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SCHMID, KONRAD: 1. Leader of the Magellants of the fourteenth century. See FLAGELLATION, FLAGELLANTS, II., 4.

2. Swiss Reformer; b. at Kussnacht (15 m. n.e. of Lucerne) 1476 or early in 1477; d. in the battle of Kappel Oct. 11, 1531. He was educated at Tubingen, and entered the Johannite monastery of his native town. In 1515-16 he resumed his theological studies at Basel, and was.inducted to the parish of Seengen in Aargau on Apr. 21, 1517. On Mar. 10,1519, he was chosen commander, and in this capacity exercised much influence on the development of the Reformation in Zurich. He soon came under the influence of Zwingli and devoted himself to the Bible, patristics, and Greek. Schmid was regarded as a learned man, and a powerful preacher. As early as the spring of 1522 he delivered a sermon at Lucerne in which he assailed Roman Catholic doctrines. In the first Kappel war he served as chaplain. Schmid was less inclined to violent action than was Zwingli, with whom he toured the country in harmony as official itinerant preacher to strengthen the cause of the Reformation. More important was Schmid's influence as the supporter of the authorities in momentous disputations. He took part in the disputation with the monks of the city in the summer of 1522, in the conferences concerning images and the mass in the spring of 1524, and in a number of controversies with Anabaptists, including Hubmaier himself. These Anabaptist controversies gave rise to Schmid's two pamphlets Ein christliche Ermanung zur waren Hofnung in Gott and Warnung (1527) and Verwerfen der Ar-

tickeln and Stucken. Though not always unop posed, Schmid admirably administered the par ishes, charitable institutions, and other institutions under his control. In 1525 he married. His entire harmony with Zwingli in his latter years was shown by his taking the place of his greater colleague while Zwingli was on his way to Marburg, and also by the tenor of his last pamphlet, Ein christlicher Bericht des Herren Nachtmahls, with its Zwinglian views of the Lord's Supper. Besides the three pamphlets already mentioned Schmid published his Lucerne sermon in 1522. (EMIL EGLit.) BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are the " Works " and " Letters "

of Zwingli; the early lives of that Reformer; and the " History of the Reformation " by H. Bullinger, ed. J. J. Hottinger and H. H. VSgeli, 6 vols., Frauenfeld, 1838-40. Consult further: H. Hess, in Zarcher Chorherren for New

li Year, 1825; S. VSgelin, Sr., in Zurcher Taschenbuch, 1862; C. Dandliker, in the same, 1897; and the literature under REFORMATION which deals with Switzerland.

SCHMIDT, alunit, CARL: German Protestant; b. at Hagenow (17 m. s.w. of Schwerin),.Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Aug. 26, 1868. He was educated at the universities of Leipsic and Berlin (1887-94; Ph .D., 1892); in 1899 he became privat-docent for church history and titular professor at Berlin, and in 1910 assistant professor in church history. He is also an attach6 of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences, engaged in the investigation of early Christian literature, particularly Coptic. He has been associate editor of Texte and Untersuchungen with A. Harnack since 1906, and has written De Bodice Bruciano seu de libris gnostieis qui in lingua coptica extant eommentatio (Leipsie, 1892); Gnostic sche Schriften in koptischer Sprache aus dem Codex Brucianus (1892); Plotins Stellung zum Gnostizismua and kirchlichen Christentum (1901); Fragmente einer Schrift des Martyrerbischofs Petrus von Alexandrien (1901); Die alten Petrusakten (1903); Acta Pauli aus der Heidelberger Papyrushandschrift (1904); Koptiselhgnostische Schriften (1905); Der erste Clemensbrief in altkoptischer Uebersetzung (1908); and Altehristliche Texte (1910; in collaboration with Schubert).

SCHMIDT, CHARLES GUILLAUME ADOLPHE:

Evangelical church historian; b. at Strasburg June 20, 1812; d. there Mar. 11, 1895. Even in his earlier period of instruction, which was passed in the Protestant gymnasium of his native city, he manifested an unusual interest in national and local history, and also in botany and mineralogy. In 1828 he entered the Protestant Seminary, and his tendency grew into marked preference for church history. In 1833 on his travels he went to Geneva, where the sight of the manuscripts of the time of the Reformation, particularly of letters, directed his special attention to that period. After further travels in France, Switzerland, and Germany, he returned and took his examinations, receiving his doctorate after presenting as his thesis Essai our les mystiques du XIV. si&le (Strasburg, 1836), a work which introduced him to a department which he later enriched. Within a few months he began to lecture in the Protestant Seminary of Strasburg; in 1839 he became professor of practical theology, although this department was not one in which his

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299 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA

The Scottish ReIomwtion, pp. 99, 123, Edinburgh, 1900; C. G. McCrie, The Confessions of the Church of Scotland, their Evolution in History, ib. 1907.

SCOTCH PARAPHRASES: A book of praise for church use made in Scotland in the eighteenth century. In May, 1742, the general assembly of the Church of Scotland appointed a committee to make or collect translations in verse of select passages of Scripture. Their work was sanctioned by the Assembly, 1751, and appeared as Scripture Songs, forty-five in number, and now rare. In 1775 another committee undertook the revision of these, adding twenty-two paraphrases and five hymns the precise authorship of which can not be determined in all cases. Some twenty were altered or rewritten from Watts, and three from Doddridge; one each

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