JOHN OF GORZE: A monastic reformer of the tenth century; b. at Vendière (near Pont-à-Mousson, 18 m. s.s.w, of Metz); d. at Gorze (9 m. w.s.w. of Metz) Mar. 7, 974. His tastes early led him in the direction of theological study and asceticism, but when he wished to retire from the world he could find no monastery near him in which strict discipline was maintained. After a visit to Rome and Monte Cassino, he drew still closer the relations which had bound him to several men of like aims, especially Einald, formerly archdeacon of Toul; and in 933 they were charged by Bishop Adelbero of Metz with the restoration of the decayed monastery of Gorze, of which Einald became abbot, with John as his principal assistant. The number of monks soon became considerable, and the influence of the movement wide-spread. Gorze became a model for the reform of all the monasteries of the diocese, and in 950 Pope Agapetus II. sent thither for monks to restore discipline in the monastery of St. Paul in Rome. After many years of zealous activity at Gorze, John was sent to Cordova by Otho III. on a mission to the Calif Abdalrahman III., and spent several years in Spain. Returning to Gorze, he was elected abbot on Einald's death in 960. The life of Gorze by his friend John, abbot of St. Arnulph at Metz (MGH, Script., iv (1841), 335—377) takes a high rank among historical documents of the tenth century.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Vita by John, ut sup., with commentary, is also in ASB, Feb., iii. 686-715. Consult: W. Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, i. 745, 785, Brunswick, 1855; Wattenbach, DGQ, i (1885), 344, i (1893), 370.

JOHN, GRIFFITH: Welsh Congregational missionary; b. at Swansea, Wales, Dec. 14, 1831. At the age of fourteen he began to preach in Welsh, and from 1850 to 1854 studied at Brecon College, after which he spent a few months at the Missionary College at Bedford, England. In 1855 he was assigned by the London Missionary Society to China. Until 1861 he lived in or near Shanghai. Then he removed to Hankow, being the first Protestant missionary in Central China, and made that city his headquarters until 1906. As at Shanghai, he made numerous journeys into the surrounding country, and established many churches and missions in neighboring provinces. He was in Great Britain on furlough in 1870-73 and again in 1881-1882, the latter time visiting the United States, where he has resided since 1906, when failing health obliged him to retire from active missionary life. He is the author of a large number of tracts in Chinese, and also translated the New Testament and a portion of the Old into both easy Wen-li and Mandarin colloquial.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. W. Thompson, Griffith John, the story of Fifty Years in China, New York, 1908.


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