JOHN OF LEYDEN: The common designation of Jan Beukelszoon, the leader of the Anabaptists in Münster. See ANABAPTISTS; MÜNSTER, ANABAPTISTS IN.

JOHN THE LITTLE (Johannes Parvus, Jean Petit): French theologian; b. in Normandy; d. 1411. He became known in 1394 by the publication of Complainte de l'église, a French poem discussing the ecclesiastical schism and the remedies recommended in 1394 by the University of Paris. He represented the Norman people at the university and was professor of theology there 1400. He treated of the church politics of Burgundy at the national council of 1406 with unusual rigor, and on Mar. 8, 1408, defended the murder of Duke Louis of Orléans, committed at the instigation of John the Fearless of Burgundy. In this he appealed to the scholastic doctrine of tyrannicide regnant since John of Salisbury; but a council of Paris condemned the doctrine (Feb. 23, 1414). A commission of cardinals instituted by John XXIII. reversed the decision on Jan. 15, 1416; moreover, after the death of John, the rising power of Burgundy so tied the hands of Martin V. that there followed a vindication of the theologian.

(B. BESS.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. B. Schwab, Johannes Gerson, pp. 429 sqq., 608 sqq., Würzburg, 1858; P. Tschackert, Peter von Ailli, Gotha, 1877; M. D. Chapotin, La Guerre de cent ans, Paris, 1889; B. Bess, Studien zur Geschichte des Konstanzer Konzils, Marburg, 1891; M. Lossen, Die Lehre vom Tyrannenmord in der christlichen Zeit, Munich, 1894; H. Denifle and E. Chatelain, Chartularium universitatis Parisiensis, vols. iii., iv., Paris, 1894-97; KL, vi. 1746-1748.

JOHN OF MONTECORVINO: Franciscan missionary in China.; b. at Montecorvino, Rovella. (14 m. e. of Salerno), Italy, 1247; d. at Khanbaligh (now Peking), China, 1330. In 1272 he was sent by the Byzantine Emperor Michael Palæologus to Gregory X. in the matter of the union of the Greek with the Roman Church. Subsequently be visited Mongolia. On his return in 1288 he reported to Nicholas IV. the willingness of the Tatar princes to receive Christian teachers, and in 1289 he was sent by Nicholas as a missionary to the Mongolian empire. After laboring for a time in Persia and India he settled at Peking about 1292. Until 1303 he carried on his work alone. He won the friendship of the Great Khan, enlisted his interest, and, despite the determined opposition of the Nestorians, by 1305 he had built two churches and baptized 6,000 heathen adults, besides 150 boys, whom he had bought of heathen parents and collected into a school. He taught them Greek and Latin, and wrote for them psalteries, hymnaries, and breviaries. He also translated the Psaltery and the whole of the New Testament into Tatar. On hearing of the great work accomplished by him Clement V., in 1307, made him archbishop of Khanbaligh (Peking) and gave him a number of suffragans. His work was continued by his successors till 1368. His two letters are in Wadding, Annal. frat. min., for year 1305, one in Eng. transl. in Yule's ed. of Marco Polo (London, 1875).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: KL, vi. 1719-1721, ix, 292.


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