KUYPER, ABRAHAM: Dutch Protestant; b. at Maassluis (10 m. w. of Rotterdam) Oct. 29, 1837. He studied in Leyden, and was pastor at Beest (1863-68), Utrecht (1868-70), and Amsterdam (1870-74). In 1874 he became a figure in the political life of Holland, being a member of the States-General for Gonda from that year until 1877. In 1894 he was again returned to the same body for Sleidrecht, and in 1901 became prime minister. In 1880 he founded at Amsterdam the Free University, where he has since been professor, lecturing on various topics as occasion requires. In theology he is a strict orthodox Calvinist, and as such founded the Reformed Free Church in 1886. He has lectured extensively in the United States, and in 1898 was L. P. Stone lecturer at Princeton Theological Seminary. Besides editing the Standaard (a daily newspaper) since 1872 and the Herout (weekly) since 1878, he has written many works, including: Eenvormigheid, de vloeck van het moderne leven (Amsterdam, 1869); Het modernisme, een Fata Morgana op christelijk gebied (1871); Tractaat van de refomatie der kerken (1883); Het werk van den Heiligen Geest (3 parts, 1888-89; Eng. transl., New York, 1900); E voto dordraceno Toelichting op den Heidelbergschen Catechismus (4 parts, 1892-95); and Calvinism (Stone lectures, 1899). He also edited Johannes a Lasco's complete works (2 vols., Amsterdam, 1866); Kerkeraadsprotocollen der hollandsche gemeente te London, 1569-1571 (Utrecht, 1870); and F. du Jon's Opuscula theologica selecta (Amsterdam, 1882). Portions of his Encyclopaedie der heilige Godgeleerdheid (3 vols., Amsterdam, 1894) have been translated into English under the title, Encyclopędia of Sacred Theology: Its Principles (London and New York, 1898).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. H. Jordan, Comparative Religion, pp. 434--435, New York, 1905; W. H. de S. Lohman, in Presbyterian and Reformed Review, ix (1898), 561 sqq.; C. A. Mason, in Outlook, lxx (1902), 333 sqq.

KYDONES, kai-do'nīz, DEMETRIOS: Greek theologian; flourished between 1330 and 1400, chiefly at Thessalonica and Constantinople. He was acquainted with many famous men, including Barlaam, Gregorios, Palamas, Nicephoros, Gregoras, Joseph Bryennios, and the Emperor John Cantacuzenus. He understood Latin, and in ecclesiastical questions of the day inclined toward Rome, favoring the union and opposing the Hesychasts. In this spirit he wrote "On the Procession of the Holy Ghost" and "On the blasphemous Dogmas of Gregory Palamas," the latter one of the most important works in the Hesychastic controversy. Kydones also polemized against Mohammedanism, and made a Greek translation of the Confutatio Alcorani Muhamedici of Richardus Florentinus. He was likewise able to prepare Greek versions of considerable portions of such Latin theologians as Augustine and Thomas Aquinas, was the author of a treatise "On Contempt of Death," and certain other theological addressee are ascribed to him. His works, so far as edited, are collected in MPG, cliv.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Fabricius-Harles, Bibliotheca Gręca, xi. 398-405; Krumbacher, Geschichte, pp. 101, 487-488.


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