JACOBI, JUSTUS LUDWIG: Professor in Halle; b. at Burg (14 m. n.e. of Magdeburg) Aug. 12, 1815; d. at Halle May 31, 1888. He studied in Halle, and in Berlin, where in 1841 be became privat-docent, and in 1847 professor extraordinary; in 1851 he went as ordinary professor of theology to Königsberg, in 1855 to Halle. As representative of the "mediating theology" and advocate of the Evangelical Union, he was involved in various controversies with the confessional party. By founding the home for deaconesses in Halle with the wife of Professor Tholuck, he took a practical part in the charitable works of the Church. His writings betray the influence of Neander. In Die Lehre des Pelagius, ein Beitrag zur Dogmengeschichte (Leipsic, 1842) he represented the standpoint of Augustine. The first part of Kirchliche Lehre von der Tradition und heiligen Schrift appeared at Berlin, 1847. His Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte (part i., Berlin, 1850) is characterized by a thorough presentation of the sources combined with a fine appreciation of external conditions as well as of internal development, measured by the central doctrine of sin and grace. He also wrote Die Lehre der Irvingiten verglichen mit der heiligen Schrift (1853; 2d ed., 1868); Professor Schlottmann, die hallesche Fakultät und die Centrumspartei (2d ed., Halle, 1882), a defense of his colleague against the aggressive tendency of the Roman curia in the so-called Kulturkampf; and Streiflichter auf Religion, Politik, und Universitäten der Centrumspartei (1883). He commemorated his teachers in Erinnerung an D. August Neander (1882), and Baron von Kottwitz (1882).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Jacobi, J. L. Jacobi und die Vermittelungstheologie seiner Zeit, Gotha, 1889.

General Description.

The Jacobites are an offshoot of the Syrian Monophysites. While the Syrians were the bearers of Christianity in the East, nowhere has ecclesiastical cleavage produced deeper fissures than among them. And the same might be said also of political relations. The peace between the Persians and Jovinian in 363 made a sharp distinction between Syrians of the Roman empire and those of Persia, which has continued to the present. In religion it was differences concerning Christology which produced the deep rifts, especially those connected with the names of Eutyches and Nestorius. Hence one speaks no more of "an Aramaic nation," rather he speaks of two peoples of Aramaic lineage as distinct as two nationalities. Indeed, authorities do not use the term Jacobitic Church or Nestorian Church, they employ the terms Jacobitic people, Nestorian people. The mutual dislike of these two descendants from a common stock is scarcely less intense than their common hatred of Mohammedans. These peoples seem to have lost consciousness of racial bonds; they speak and write two dialects of a common speech, and this difference goes back to an early time, since the division had its origin in the fifth century. By the term Jacobites is meant now the Syrian Monophysites, though in earlier times Egyptian Monophysites were also included. How early the term came into use is not known; it occurs certainly in the anathemas of the Council of Nice (787). The emperors Zeno and Anastasius favored this form of teaching, and it was introduced among the Syrians by Barsumas of Edessa, Xenaias Philoxenus of Mabug, and Severus of Antioch. Under Justinian I. many Syrian bishops were deposed and exiled for refusing recognition to the deliverances of the Council of Chalcedon. Under the protection of the Empress Theodora, bishops were consecrated for the East and South, and particularly Jacobus Baradæus, whose labors in behalf of monophysitism were epoch-making.

Jacobus Baradæus.

Jacobus Baradæus (Jacob Baradai) was born at Tella Mauzalat (55 m. e. of Edessa) toward the close of the fifth century, and died at the monastery of Cassianus, on the Egyptian border, July 30, 578. He was educated in the monastery of Phasilta near Nisibis, lived for fifteen years as a monk in Constantinople, and was consecrated bishop in 541 or 543. Clad in rags, he then wandered from Egypt to the Euphrates and to the islands of the


Mediterranean for nearly forty years, expounding his doctrines, ordaining deacons and priests, and consecrating bishops, doing his work in the daytime and traveling at night sometimes forty miles to a new place of labor. He is said to have consecrated two patriarchs and twenty-seven bishops, and to have created 100,000 priests and deacons. After the death of the patriarch Severus, he attached himself to the party of Sergius of Tells, and when Sergiua died he had Paulus of Egypt made patriarch. He left little in the shape of literature. An Anaphora is ascribed to him (Lat. transl. by E. Renaudot, Liturgiarum orientalium collectio, ii., Paris, 1716, pp. 333 sqq.), also a confession extant in Arabic and Ethiopic, the genuineness of which is doubtful. A number of encyclicals in a Syriac manuscript in London are thought to be his.

Their System and Order.

It was from Jacobus Baradæus that the Jacobites took their name, and not from the Apostle, as was stated by John of Ephesus, nor from the Hebrew patriarch. They used to call themselves "the orthodox," and in Egypt went under the names of Theodosians, Severians, and Dioscurians. For the peculiarities of doctrine consult the articles EUTYCHIANISM, and MONOPHYSITES. In the propagation of this system they were peculiarly zealous. In 1587 Leonard Abel found the agent of the Jacobites ready to acknowledge the Roman Church, but he absolutely refused to condemn Dioscorus and to recognize Chalcedon. In the cultus emphasis is laid upon the making of the bread of the Eucharist of leavened dough mixed with salt and oil, and also upon the addition to the trisagion "who was crucified on your account." They make the sign of the cross with one finger, and the lot is often used at the election of patriarchs and bishops. Their patriarch takes his title from Antioch, though he never resides there, inasmuch as the Greeks regard Jacobites as heretics and refuse to their chief officer residence in Antioch. His seat is therefore not fixed, but is sometimes in a monastery, often in Amid (Diarbekr). During the Jacobitic schism, 1364-1494, there were as many as four officials claiming the title of patriarch in as many different places. The jurisdiction of the Syrian patriarch meets that of the Coptic patriarch, though Jerusalem has both a Coptic and a Syrian-Jacobitic bishop. In the most flourishing period of the Church it had probably 100 bishops. Under the patriarch is the Maphrian, who is the primate of the East, and is sometimes called Catholicus. His office dates as far back as Jacobus Baradæus, though the title is much later. It is not uncommon for a married man to be admitted to the order of deacon or presbyter, though marriage after ordination is not permitted. They have a number of monasteries. The monks are not reckoned among the clergy, yet the bishops are chosen from among the monks, and have charge of the cloisters. The writers of the Jacobites include Jacob of Edessa, Jacob of Sarug, John of Ephesus, John of Dara Isaac of Antioch, George, bishop of the Arabs, and Philoxenus (qq.v.), also Paul of Tella, Thomas of Heraclea, Stephen bar Sudaili, Dionysius of Tellmahre, Moses bar Kepha, and Dionysius bar Salibi.

History and Present Status.

The emperors of the East, with the exception of Zeno and Anastasius, were opposed to the Jacobitic doctrines, and Justinian I. attempted in vain to unite them with the Catholic Church. The Syrian Jacobites suffered not only under the emperors, but also under the Mohammedans, while their brethren in Egypt seemed to be able better to conciliate the followers of Mohammed. The Crusaders refused them access to the Holy Sepulcher. In the time of Gregory XIII., the Jacobites are said to have numbered 50,000 families, mostly poor, scattered in the towns and villages of Syria, Babylonia, and Mesopotamia. Since that time they seem to have dwindled, as the reports of different travelers are followed from that time to the present. Sachau reports that at Mosul out of 2,328 Christian houses, some 900 were those of Syrian Jacobites. The most recent statistics give 22,700 adherents, twenty-four parishes, forty-two churches, eighty-one priests; in Mosul is the largest number of adherents, 7,000, and in Mardin the next largest number, 4,000. The situation of these people has been the more critical because, while the most of the other sects received recognition from the Porte, they were without it. Through the interposition of the English this disability was removed in 1882. What adds to the difficulty of their position is that they are regarded as heretics by all other sects in the region. Perhaps their most flourishing settlement is at Sadad, on the road from Damascus to Palmyra. In 1653 the Christians of St. Thomas of India (see NESTORIANS) seem to have had relations with them, though there is no indication of present affiliation. Recently special attempts have been made by the Church of Rome to have the Oriental churches come into connection with it; the encyclical Præclara of Leo XIII. of June 20, 1894, and particularly the Orientaliurn dignitas ecclesiarum of Nov. 30, 1894, are evidences of this movement. Several periodicals are employed to further these efforts, notably Bessarione in Rome, the Revue de l'orient chrétien of Paris, with its auxiliaries, and the Calendarium ecclesiae utriusque of Innsbruck. The earlier attempts of the years 1169, 1237, 1247, and 1442 produced no permanent results.


BIBLIOGRAPHY; The chief work on the Syrian Jacobites is still J. S. Assemani Bibliotheca orientalis, especially vol. ii., Rome, 1721. Consult farther: E. Renaudot, Hist. patriarcharum Alexandrinorum Jacobitarum, Paris, 1713; M. Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, vols. ii.- iii., ib. 1740; J. M. Neale, Hist. of the Holy Eastern Church, 2 vols. London, 1850 (for the liturgy); O. H. Parry, Six Months in a Syrian Monastery, ib. 1895; C. E. Hammond, Liturgies Eastern and Western, ed. F. E. Brightman, i. 69-110, ib. 1896; F. Diekamp, Die origenistischen Streitigkeiten im 6. Jahrhundert, Münster, 1899; R. Duval, La Littérature syriaque, Paris 1900; E. Sachau, Am Euphrat und Tigris, Leipsic, 1900· J. B. Chabot, Chronique de Michel le Syrien, patriarche jacobique d'Antioche (1166-1199), 2 vols., Paris, 1900-04; F. C. Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity, London, 1904; L. Silbernagl, Verfassung und gegenwärtiger Bestand sämtlicher Kirchen des Orients, Regensburg, 1904; Harnack, Dogma, passim; KL, xi. 1124-34; the periodicals mentioned in the last paragraph above, together with Echos d'orient; and the literature under EUTYCHIANISM; MONOPHYSITES. On


Jacob Baradæus consult H. G. Kleyn, Jacobus Baradeus, Leyden, 1882; DCB, iii. 328-332.


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