JACOB, EDGAR: Church of England bishop of St. Albans; b. at Crawley Rectory, near Winchester, Nov. 16, 1844. He was educated at New College, Oxford (B.A., 1868), and was ordered deacon in 1868 and ordained priest in the following year. He was curate of Taynton, Oxfordshire (1868-69), Witney (1869-71), and St. James', Bermondsey (1871-72), domestic chaplain to the bishop of Calcutta (1872-76), and commissary to the same prelate (1876-88). In 1877 he had charge of Wilberforce Memorial Mission, South London, and was vicar of Portsea (1878-96). In 1896 he was consecrated bishop of Newcastle, and in 1903 was translated to his present see of St. Albans. He was also examining chaplain to the bishop of Winchester in 1876-79, honorary canon of Winchester in 1884-1896, honorary chaplain to the Queen in 1887-90 and chaplain in ordinary in 1890-96, rural dean of Landport and chaplain of the Portsmouth prison in 1892-96, and select preacher at Oxford in the same year. He has written The Divine Society: or, The Church's Care of Large Populations (Cambridge lectures on pastoral theology; London, 1900).

JACOBI, ya-ko'bî, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH: German philosopher; b. at Dusseldorf Jan. 25, 1743; d. at Munich Mar. 10, 1819. He studied at Frankfort and Geneva, and in 1764 became the head of his father's business in Düsseldorf. After his appointment to the council for the duchies of Jülich and Berg in 1772 he devoted himself entirely to literature and philosophy. His house at Pempelfort, near Düsseldorf, became the meeting-place of distinguished literary men. Among his more intimate friends were Wieland, Hamann, Herder, Lessing, and Goethe. On account of the political agitation of the time he went to Holstein in 1794. During the next ten years he resided chiefly at Wandsbeck, Hamburg, and Eutin. In 1804 he accepted a call to Munich in connection with the proposed Academy of Sciences there. He was president of the academy from its opening in 1807 till 1812. His


writings are characterized by poetic fancy and religious sentiment rather than by logical necessity. He held that the understanding can only join and disjoin given facts, without explaining them, and that knowledge deduced in this way is conditioned and relatively unimportant, being always related to a background of existence which forever remains beyond abstract thinking. All demonstrable knowledge, therefore, is relative and conditioned; it does not touch the ultimate nature of things. The faculty by which we grasp ultimate facts is not the understanding, but faith, which Jacobi identified with reason. It was Jacobi who first pointed out the fatal contradiction involved in Kant's application of the category of causality to the Ding an sich. His doctrine of the relativity of knowledge was later exploited by Sir William Hamilton. Jacobi's principal works are the two philosophical novels, Woldemar (2 vols., Flensburg, 1779) and Edward Allwills Briefsamlung (Breslau, 1781); Ueber die Lehre des Spinoza (1785; enlarged ed., 1789); David Hume über den Glauben, oder Idealismus und Realismus (1787), containing his criticism of Kant; Ueber das Unternehmen des Kritizismus, die Vernunft zu Verstande zu bringen (Hamburg, 1801); and Von den göttlichen Dingen und ihrer Offenbarung (Leipsic, 1811), which was directed against Schelling. During his last years Jacobi was employed in collecting and editing his Werke (6 vols., Leipsic, 1812-24). His Auserlesener Briefwechsel was edited by F. Roth (2 vols., 1825-27). Max Jacobi edited Briefwechsel zwischen Goethe und F. H. Jacobi (1846).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. A. Schmid, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Eine Darstellung seiner Persönlichkeit und seiner Philosophie als Beitrag zu einer Geschichte des modernen Weltproblems, Heidelberg, 1908; F. H. Jacobi nach seinem Leben, Lehren und Wirken, ed. Schlichtigroll, Weiller and Thiersch. Munich, 1819; J. Kuhn, Jacobi und die Philosophie seiner Zeit, Mainz, 1834; F. Deycks, F. H. Jacobi im Verhältniss zu seinen Zeitgenossen, Frankfort, 1849; F. D. Maurice, Modern Philosophy, pp, 644-651, London, 1862; E. Zirngiebl, F. H. Jacobi's Leben, Dichten und Denken, Vienna, 1867; L. Lévy-Bruhl, La Philosophie de Jacobi, Paris, 1894; N. Wilde, F. H. Jacobi: a Study in the Origin of German Realism, New York, 1894. Consult also J. E. Erdmann, Geschichte der Philosophie, 2 vols., Berlin, 1895-1896, Eng, transl., 3 vols., London, 1892-98.


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