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Scotland

I. The Presbyterian Church. 1. As a Whole. History (g 1). Separation and Union ( 2). SCOTLAND. Mode of Worship ( 3). Constitution ( 4). 2. Severally.

Scotland is the northern member of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; area, nearly 30,000 square miles; population 4,579,223. In 1851 the population was eighty-four per cent. Presbyterian. While this high percentage has not been maintained during the increase from 2,888,742 (in 1851) to the figures given above, the population is still predominatingly Presbyterian.

I. The Presbyterian Church.-1. As & Whole: The struggle of the Reformation in Scotland was brief and decisive. It soon gave place to the contest for supremacy between Presbyterianism and Episco1. History. palianism, which lasted over a century; with the revolution of 1688, Scotland became as overwhelmingly Presbyterian. The first presentation of Scotch Presbyterian doctrine was the confession formulated by John Knox (q.v.) in 1560 (see SCOTCH CONFESSION OF FAITH). This was replaced in 1647 by the Westminster Standards (q.v.). This confession, together with the two catechisms of like name, has exercised a positive influence upon organization and worship, wherever Scottish Presbyterianism has spread.

The Church in Scotland did not share in the political and industrial prosperity that followed the union with England (1707). Religious indifference which found expression in Deism (q.v.) made itself felt in Scotland. The question of clerical patronage became a stumbling block to the peaceful growth of the Church. The claim of the landed aris8. Separd- tocracy and of the crown to the right of

tUniong appointing cIericalstoofficewasincom patible with the unity and independence of the system of Scotch Presbyterian organization. The claim had been at various times abolished; but in 1712 the Tory majority in Parliament revived it, causing a profound state of dissatisfaction among the masses of the people bearing fruit in church divisions. The first of these, called "The Secession," occurred in 1733 under Ebenezer Erskine (q.v.). While this was the first formal and organized separation, the Covenanters (q.v.) had already separated and in 1743 organized as Reformed Presbyterians (see

was contributed by Thomas Blacklock, John Ogilvie, and Thomas Randall; three are by William Robertson (1742-51), and several by John Morrison (d. 1798). The name of William Cameron (d. 1811) appears chiefly as an improver of other men's verses. The most important share, both for quantity and quality, was taken from the manuscripts of Michael Bruce (1746-87). The Paraphrases are marked by a dry neatness and precision of style, which excludes whatever could offend the most sober taste, and leaves little room for lyrical or devotional fire. Their eminent respectability and long service have made them household words in Scotland, and they have been constantly and largely drawn upon by English and American hymnals.

BIBLJ0aa11'HT: Julian, Hvmnolopy, pp. 1024-25, 1033-34. n. The Scotch Episcopal Church. III. Congregationalists. IV. Other Protestant Bodies. V. The Roman Catholic Church.

PnEBBYTERIANs, I., 5). The opposition to the exercise of patronage grew to such an extent that ministers could be installed in office only with military aid. In 1752 arose a new separate body called the "Relief" (see PREsBYTERIANs, I., 2, 3). In the course of a century the number of separatist organizations had grown to about 500 congregations and in 1847 they were combined as the United Presbyterian Church. With the beginning of the nineteenth century a reawakening took place in the Church of Scotland (see PRESBYTERIANS, I., 1) under the leadership of such men as Thomas Chalmers (q.v.), under which the church aligned itself more and more with the doctrinal viewpoint of the separatists. The patronage struggle, stimulated by the spiritual revival, was again resumed, with a view to restriction and correction of evils, and the general question of the spiritual independence of the Church came to the front. This led to the "Disruption" and the organization of the Free Church of Scotland (See PRES1jrrERIANS,1., 2). In the next sixty years the Free Church doubled in membership. In 1874 the right of patronage was removed by parliament, the election of the clergy was granted to communicants and adherents, and the Established Church has consequently gained in popularity.

At the close of the last century there were, accordingly, three great Presbyterian churches in Scotland: the Established Church consisting of 1,377 congregations; the Free Church with 1,068 congregations; and the United Presbyterian Church with 593 congregations. The difference between them was principally involved in the relation of Church and State. The Established Church was in accord with the existing state of things. The Free Church theoretically favored State recognition and endowment, but entered increasing protest against the prevailing arrangements, which, in spite of the abolition of patronage, were felt to be identical with the former state of things. The United Presbyterians repudiated all connection between Church and State. All adhered to the Westminster confession, but the United Church in 1879 and the Free Church

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Semitic Languages THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 860

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