LINUS: The immediate successor of St. Peter according to all lists of Roman bishops, although the duration of his office is very uncertain. In his church history, Eusebius counts twelve years, but fourteen in his chronicle; the Catalogus Liberianus assigns him twelve years, four months and twelve days, and Jerome eleven years. The date of the beginning of his pontificate is also differently fixed according to the varying calculations of the death of St. Peter. As the Roman Church knew nothing about an episcopal constitution in the beginning of the second century, Linus, if he actually existed, was simply a presbyter of the Church, but when, to combat heresies, a continuous succession of bishops was assumed from the Apostle Peter, he was made a bishop in the later sense, and identified with the Linus of II Tim. iv. 21. His alleged epitaph is generally recognized as possessing no historic value.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. A. Lipsius, Die Papstverzeichnisse des Eusebius und der von ihm abhängigen Chronisten, Kiel, 1869; idem, Chronologie der römischen Bischöfe, ib. 1869; J. B. Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, part I., S. Clement of Rome, i. 201 sqq., London, 1890; Harnack, in Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie, 1892; idem, Litteratur, ii. 1, pp. 70 sqq.; Bower, Popes, i. 4-5; DCB, iii. 726-729.

LINZ, lints, PEACE OF: A treaty concluded Dec. 16, 1645, at Linz (98 m. w. of Vienna) between the Emperor Ferdinand III., as king of Hungary, and George Rakoczy, prince of Transylvania. It is important as forming one of the legal bases of the Evangelical Church in Hungary. The Protestant Rakoczy, who aimed to secure the Hungarian throne, formed an offensive and defensive alliance with Sweden and France in Apr., 1643, against Ferdinand, and was aided by the Sublime Porte, of which he was a vassal. Alleging the grievances of his countrymen and especially the oppression of the


Protestants, he levied a large army, which he placed under the leadership of Johannes Kemenyi, while Sweden sent him troops led by Dugloss and France supplied him with funds. Despite success at first, Rakoczy found it advisable to open negotiations with his opponents in Oct., 1644. In December Ferdinand won the Turkish government over to his side, and Rakoczy succeeded in inducing Ferdinand to accept his terms, which dealt chiefly with the unrestricted liberty of the Hungarian Church, the treaty being confirmed by Rakoczy at Weissenburg Oct. 20, 1646. By its terms he bound himself to withdraw from the Franco-Swedish alliance, to remove his forces from the imperial domains, and to restore the districts and cities which he had taken. In return, he and his sons received two heritable counties and five for life. The most important portion of the treaty, however, was the granting of religious freedom to the Evangelical Church in Hungary. The unrestricted use of their churches, bells, and burial-places was granted to the Protestants; those who had been compelled to accept Roman Catholicism were to be permitted to return to their former beliefs; pastors and preachers could no longer be expelled from their charges, and those who had been driven out might either be reinstated or replaced by others of their own persuasion. Churches which had been confiscated from the Protestants were to be restored, but this clause, affecting 400 buildings, roused such opposition on the part of the Jesuits that the Protestants were obliged to content themselves with ninety. Supplementary articles in the treaty enacted a fine of 600 florins for violations of its provisions concerning the Protestants. The diet which considered the final details of this treaty, so important for the Protestants of Hungary, did not adjourn until July 17, 1647.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: I. Katona, Historia critica regum Hungariæ, xxii. 232 sqq., 42 vols., Budapest, 1779-1817; J. Dumont, Corps universal diplomatique du droit des gens, vi. 1, pp. 331 sqq., 8 vols., The Hague, 1726-31; J. Mailath, Die Religionswirren in Ungarn, i. 30 sqq., Regensburg, 1845; Geschichte der evangelischen Kirche in Ungarn, pp. 199 sqq., Berlin, 1854; Szilagyi, Actes et documents pour servir à l'histoire de l'alliance de G. Racoczi avec lea Français el les Suédois, Budapest, 1874; S. Linberger, Geschichte des Evangeliums in Ungarn, pp. 57 sqq., ib. 1880.


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