PURCELL, JOHN BAPTIST: Roman Catholic archbishop; b. at Mallow (18 m. n.n.w. of Cork), County Cork, Ireland, Feb. 26, 1800; d. at St. Martens, Brown County, Ohio,. July 4, 1883. He emigrated to America in 1818; studied theology in America and France; was ordained priest at Paris in 1826; returned to America, and was made professor in 1827, and president in 1828, of Mount St. Mary's College, Emmittsburg, Md. In 1833 he was consecrated bishop, and in 1850 archbishop, of Cincinnati. When he came to his see, there were only sixteen Roman Catholic churches in all Ohio, and many of these were mere sheds. In 1876 there were 460 churches, 100 chapels, 3 theological seminaries, 3 colleges, 6 hospitals, and 22 orphan asylums. In 1879, he, with his brother, failed for $4,000,000, whereupon he retired permanently to a monastery He held public debates with Alexander Campbell and with Thomas Vickers, published respectively as A Debate on. the Roman. Catholic Religion (1837) and The Vickers and Purcell Controversy (New York, 1868). In the Vatican Council he spoke and voted against the infallibility dogma, though he later accepted it.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: No biography of this prelate exists. Consult R. Gilmour, Funeral Oration on Archbishop J. B. Purcell, New York, 1883.

PURCHAS, JOHN: Church of England; b. at Cambridge July 14, 1823; d. at Brighton Oct. 18, 1872. He received his education at Christ. College, Cambridge (B.A., 1844; M.A., 1847); was curate of Elsworth, Cambridgeshire, 1851-53, of Orwell in the same county, 1856-59, and of St. Paul's, Brighton, 1861-66; and perpetual curate of St. James' Chapel, Brighton, after 1866. His curacy in St. James' is significant because of the direct contribution which was made through it to the controversy concerning ritualism (see RITUALISM) in the Anglican church. Purchas introduced the use of vest ments such as the cope, chasuble, alb, biretta, etc., and used lighted candles on the altar, crucifixes, images, and holy water, together with processions, incense, and the like. He was accordingly (Nov. 27, 1869) charged before the court of arches with infringing the law of the established church; he did not appear to answer, giving as reasons his poverty, which prevented him from securing legal assistance, and ill-health. Decision was rendered against him Feb. 3, 1870, but in terms which did not please Col. Charles James Elphinstone, who had brought the suit. The latter appealed for a fuller condemnation, which was eventually obtained May 16, 1871, the decision going against Purchas in all points. Purchas had put his property out of his hands, and so could not be made to pay costs; moreover, he did not discontinue the illegal practises, and was suspended for twelve months; but in spite of this he continued his services until his death. The decision caused a controversy which extended over a considerable period and involved the leaders in the Anglican church.

Purchas' most important literary achievement was the editing of Directorium Anglicanum: being a Manual of Directions for the right Celebration of the Holy Communion, for the Saying of Matins and Evensong, and for the Performance of the other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church (London, 1858; a standard work on Anglican ritualism). He was also the author of a comedy, several poems, including Poems and Ballads (1846); The Book of Feasts; Sermons (1853); The Priest's Dream: an Allegory (1856); and The Death of Ezekiel's Wife: Three Sermons (1866).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, xlvii. 44-45. The official reports of the trials are in Law Reports, Admiralty and Eccleaiastical Courts, 1872, iii. 66-113, and Law Reports, Privy Council Appeals, iii. 245--257, 605-702. Further comment is to be found in: G. Calthrop, The Judgment in the Purehas Case. London, 1871; R. Gregory, The Purchas Judgment, ib. 1871; H. P. Liddon, The Purchas JudgmentNotes on the Judgment of the . . . Privy Council in the Appeal Hebbert v. Purchas, ib. 1877.


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