doctrine, was made general of the society through papal pressure; but he failed to purge the society of probabilism and came near being deposed by reason of his opposition. Another antiethical device widely approved and employed by members of the society is Mental Reservation or Restriction (see RESERVATION, MENTAL), in accordance with which, when important interests are at stake, a negative or a modifying clause may remain unuttered which would completely reverse the statement actually made. This principle justified unlimited lying when one's interests or convenience seemed to require. Where the same word or phrase has more than one sense, it may be employed in an unusual sense with the expectation that it will be understood in the usual (amphibology). Such evasions may be used under oath in a civil court. Equally destructive of good morals was the teaching of many Jesuit casuists that moral obligation may be evaded by directing the intention when committing an immoral act to an end worthy in itself; as in murder, to the vindication of one's honor; in theft, to the supplying of one's needs or those of the poor; in fornication or adultery, to the maintenance of one's health or comfort. Nothing did more to bring upon the society the fear and distrust of the nations and of individuals than the justification and recommendation by several of their writers of the assassination of tyrants, the term "tyrant" being made to include all persons in authority who oppose the work of the papal church or the order. The question has been much discussed, Jesuits always taking the negative side, whether the Jesuits have taught that "the end sanctifies the means." It may not be possible to find this maxim in these precise words in Jesuit writings; but that they have always taught that for the "greater glory of God," identified by them with the extension of Roman Catholic (Jesuit) influence the principles of ordinary morality may be set aside, seems certain. The doctrine of philosophical sin, in accordance with which actual attention to the sinfulness of an act when it is being committed


is requisite to its sinfulness for the person committing it, was widely advocated by members of the society. The repudiation of some of the most scandalous maxims of Jesuit writers by later writers, or the placing of books containing scandalous maxims on the Index, does not relieve the society or the Roman Catholic Church from responsibility, as such books must have received authoritative approval before publication, and the censuring of them does not necessarily involve an adverse attitude toward the teaching itself, but may be a mere measure of expediency.

7. Internal Development and Moral Declension.

Lainez, who succeeded Ignatius in the office of general (1558-65), manifested in the administration of the affairs of the society more of worldly wisdom and less of pietistic enthusiasm than the founder. Paul IV. became alarmed at the remarkable growth and aggressiveness of the society. He sought (1558) to curb the almost irresponsible power of the generals by limiting their tenure of office to three years, and to limit the freedom of the body by requiring the observance of the canonical hours for singing in the choir. These changes would have placed the society on somewhat the same basis as the other orders and would have stripped it of half its power. These measures were earnestly resisted and the death of the pope (1559) prevented the calamity. Pius IV. let Lainez have his ambitious and aggressive way and employed his services in the later sessions of the Council of Trent. Francis of Borgia had spent his fortune in founding a college in Gandia and the Collegium Romanum and came to the office of general (1565) with all of the ascetical enthusiasm of Ignatius, but with little of his worldly wisdom. He was succeeded in 1572 by Mercurian, whose administration was relatively feeble. The greatest of all the generals was Claudius Acquaviva (1581-1615), a Neapolitan. He had to contend with a powerful and determined Spanish faction in the society that resented Italian control. The Spanish Jesuits secured the support of the Inquisition, of Philip II., and of Clement VIII. The latter summoned a General Congregation (1592) to deal with the difficulties. Acquaviva managed the meeting with such adroitness that he was triumphantly vindicated and thoroughly established in his office. Molina's Pelagian teaching provoked a fresh Dominican onslaught on the society. Acquaviva and his supporters espoused the cause of Molina (q.v.), though he had been condemned by the Spanish Inquisition. The pope transferred the dispute to Rome (1596) and for a time it looked as if the Dominicans would triumph; but Acquaviva's consummate skill again averted calamity. At the General Congregation he confounded his opponents by springing upon the assembly the news that Henry IV. of France had espoused his cause. Under Acquaviva the Counter-Reformation was carried forward with astonishing success. The failure of Dominicans, Inquisition and pope to silence the Pelagian anthropology of the order encouraged its members to go to the greatest extremes in their moral theology. Under the administration of Mutius Vitelleschi (1615-45) the Counter-Reformation was carried almost to its completion and the Thirty Years' War almost ran its course. In 1640 the jubilee of the society was celebrated with great éclat. It now numbered 15,000 members distributed into thirty-nine provinces. The ascetical requirements of Ignatius had been put aside. The professed had increased in numbers in far greater proportion than the membership, and now freely accepted positions of honor and influence, enjoyed regular incomes, and lived like gentlemen, leaving the drudgery of the educational and church work to younger and less experienced men. They constituted a sort of aristocracy that neutralized to some extent the autocracy of the General. Degeneration continued unimpeded under Caraffa (d. 1649) and Piccolomini (d. 1651). The German Nickel (1651-64) proved so unsatisfactory as general that Oliva was made his vicar (1661). Oliva was a favorite of the pope and lived in splendor. His independent administration (1664,81) was favorable to the development of the worst features of Jesuitism. He was an advocate and promoter of Probabilism and other immoral forms of teaching and encouraged to the utmost the disposition to meddle with national and international politics that had become characteristic of the society. Ignatius had opposed with all his might the promotion of Jesuits to high ecclesiastical positions. In 1593 Tolet was made a cardinal; in 1599, Bellarmine; in 1629, Pazmany; in 1643, De Lugo, and many afterward. Their literary activity in all religious and secular branches of learning was very great during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The same may be said of the more recent time.

8. Decline and Proscription.

The growing secularization of the society and its need of vast resources for the maintenance and extension of its world-wide work and the diminution of free-will offerings that had sufficed in the times when religious enthusiasm was at its height led the society to engage in great speculative business enterprises, those conducted in Paraguay and Martinique resulting in disaster to many innocent investors (1753 onward), and brought upon the society much reproach in Portugal and France. In Portugal the Marquis of Pombal, one of the foremost statesmen of his time, became convinced that the liberation of the country from ecclesiastical rule, in which Jesuits had long been predominant, required the exclusion of the latter. An insurrection in Portuguese Paraguay by the natives furnished an occasion to Pombal for denouncing the Jesuits to the king and for demanding papal prohibition of their commercial undertakings. The papal prohibition was issued in 1758 and priestly privileges were withdrawn from Jesuits in Portugal. An attempt upon the life of the king (Sept. 3, 1758) was attributed to Jesuit influence and led to a decree for the expulsion of the society and the confiscation of its property (Sept. 3, 1759). The pope tried in vain to protect them and his nuncio was driven from the country. Malgrida, a Jesuit, was burned at the stake in 1761. Speculations by Jesuits in Martinique, in which vast sums of money were lost by French citizens, led to a public investigation of the methods of the society. and on April 16, 1761, the Parliament


of Paris decreed a suppression of Jesuit establishments in France and on May 8 declared the entire order responsible for the debts of the principal promoter of the collapsed enterprise. Other parliaments followed that of Paris. King, pope, and many bishops protested in vain. Eighty of their colleges were closed in April, 1762. Their constitution was denounced as godless, sacrilegious, and treasonable, and the vows taken by Jesuits were declared to be null and void. On Nov. 26, 1764, the king agreed to a decree of expulsion. In Spain 6,000 Jesuits were suddenly arrested at night and conveyed to papal territory (Sept. 2-3, 1768). Refused admission by the pope, they took refuge in Corsica. A similar seizure and transportation of 3,000 had occurred at Naples (Nov. 3-4, 1767). Parma dealt with them similarly (Feb. 7, 1768), and soon afterward they were expelled from Malta by the Knights of St. John. The Bourbon princes urged Clement XIII. to abolish the society. He refused, and when he died (Feb. 2, 1769) there was much intriguing among friends and enemies of the Jesuits in seeking to secure the election of a pope that would protect or abolish the society. Cardinal Ganganelli was elected and it is highly probable that he had bargained with the Bourbons for the destruction of the Jesuits. From the beginning of his pontificate powerful pressure was brought to bear upon him by Spain, France, and Portugal for the abolition of the order. He gave promises of early action, but long hesitated to strike the fatal blow. He began by subjecting the Jesuit colleges in and around Rome to investigation. These were promptly suppressed and their inmates banished. Maria Theresa of Austria, who had been greatly devoted to the Jesuits, now regretfully abandoned them and joined with the Bourbons in demanding the abolition of the society by the pope. This combined pressure of the chief Catholic powers was more than the pope could withstand ("Coactus feci," he is reported to have afterward said). On July 21, 1773, he signed the Brief Dominus ac Redemptor noster, which abolished the society, and on August 16 the general and his chief assistants were imprisoned and all their property in Rome and the States of the Church confiscated (Eng. transl. of this brief is most easily accessible in Nicolini, Hist. of the Jesuits, pp. 387-406, London, 1893). The brief recites at length the charges of immoral teaching and intolerable meddlesomeness in matters of church and state, of the abuse of the unlimited privileges that the society has enjoyed, and virtually admits that it has become totally depraved and a universal nuisance. To restore peace to Christendom its abolition is declared to be necessary. A papal coin was struck the same year in commemoration of the event, with Christ sitting in judgment and saying to the Jesuit fathers arraigned on his left, "Depart from me all of you, I never knew you."

9. Illicit Continuance and Restoration.

At the time of its abolition the society had about 22,000 members. It would have been unreasonable to expect that so large a body of trained men, adepts at secret and evasive methods of work, and with centuries of successful effort behind them, would suddenly vanish in response to a papal brief extorted by the Roman Catholic powers. Thousands of them, without change of principles, became members of societies of the Sacred Heart of Jesus; others of the society of Fathers of the Faith, founded by Nicolo Paccanari (q.v.); others became Redemptorists or Liguorists (see LIGUORI, ALFONSO MARIA DE). Frederick II. of Prussia encouraged and protected them with a view, no doubt, to using their political knowledge and skill against the Bourbons, the Hapsburgers, and the pope. Catherine II. of Russia hoped by showing them favor to conciliate her new Polish subjects and to use them against Bourbons and Hapsburgers. In Naples and in France the papal decree was only imperfectly executed. Pius VI. gave full papal approval (1783) to the perpetuation of the society in Russia, while Pius VII. (1801) approved of their designating their vicar-general as general. The same pope approved of the restoration of the society in Naples and Sicily (July, 1804) so that the head of the society now became "General for Russia and Naples." The Napoleonic disturbance of Europe having come to an end and Pius VII. having been released from his French captivity, the need of the society for leadership in an aggressive movement for the restoration of the Roman Catholic Church to its former power was profoundly felt by the Curia. On Aug. 7, 1814, Pius VII. issued the bull Solicitudo omaium ecclesiarum, by which he restored the society. Since that time it has suffered many reverses and much persecution. Most of the states of Europe have repeatedly expelled its members. Yet it has steadily grown in power and has for nearly a century dictated the policy of the papal administration. Jesuits are to-day the chief diplomats of the Roman Catholic Church and they are surpassed in astuteness and the ability to achieve results by those of no civil government. The promulgation of the dogma of the immaculate conception of Mary (1854), the Encyclical and Syllabus of 1864, the Vatican Council with its decree of papal infallibility (1869-70), the recent drastic measures against Biblical criticism and in opposition to freedom of research and freedom of teaching and publishing, are commonly attributed to Jesuit influence. The society had in 1902, 15,231 members, 6,743 being priests and 4,542 students for the priesthood. There are about 1,800 in the United States, and they are numerous in Canada, Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba, and the Philippines. [The Jesuits have from the beginning laid especial stress upon education and adopted a high standard. But they have had to run the gantlet of sharp criticism not only from Protestants but from Roman Catholics. Nor can it be explained away that the order was for a considerable period under the papal ban. Their secrecy, superior skill and learning, and especially the casuistry advocated in books written by members of the order, have concentrated much attention on them, not always to their approval. They can not claim exemption from the common failings of mankind, or any special divine leadership. They have had ambitious and unscrupulous members and have been under unworthy leadership. Their meddling


in politics has not always been to their credit. But when all has been said against them the Jesuits still retain their preeminence. They were the authors of the Counter-Reformation which prevented the collapse of the Roman Catholic Church in lands in which Protestantism had gotten a hold. They gave their church its theology and raised its standard of education and of clerical morality. They cleansed it of much of its foulness, put new breath into its foreign missions, and everywhere displayed a zeal, patience and piety which revived the whole church. And these services in the past are continued into the present, and every year the Roman Catholic Church is still heavier in their debt.]

The number of Jesuits throughout the world is small. In 1902 there were but 15,231 of all grades. The Official Catholic Directory for 1909, pp.746-747, gives these figures for the United States:

Fathers. Scholastics. Lay Brothers.
New York - Maryland Province 340 333 157
Missouri Province 338 252 158
New Mexico and Colorado Mission 59 34 26
New Orleans Province 132 77 48
California and Rocky Mountain Mission 154 128 106
1,023 824 495

III. Female Orders in Imitation of Jesuits:

The Society of Jesus has no recognized affiliated societies of women. Before his first pilgrimage to Jerusalem Ignatius formed the acquaintance in Barcelona of Isabella de Rosella, a gifted and wealthy woman, and greatly interested her in his plans and purposes. When he returned in 1524 she ministered to his needs for a considerable time. In 1543, after the society had secured papal approval and when he was occupied with world-wide schemes for the mastery of the nations, she visited him in Rome, with two other like-minded ladies, and begged to be taken under his spiritual guidance. He was unwilling to assume this additional burden; but the persistent women secured from the pope an order (1545) that Ignatius should accede to their wishes. With great reluctance he yielded; but soon found that these women, with the small sisterhood that. they had gathered, gave him more trouble than the administration of the affairs of the entire society, and at his earnest request the pope relieved him of the obligation (1547). It was no easy task to secure the consent of Isabella and her companions to be released from the obligations that they had been so eager to assume; but he was inexorable and Isabella had to be content to be a "mother" rather than "daughter" of the great leader. The English Ladies (q.v.) founded by Mary Ward, an English woman, at St. Omer in Flanders in 1609, sought affiliation with the Jesuits, but failed to secure permanent recognition as Jesuitesses. A similar sorority, founded in 1607 by Johanna, marchioness of Montserrat, came into close relations with the Jesuits without becoming identified with the society. The same may be said of the sisters of the Sacred Heart and of the Faith of Jesus. It is the policy of the Jesuits to influence and control many of the sisterhoods without assuming any responsi bility for them and without entrusting to them the secrets of the society.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A rather full list of works, including sources, is given in Hauck-Herzog, RE, viii. 742 sqq.; and a monograph devoted to the subject is A. Carayon, Bibliographie historique de la Compagnie de Jesus, Paris, 1864. Without consulting the earlier and now often inaccessible editions of the documents which created and protected the society, it is possible to obtain a view of all that is essential in the late edition of the documents, 3 vols., Rome, 1869 sqq., which contains the Constitutions, the Examen generale, the pertinent papal bulls, briefs, and privileges, the decrees and canons of the General Constitution, the plan of study, the "Spiritual Exercises," and the Directorium. A late edition of the Monita privata is by C. Souvestre, Paris, 1880.

On the general history of the order the great work of De Backer (see vol. i., p. xxiii, of this work) and of Crétineau-Joly are of first importance; and the literature under Ignatius of Loyola contains much of importance. Consult further for the general history: Maynard, The Studies and Teaching of the Society of Jesus at the Time of its Suppression, 1750-1753, Baltimore, 1855; C. Paroissen, Principles of the Jesuits, London, 1860; J. M. S. Daurignac, Hist. of the Society of Jesus, 2 vols., Cincinnati, 1865; F. Nippold, Der Jesuitenorden von seiner Wiederherstellung bis zur Gegenwart, Mannheim, 1867; S. Rose, Ignatius Loyola and the Early Jesuits, London, 1871; J. Stephen, Founders of Jesuitism, in Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography, London, 1875: W. C. Cartwright, The Jesuits; their Constitution and Teachings, London, 1876; P. Bert, La Morale des Jésuites, Paris, 1880; T. Griesinger, The Jesuits; a complete History of their Proceedings, London, 1883; T. Carlyle, Jesuitism, in Works, II. 259-485, Boston, 1885; T. Hughes, Loyola and the Educational System of the Jesuits, London, 1892; G. B. Nicolini, Hist. of the Jesuits; their Origin, Progress, Doctrines and Designs, London, 1893; E. Piaget, Essai sur l'organisation de la compagnie de Jésus, Paris, 1893; F. H. Reuseh, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens, Munich, 1894; R. W. Thompson, The Footprints of the Jesuits, New York, 1894; E. Gothein, Ignatius von Loyola und die Gegenreformation, Halle, 1895; M. F. Cusack, The Black Pope; a Hist. of the Jesuits, London, 1896; H. Müller, Les Origines de la Compagnie de Jésus; Ignace et Lainez
, Paris, 1898; A. Hamy, Galerie illustrée de la Compagnie de Jésus, Paris, 1900; J. Michelet and E. Quinet, Etude sur les Jésuites, latest ed. Paris, 1900; J. Hochstetter, Monita Secreta; Die geheimen Instruktionen der Jesuiten, Stuttgart, 1901; Kaiser Franz Joseph I. und die Jesuiten, Barmen, 1901; L. Wittwe, Friedrich der Grosse und die Jesuiten, Halle, 1901; R. Schwickerath, Jesuit Education, its History and Principles, St. Louis, 1903; J. Bézy, Un prédicateur apoatolique au 16. siècle, Frey de Neuville, 1693-1774, Paris, 1904; B. Pascal, The Provincial Letters, often reprinted, e.g., New York, 1904; P. Suan, St. Françis de Borgia, 1510-1572, Paris, 1905; A. Brou, Les Jésuites de la legende. Part I. Les Origines jusqu'à Pascal, Paris, 1906.

For the Jesuits in England consult: H. Foley, Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, 8 vols., London, 1877-83: A. Kobler, Die Märtyrer und Bekenner der Gesellschaft Jesu in England 1580-1681, Innsbruck, 1886; E. L. Taunton, Hist. of the Jesuits in England, 1580-1773, London, 1901; W. Walsh, The Jesuits in Great Britain, London, 1903. For their history in France: A Carayon, Documents inédits concernants la Compagnie de Jésus, 23 vols., Poitiers, 1863 sqq.; J. Prat, La Compagnie de Jésus en France, 4 vols., Paris, 1877; E. Piaget, Hist. de l'etablissement des Jésuites en France 1540-1560, Leyden, 1895; M. Chosset, Les Jésuites et leurs æuvres d Avignon, 1553-1768, Avignon, 1896; E. Souillier. Les Jésuites à Marseille aux 16. et 18. siècles, Avignon, 1899; J. Pra, Les Jésuites à Grenoble, 1587-1763, Lyons, 1901; J. Delfour, Les Jésuites à Poitiers, 1604-1762, Paris, 1902. For Germany: S. Sugenheim, Geschichte der Jesuiten in Deutschland 1540-1773, 2 vols., Frankfort, 1847; J. Hansen, Rheinische Akten zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens, 1542-1582, Cologne, 1896; B. Duhr, Die Jesuiten an den deutschen Fürstenhöfen des 16. Jahrhunderts, Freiburg,


1901; idem, Aktenstücke zur Geschichte der Jesuiten-Missionen in Deutschland, 1848-1872, ib, 1903; idem, Geschichte der Jesuiten in den Ländern deutscher Zunge, ib. 1907; M. Rist, Die deutschen Jesuiten auf den Schlachtfeldern und in den Lazaretten 1866, 1870-1871, Freiburg, 1904. For North America: Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents; Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, ed. R. G. Thwaites, 73 vols., Cleveland, O., 1896-1902; T. Hughes, Hist. of Society of Jesus in North America colonial and federal, vol. i. to 1645, London, 1907; idem, Documents, vol. i., part I., nos. 1-140 (1605-1838), London, 1908; F. Parkman, The Jesuits in North America in the Seventeenth Century, Boston, 1897; idem, Pioneers of France in the New World, ib. 1879; idem, La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West, ib.1879; W. I. Kip, The Early Jesuit Missions in North America, New York, 1882; idem, Historical Scenes from the Old Jesuit Missions, ib. 1875; Z. Engelhardt, The Missions and Missionaries of California, San Francisco, 1908. For other countries: H. Lutteroth, Russland und die Jesuiten 1772-1820, Stuttgart, 1846; P. Mury, Les Jésuites à Cayenne, Strasburg, 1895; M. de Anglés y Gortari, Los Jesuítas en el Paraguay, Assumption, 1896; R. Perez, La Companía de Jesus en Colombia y Centro-America, Valladolid, 1896; A. Astrain, Historia de la companía de Jesus en la asistencia de Espana, 2 vols., Madrid, 1902-05; R. B. Cunningham Graham, A Vanished Arcadia; being some account of the Jesuits in Paraguay, 1607 to 1767, New York, 1901; F. Colin, Labor evangelica de los Obreros de la Compañia de Jesus en las Islas Filipinas, Barcelona, 1904.


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