KEIL, JOHANN FRIEDRICH KARL: German Protestant exegete; b. at Lauterbach near Ölsnitz (25 m. s.w. of Zwickau), Saxony, Feb. 26, 1807; d. at Rödlitz (8 m. s.e. of Glauchau), Saxony, May 5, 1888. He studied theology in Dorpat and Berlin, and in 1833 accepted a call to the theological faculty of Dorpat, where he labored for twenty-five years as docent and professor of Old- and New-Testament exegesis and Oriental languages. With Sartorius, Busch, later Philippi, Theodosius, Harnack and Kurtz, he educated for the Baltic provinces a generation of preachers who faithfully adhered to the confession of the Church. In 1859 he settled at Leipsic, where he devoted himself to literary work and to the practical affairs of the Lutheran Church. In 1887 he removed to Rödlitz, continuing there his literary activity until his death. He belonged to the strictly orthodox and conservative school of Hengstenberg. Ignoring almost entirely modern criticism, all his writings represent the view that the books of the Old and New Testaments are to be retained as the revealed word of God. Till the very last he regarded the modern development of German theological science as a passing phase of error. His chief work is the commentary on the Old Testament (4 vols. in 14, Leipsic,1861-75; Eng. transl., 25 vols., Edinburgh, 1864-78), which he undertook with Franz Delitzsch. To this work he contributed commentaries on all the books from Genesis to Esther inclusive, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the minor prophets. He also published commentaries on Maccabees (Leipsic,1875), Matthew (1877), Mark and Luke (1879), John (1881), Peter and Jude (1883), and Hebrews (1885). Other works are: Der Tempel Salomos (Dorpat, 1839); Einleitung in die kanonischen Schriften des Alten Testaments (Frankfort, 1853; 3d ed., 1873; Eng. transl., 2 vols., Manual of Historico-Critical Introduction to . . . The O. T., Edinburgh, 1870); and Handbuch der biblischen Archäologie (1858-59; 2d. ed., 1875; Eng. transl., Manual of Biblical Archæology, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1887-88).

(W. J. KEIL.)

KEIM, KARL THEODOR: German historical theologian; b. at Stuttgart Dec. 17, 1825; d. at Giessen Nov. 17, 1878. He studied theology from 1843 to 1847 at Tübingen, devoting himself with special zeal to Oriental Ianguages, and being influenced by F. C. Baur. He was tutor in the family of Count Sontheim, 1848-50; in 1850 continued


his studies at Bonn; was lecturer at Tübingen, 1851-55; pastor in Esslingen, Württemberg, 1856-59. From 1860 to 1873 he was professor of historical theology at the University of Zurich, and from 1873 until shortly before his death, when ill health compelled his resignation, held a corresponding position at Giessen. The three years of preaching and pastoral labor at Esslingen, of which a memorial exists in Freundesworte zur Gemeinde, a collection of sermons (Stuttgart, 1861), show him to have been an eloquent and edifying preacher; but he was essentially a scholar. His chief importance for Evangelical theology lies in the sphere of history, especially in the investigation and scientific establishment of the historical foundations of Christian faith. After his first theological examination he published a prize essay, Verhältnis der Christen in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten bis Konstantin zum römischen Reiche (1848). The Revolution of 1848 caused him to leave Tübingen and return to his native city where he occupied himself first with the study of primitive Christianity, but soon turned to the history of the Reformation, especially in Swabia. In the latter field he published: Die Reformation der Reichsstadt Ulm (Stuttgart, 1851); Schwäbische Reformationsgeschichte bis zum Augsburger Reichstag (Tübingen, 1855); Ambrosius Blarer (Stuttgart, 1860); Reformationsblätter der Reichsstadt Esslingen (Esslingen, 1860). His historical investigations show scientific earnestness and great freedom from prejudice combined with a deep insight into the character of the Reformers as Thinkers upon the great religious and political questions of the time. At Zürich Keim devoted himself exclusively to the study of primitive Christianity. His special effort was to explain the development of the Christian Church from its apostolic origin up to its conquest over the old faith and the military power of the Roman Empire, and to give a scientific representation of the historic origin of our faith, the history of Jesus. The results along the first of these two lines are set forth especially in: Die römischen Toleranzedikte für das Christentum und ihr geschichtlicher Wert and Bedenken gegen die Echtheit des hadrianischen Christenreskripts (in Theologische Jahrbücher, 1852, 1856); Der Uebertritt Konstantins des Grossen zum Christentum (Zurich, 1862); Celsus' Wahres Wort (ib. 1873); Aus dem Urchristentum. Geschichtliche Untersuchungen in zwangloser Folge (ib. 1878); and Rom und das Christentum (Berlin, 1881). In regard to the origin of our faith he wrote: Die menschliche Entwickelung Jesu Christi (Zürich, 1861), Die geschichtliche Würde Jesu (ib. 1864); he then republished the two just named, with a new lecture, under the caption, Der geschichtliche Christus (ib. 1865); then followed his greatest works, Die Geschichte Jesu von Nazara in ihrer Verkettung mit dem Gesammtleben seines Volkes frei untersucht und ausführlich erklärt (3 vols., ib. 1867-72; Eng. transl.. The History of Jesus of Nazareth, 6 vols., London, 1873-82). In order to give his views a wider currency, Keim published Die Geschichte Jesu nach den Ergebnissen heutiger Wissenschaft für weitere Kreise übersichtlich erzählt (1874, 1875). Although he emphasized chiefly the human side in Christ, he can not be called a "Unitarian." While minimizing the miraculous element in Christianity, and in spite of the most concrete conception of the human limitations and development of its founder, he considered Jesus not only the greatest upon earth, but the Son "in whom the Father reveals himself." In his criticism of the historical sources he starts from Paul, whose epistles he regards as the firm basis for Evangelical history and the decisive test for judging all other events; and in this criticism he proceeds entirely according to objective points of view, unhampered by any dogmatic theory of inspiration. He rejected the fourth Gospel; among the synoptic Gospels he gave the preference to Matthew, which, according to him, originated as early as 68 and is distinguished by primitive simplicity and absence of preconceived notions, showing only slight traces of revision. Luke, according to Keim, obscured the simple representation of Matthew by his mediating Pauline standpoint. Mark wrote in the interest of a world-embracing universalism, changing the picture of Jesus in Matthew by omitting the most important speeches wherever they clash with his theory. Keim's work shows rare scientific solidity and deep penetration, and holds a position in the literature of the life of Jesus which can not be neglected even by those who do not share his rationalistic standpoint.



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