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The Augsburg Confession. A.D. 1530.

[The Latin text is from the editio princeps, 1531, as printed in the best editions of the 'Book of Concord,' and especially (with all the various readings) in the Corpus Reformatorum, ed. Bindseil, Vol. XXVI. (1858), pp. 263–336. I have inserted in brackets the most important additions of the German text, and marked in foot-notes the chief alterations of the edition of 1540. The English translation (in the style of the sixteenth century) was prepared (1868), and at my request carefully revised for this work (1874), by my friend, The Rev. Dr. Charles P. Krauth, Vice-Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, and Professor of Theology in the Evangelical Lutheran Seminary, Philadelphia. First English translation by Richard Taverner, London, 1536; recent translations, more or less complete, by S. S. Schmucker (1834): E. Hazelius (1841), Ambrose and Socrates Henkel (1851 and 1854). See Vol. I. § 41, pp. 225 sqq.]

Confessio Fidei Confession of Faith

Exhibita Invictissimo Imperatori Carolo V. Cæsari Augusto in Comiciis Augustæ. Anno MDXXX.11The title of the German edition is Confessio odder Bekantnus des Glaubens etlicher Fürsten und Stedte: Uberantwort Kaiserlicher Majestet: zu Augspurg, Anno M.D.XXX.

Presented to the Invincible Emperor Charles V., Cæsar Augustus, at the Diet of Augsburg, Anno Domini MDXXX.22The title of the German edition is Confessio odder Bekantnus des Glaubens etlicher Fürsten und Stedte: Uberantwort Kaiserlicher Majestet: zu Augspurg, Anno M.D.XXX.

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Et loquebar de testimoniis tuis in conspectu Regum, et non confundebar.—Psalm cxix. 46.

I will speak of thy testimonies also before kings, and will not be ashamed.—Psalm cxix. 46.

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Præfatio ad Cæsarem Carolum V. Preface to the Emperor Charles V.
Invictissime Imperator, Cæsar Auguste, Domine clementissime. Cum V.C.M. indixerit conventum Imperii Augustæ, ut deliberetur de auxiliis contra Turcam, atrocissimum, hæreditarium atque veterem Christiani nominis ac religionis hostem, quomodo illius scilicet furori et conatibus durabili et perpetuo belli apparatus resisi posit; deinde et de dissensionibus in causa nostræ sanctæ religionis et Christianæ fidei, et ut in hac causa religionis partium opiniones ac sententiæ inter sese in caritate, lenitate et mansuetudine mutua audiantur coram, intelligantur et ponderentur, ut illis, quæ utrinque in Scripturis secus tractata aut intellecta sunt, sepositis et correctis, res illæ ad unam simplicem veritatem et Christianam concordiam componantur et reducantur; ut de cœtero a nobis una, sincera et vera religio colatur et servetur Most Invincible Emperor, Cæsar Augustus, Most Clement Master: Inasmuch as Your Imperial Majesty has summoned a Convention of the Empire at Augsburg, to deliberate in regard to aid against the Turk, the most atrocious, the hereditary, and ancient enemy of the Christian name and religion, in what way, to wit, resistance might be made to his rage and assaults, by protracted and perpetual preparation for war: Because, moreover, of dissensions in the matter of our holy religion and Christian faith, and in order that this matter of religion the opinions and judgments of diverse parties may be heard in each other's presence, may be understood and weighed among one another, in mutual charity, meekness, and gentleness, that those things which in the writings on either side have been handled or understood amiss, being laid aside
ut, quemadmodum sub uno Christo sumus et militamus: ita in una etiam Ecclesia Christiana, in unitate et concordia vivere possimus; cumque nos infra scripti Elector et Principes, cum aliis, qui nobis conjuncti sunt, perinde ut alii Electores et Principes et Status ad præfata Comitia evocati simus, ut Cæsareo mandato obedienter obsequeremur, mature venimus Augustam; et, quod citra jactantiam dictum volumes, inter primos affuimus. and corrected, these things may be harmonized and brought back to the one simple truth and Christian concord; so that hereafter the one unfeigned and true religion may be embraced and preserved by us, so that as we are subjects and soldiers of the one Christ, so also, in unity and concord, we may live in the one Christian Church: And inasmuch as we, the Elector and Princes, whose names are subscribed, together with others who are conjoined with us, in common with other Electors, and Princes, and States, have been called to the aforenamed Diet,—we have, in order to render most humble obedience to the Imperial Mandate, come early to Augsburg, and, with no desire to boast, would state that we were among the very first to be present.
Cum igitur V.C.M. Electoribus, Principibus et aliis Statibus Imperii etiam hic Augustæ sub ipsa initia horum Comitiorum inter cœtera proponi fecerit, quod singuli Status Imperii vigore Cæsarei edicti suam opinionem et sententiam in Germanica et Latina lingua proponere debeant atque offerre; et habita deliberatione proxima feria quarta, rursum responsum est V.C.M. nos proxima feria sexta articulos nostræ Confessionis pro nostra parte oblaturos esse: When, therefore, Your Imperial Majesty, among other things, has also at Augsburg, at the very beginning of these sessions, caused the proposition to be made to the Princes and States of the Empire, that each of the States of the Empire, in virtue of the Imperial Edict, should propose and offer in the German and in the Latin language its opinion and decision; after discussion on Wednesday we replied to Your Imperial Majesty, that on the following Friday we would offer on our part the Articles of our Confession:
Ideo V.C.M. voluntati obsequamur, offerimus in hac religionis causa nostrorum Concionatorum et nostram Confessionem, cujusmodi doctrinam ex Scripturis Sanctis et puro verbo Dei hactenus illi in nostris terris, ducatibus, ditionibus et urbibus tradiderint, ac in Ecclesiis tractaverint. Quod si et cœteri Electores, Principes ac Status Imperii, similibus scriptis, Latinis scilicet et Germanicis, juxta prædictam Cæsaream propositionem, suas opiniones in hac causa religionis produxerint: hic nos coram V.C.M. tanquam Domino nostro clementissimo paratos offerimus, nos cum præfatis Principibus et amicis nostris de tollerabilibus modis ac viis amice conferre, ut, quantum honeste fieri potest, conveniamus, et Wherefore, in order that we may do homage to the will of Your Imperial Majesty, we now offer in the matter of religion the Confession of our preachers and of ourselves, the doctrine of which, derived from the Holy Scriptures and pure Word of God, they have to this time set forth in our lands, dukedoms, domains, and cities, and have taught in the churches. If the other Electors, Princes, and States of the Empire, should in similar writings, to wit, in Latin and German, according to the aforementioned Imperial proposition, produce their opinions in this matter of religion: we here, in the presence of Your Imperial Majesty, our most Clement Lord, offer ourselves, prepared, in conjunction with the Princes and
re inter nos partes citra odiosam contentionem pacifice agitata, Deo dante, dissensio dirimatur, et ad unam veram concordem religionem reducatur; sicut omnes sub uno Christo sumus et militamus et unum Christum confiteri debemus, juxta tenorem edicti V.C.M. et omnia ad veritatem Dei perducantur, id quod ardentissimis votis a Deo petimus. our friends already designated, to compare views in a kindly manner in regard to mode and ways which may be available, so that, as far as may honorably be done, we may agree, and the matter between us of both parts being peacefully discussed, with no hateful contention, by God's help the dissension may be removed, and brought back to one true accordant religion (as we are all subjects and soldiers under one Christ, so also we ought to confess one Christ, in accordance with the tenor of the decree of Your Imp. M.), and all things should be brought back to the truth of God, which with most fervent prayers we beseech God to grant.
Si autem, quod ad cœteros Electores, Principes et Status, ut partem alteram, attinet, hæc tractatio causæ religionis, eo modo, quo V.C.M. agendam et tractandam sapienter duxit, scilicet cum tali mutua præsentatione scriptorum ac sedata collatione inter nos non processerit, nec aliquo fructu facta fuerit: nos quidem testatum clare relinquimus, hic nihil nos, quod ad Christianam concordiam (quæ cum Deo et bona conscientia fieri posit) conciliandam conducere queat, ullo modo detrectare; quemadmodum et V.C.M. deinde et cœteri Electores et Status Imperii et omnes, quicunque sincero religionis amore ac studio tenentur, quicunque hanc causam æquo animo audituri sunt, ex hac nostra et nostrorum Confessione hoc clementer cognoscere et intelligere dignabuntur. But if, as regards the rest of the Electors, Princes, and States, those of the other party, this treatment of the matter of religion, in the manner in which Your I. M. has wisely thought fit it should be conducted and treated, to wit, with such a mutual presentation of writings and calm conference between us, should not go on, nor be attended by any result; yet shall we leave a clear testimony that in no manner do we evade any thing which can tend to promote Christian concord (any thing which God and a good conscience allow); and this Your I. M. and the other Electors and States of the Empire, and all who are moved by a sincere love of religion and concern for it, all who are willing to give an equitable hearing in this matter, will kindly gather and understand from the Confession of ourselves and of ours.
Cum etiam V.C.M. Electoribus, Principibus et reliquis Statibus Imperii non una vice, sed sæpe clementer significaverit, et in Comitiis Spirensibus, quæ anno Domini etc. XX VI. habita sunt, ex data et præscripta forma vestræ Cæsareæ instructionis et comissionis recitari et publice prælegi fecerit: Vestram M. in hoc negocio religionis ex causis certis, quæ V.M. nomine allegatæ sunt, non velle quicquam determinare, nec concludere posse, sed apud Pontificem Romanum pro officio V.C.M. diligenter daturam operam de congregando Concilio generali. Quemadmodum Since, moreover, Your I. M. has not once only, but repeatedly signified to the Electors, Princes, and other States of the Empire; and at the Diet of Spires, which was held in the year of our Lord 1526, caused to be recited and publicly proclaimed, in accordance with the form of Your Imperial instruction and commission given and prescribed: That Your I. M. in this matter of religion for certain reasons, stated in the name of Your Majesty, was not willing to determine, nor was able to conclude touching any thing, but that Your I. M. would diligently endeavor to have the Roman Pontiff,
idem latius expositum est ante annum in publico proximo conventu, qui Spiræ congregatus fuit. Ubi V.C.M. per Dominum Ferdinandum, Bohemiæ et Ungariæ Regem, amicum et Dominum clementem nostrum, deinde per Oratorem et Comissarios Cæsareos, hæc inter cœtera proponi fecit, quod V.C.M. intellexisset et expendisset Locum Tenentis V.C.M. in Imperio et Præsidentis et Consiliariorum in Regimine et Legatorum ab aliis Statibus, qui Ratisbonæ convenerant, deliberationem de Concilio congregando, et quod judicaret etiam V.C.M. utile esse, ut congregaretur Concilium, et quia causæ, quæ tum tractabantur inter V.C.M. et Romanum Pontificem, vicinæ essent concordiæ et Christianæ reconciliationi, non dubitaret V.C.M. quin Romanum Pontifex adduci posset ad habendum generale Concilium: ideo significabat se V.C.M. operam daturam, ut præfatus Pontifex Maximus una cum V.C.M. tale generale Concilium primo quoque tempore emissis literis publicandum congregare consentiret. in accordance with his office, to assemble a General Council; as also the same matter was more amply set forth a year ago in the last public Convention, which was held at Spires, where through His Highness Ferdinand, King of Bohemia and Hungary, our friend and clement Lord, afterward through the Orator and the Imperial Commissioners, Your I. M., among other propositions, caused these to be made: that Your I. M. had known and pondered the resolution to convene a Council, formed by the Representatives of Your I. M. in the Empire, and by the Imperial President and Counselors, and by the Legates of other States convened at Ratisbon, and this Your I. M. also judged that it would be useful to assemble a Council; and because the matters which were to be adjusted at this time between Your I. M. and the Roman Pontiff were approaching agreement and Christian reconciliation, Your I. M. did not doubt that, but that the Pope could be induced to summon a General Council: Wherefore Your I. M. signified that Your I. M. would endeavor to bring it to pass that the Chief Pontiff, together with Your I. M., would consent at the earliest opportunity to issue letters for the convening of such a General Council.
In eventum ergo talem, quod in causa religionis dissensiones inter nos et partes amice et in caritate non fuerint compositæ, tunc coram V.C.M. hic in omni obedientia nos offerimus, ex superabundanti comparituros et causam dicturos in tali generali, libero et Christiano Concilio, de quo congregando in omnibus Comitiis Imperialibus, quæ quidem annis Imperii V.C.M. habita sunt, per Electores, Principes et reliquos Status Imperii semper concorditer actum et congruentibus suffragiis conclusum est. Ad cujus etiam generalis Concilii conventum, simul et ad V.C.M. in hac longe maxima et gravissima causa jam ante etiam debito modo et in forma juris provocavimus et appellavimus. Cui appellationi ad V.C.M. simul et Concilium adhuc adheremus, neque eam per hunc vel alium tractatum In the event, therefore, that in this matter of religion the differences between us and the other party should not be settled in friendship and love, we here present ourselves before Your I. M. in all obedience, as we have done before, ready to appear and to defend our cause in such a general, free, and Christian Council, concerning the convening of which there has been concordant action and a determination by agreeing votes on the part of the Electors, Princes, and the other States of the Empire, in all the Imperial Diets which have been held in the reign of Your I. M. To this Convention of a General Council, as also to Your I. M., we have in the due method and legal form before made our protestation and appeal in this greatest and gravest of matters. To which appeal both to Your I. M.
(nisi causa inter nos et partes juxta tenorem Cæsareæ proximæ citationis amice in caritate composita, sedata, et ad Christianam concordiam reducta fuerit) deserere intendimus aut possumus; de quo hic etiam solenniter et publice protestamur. and a Council we still adhere; nor do we intend, nor would it be possible for us to forsake it by this or any other document, unless the matter between us and the other party should, in accordance with the tenor of the latest Imperial citation, be adjusted, settled, and brought to Christian concord, in friendship and love; concerning which appeal we here also make our solemn and public protest.
Pars I. Part First.
ARTICULI FIDEI PRÆCIPUI.33Germ. ed.: Artikel des Glaubens und der Lehre. CHIEF ARTICLES OF FAITH.
Art. I.De Deo. Art. I.Of God.
Ecclesiæ magno consensus [einträchtiglich] apud nos docent, Decretum Nicænæ Synodi, de unitate essentiæ divinæ et de tribus personis, verum et sine ulla dubitatione credendum esse. Videlicet, quod sit una essentia divina, quæ et appellatur et est Deus, æternus, incorporeus impartibilis [ohne Stück], immensa potentia, sapientia, bonitate, creator et conservator omnium rerum, visibilium et invisibilium; et tamen tres sint personæ, ejusdem essentiæ et potentiæ, et coæternæ, Pater, Filius et Spiritus Sanctus. Et nominee personæ utuntur ea significatione, qua usi sunt in hac causa Scriptores Ecclesiastici [die Väter], ut significet non partem aut qualitatem in alio, sed quod proprie subsistit. The churches, with common consent among us, do teach that the decree of the Nicene Synod concerning the unity of the divine essence and of the three persons is true, and without doubt to be believed: to wit, that there is one divine essence which is called and is God, eternal, without body, indivisible [without part], of infinite power, wisdom, goodness, the Creator and Preserver of all things, visible and invisible; and that yet there are three persons of the same essence and power, who also are co-eternal, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. And they use the name of person in that signification in which the ecclesiastical writers [the fathers] have used it in this cause, to signify, not a part or quality in another, but that which properly subsists.
Damnant omnes hæreses, contra hunc articulum exortas, ut Manichæos, qui duo principia ponebant, Bonum et Malum, item Valentinianos, Arianos, Eunomianos, Mahometistas et omnes horum similes. Damnant et Samosatenos, veteres et neotericos,44The Antitrinitarian Anabaptists, Denk, Hetzer, etc., but not Servede and the Socinians, who appeared after 1530. See Zöckler, Die Augsb. Conf. p. 137. qui, cum tantum unam personam esse contendant de Verbo et de Spiritu Sancto astute et impie rhetoricantur, quod non sint personæ distinctæ, sed quod Verbum significet verbum vocale, et Spiritus motum in rebus creatum [geschaffene Regung in Creaturen]. They condemn all heresies which have sprung up against this Article, as the Manichees, who set down two principles, good and evil; in the same manner the Valentinians, Arians, Eunomians, Mohammedans, and all such like. They condemn also the Samosatenes, old and new;55The Antitrinitarian Anabaptists, Denk, Hetzer, etc., but not Servede and the Socinians, who appeared after 1530. See Zöckler, Die Augsb. Conf. p. 137. who, when they earnestly contend that there is but one person, do craftily and wickedly trifle, after the manner of rhetoricians, about the Word and Holy Ghost, that they are not distinct persons, but that the Word signifieth a vocal word, and the Spirit a motion created in things.
Art. II.De Peccato Originis. Art. II.Of Original Sin.
Item docent, quod post lapsum Adæ omnes homines, secundum naturam propagati, nascantur cum peccato, hoc est, sine metu Dei, sine fiducia erga Deum, et cum concupiscentia; quodque hic morbus, seu vitium originis vere sit peccatum, damnans et afferens nunc quoque æternam mortem his, qui non renascuntur per Baptismum et Spiritum Sanctum.66Much enlarged in the edition of 1540. Also they teach that, after Adam's fall, all men begotten after the common course of nature are born with sin; that is, without the fear of God, without trust in him, and with fleshly appetite; and that this disease, or original fault, is truly sin, condemning and bringing eternal death now also upon all that are not born again by baptism and the Holy Spirit.
Damnant Pelagianos et alios, qui vitium originis negant esse peccatum, et, ut extenuent gloriam meriti et beneficiorum Christi, They condemn the Pelagians, and others, who deny this original fault to be sin indeed; and who, so as to lessen the glory of the merits and
disputant hominem propriis viribus rationis coram Deo justificari posse.77The edition of 1540 changes this sentence as follows: Damnant Pelagianos, qui negant peccatum originis, et sentiunt defectus illos seu concupiscentiam esse res indifferentes seu pœnas tantum, nec esse res sua natura domnatas, et somniant hominem legi Dei satisfacere posse, et propter hanc propriam obedientiam coram Deo justum pronunciari. benefits of Christ, argue that a man may, by the strength of his own reason, be justified before God.
Art. III.De Filio Dei. Art. III.Of the Son of God.
Item docent, quod Verbum, hoc est, Filius Dei, assumpserit humanam naturam in utero beatæ Mariæ virginis, ut sint duæ naturæ, divina et humana, in unitate personæ inseparabiliter conjunctæ, unus Christus, vere Deus et vere homo, natus ex virgine Maria, vere passus, crucifixus, mortuus et sepultus, ut reconciliaret nobis Patrem, et hostia esset non tantum pro culpa originis, sed etiam pro omnibus actualibus hominum peccatis. Also they teach that the Word, that is, the Son of God, took unto him man's nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin Mary, so that there are two natures, the divine and the human, inseparably joined together in unity of person; one Christ, true God and true man: who was born of the Virgin Mary, truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, that he might reconcile the Father unto us, and might be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but also for all actual sins of men.
Idem descendit ad inferos, et vere resurrexit tertia die, deinde ascendit ad cœlos, ut sedeat ad dexteram Patris, et perpetuo regnet et dominetur omnibus creaturis, sanctificet credentes in ipsum, misso in corda eorum Spiritu Sancto, qui regat [heilige, reinige, stärke], consoletur ac vivificet eos, a defendat adversus diabolum et vim peccati. The same also descended into hell, and truly rose again the third day. Afterward he ascended into the heavens, that he might sit at the right hand of the Father; and reign forever, and have dominion over all creatures; might sanctify those that believe in him, by sending the Holy Spirit into their hearts, who shall rule [sanctify, purify, strengthen], comfort, and quicken them, and shall defend them against the devil, and the power of sin.
Idem Christus palam est rediturus, The same Christ shall openly
ut judicet vivos et mortuos, etc., juxta Symbolum Apostolorum. come again, to judge the quick and the dead, according as he Apostles' Creed declareth these and other things.
Art. IV.De Justificatione. Art. IV.Of Justification.
Item docent, quod homines non possint justificari [Vergebung der sünde und Gerechtigkeit erlangen] coram Deo propriis viribus, meritis aut operibus, sed gratis [aus Gnaden] justificentur propter Christum per fidem, cum credunt se in gratiam recipi, et peccata remitti propter Christum, qui sua morte pro nostris peccatis satisfecit. Hanc fidem imputat Deus pro justicia coram ipso. Rom. III. et IV.88Much enlarged in the edition of 1540. Also they teach that men can not be justified [obtain forgiveness of sins and righteousness] before God by their own powers, merits, or works; but are justified freely [of grace] for Christ's sake through faith, when they believe that they are received into favor, and their sins forgiven for Christ's sake, who by his death hath satisfied for our sins. This faith doth God impute for righteousness before him. Rom. iii. and iv.
Art. V.De Ministerio Ecclesiastico. Art. V.Of the Ministry of the Church.
Ut hanc fidem consequamur, institutum st ministerium docendi Evangelii et porrigendi Sacramenta. For the obtaining of this faith, the ministry of teaching the Gospel and administering the Sacraments was instituted.
Nam per verbum et Sacramenta, tanquam per instrumenta, donatur Spiritus Sanctus, qui fidem efficit, ubi et quando visum est Deo, in iis, qui audiunt Evangelium, scilicet, quod Deus non propter nostra merita, sed propter Christum justificet hos, qui credunt, se propter Christum in gratiam recipi. For by the Word and Sacraments, as by instruments, the Holy Spirit is given: who worketh faith, where and when it pleaseth God, in those that hear the Gospel, to wit, that God, not for our merit's sake, but for Christ's sake, doth justify those who believe that they for Christ's sake are received into favor.
Damnant Anabaptistas et alios, They condemn the Anabaptists
qui sentient, Spiritum Sanctum contingere sine verbo externo hominibus per ipsorum preparationes et opera.99This Article is also much enlarged in the edition of 1540. and others,1010The Roman theologians, who teach that men receive the Holy Ghost through the Sacraments ex opere operato. Apol., German text, p. 71, Rechenb. edition. who imagine that the Holy Spirit is given to men without the outward word, through their own preparations and works.
Art. VI.De Nova Obedientia. Art. VI.Of New Obedience.
Item docent, quod fides illa debeat bonos fructus parere, et quod oporteat bona opera, mandata a Deo, facere, propter voluntatem Dei, non ut confidamus, per ea opera justificationem coram Deo mereri. Also they teach that this faith should bring forth good fruits, and that men ought to do the good works commanded of God, because it is God's will, and not on any confidence of meriting justification before God by their works.
Nam remissio peccatorum et justificatio fide apprehenditur, sicut testatur et vox Christi (Luc. xvii. 10): Cum feceritis hæc omnia, dicite, servi inutiles sumus. For remission of sins and justification is apprehended by faith, as also the voice of Christ witnesseth: 'When ye have done all these things, say, We are unprofitable servants.'
Idem docent et veteres Scriptores Ecclesiastici. Ambrosius enim inquit: Hoc constitutum est a Deo, ut qui credit in Christum, salvus sit, sine opere, sola fide, gratis accipiens remissionem peccatorum. The same also do the ancient writers of the Church teach; for Ambrose saith: 'This is ordained of God, that he that believeth in Christ shall be saved, without works, by faith alone, freely receiving remission of sins.'
Art. VII.De Ecclesia. Art. VII.Of the Church.
Item docent, quod una Sancta Ecclesia pepetuo mansura sit. Est autem Ecclesia congregatio Sanctorum [Versammlung aller Gläubigen],1111Edition of 1540: Congregatio membrorum Christi, hoc est, Sanctorum, qui vere credunt et obediunt Christo; etsi in hac vita huic congregationi multi mali et hypocritæ admixti sunt usque ad novissimum judicium. in qua Evangelium Also they teach that one holy Church is to continue forever. But the Church is the congregation of saints [the assembly of all believers], in which the Gospel is
recte [rein] docetur, et recte [laut des Evangelii] administrantur Sacramenta. Rightly taught [purely preached] and the Sacraments rightly administered [according to the Gospel].
Et ad veram unitatem Ecclesiæ satis est consentire de doctrina Evangelii et administratione Sacramentorum. Nec necesse est ubique esse similes traditiones humanas, seu ritus aut ceremonias, ab hominibus institutas. Sicut inquit Paulus (Eph. iv. 5, 6): Una fides, unum Baptisma, unus Deus et Pater omnium, etc. And unto the true unity of the Church, it is sufficient to agree concerning the doctrine of the Gospel and the administration of the Sacraments. Nor is it necessary that human traditions, rites, or ceremonies instituted by men should be alike every where, as St. Paul saith: 'There is one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all.'
Art. VIII.Quid sit Ecclesia. Art. VIII.What the Church is.
Quanquam Ecclesia proprie sit congregatio Sanctorum et vere credentium: tamen, cum in hac vita multi hypocritæ et mali admixti sint, licet uti Sacramentis, quæ per malos administrantur, juxta vocem Christi (Matt. xxiii. 2): Sedent Scribæ et Pharisæi in cathedra Mosi, etc. Et Sacramenta et verbum propter ordinationem et mandatum Christi sunt efficacia, etiamsi per malos exhibeantur. Though the Church be properly the congregation of saints and true believers, yet seeing that in this life many hypocrites and evil persons are mingled with it, it is lawful to use the Sacraments administered by evil men, according to the voice of Christ (Matt. xxiii. 2): 'The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat,' and the words following. And the Sacraments and the Word are effectual, by reason of the institution and commandment of Christ, though they be delivered by evil men.
Damnant Donatistas et similes,1212The Wiclefites (Donatistas et Viglevistas). Apol. p. 150, Rechenb. edition. qui negabant licere uti ministerio malorum in Ecclesia, et They condemn the Donatists and such like, who denied that it was lawful to use the ministry of evil
sentiebant ministerium malorum inutile et inefficax esse. men in the Church, and held that the ministry of evil men is useless and without effect.
Art. IX.De Baptismo. Art. IX.Of Baptism.
De Baptismo docent, quod sit necessarius ad salutem, quodque per Baptismum offeratur gratia Dei; et quod pueri1313Edition of 1540: 'Infantes.' sint baptizandi, qui per Baptismum oblati Deo recipiantur in gratiam Dei. Of Baptism they teach that it is necessary to salvation, and that by Baptism the grace of God is offered, and that children are to be baptized, who by Baptism, being offered to God, are received into God's favor.
Damnant Anabaptistas, qui improbant Baptismum puerorum et affirmant pueros sine Baptismo1414The edition of 1540 adds after Baptismo: 'et extra Ecclesiam Christi.' salvos fieri. They condemn the Anabaptists who allow not the Baptism of children, and affirm that children are saved without Baptism.
Art. X.De Cœna Domini. Art. X.Of the Lord's Supper.
De Cœna Domini docent, quod corpus et sanguis [wahrer Leib und Blut] Christi vere adsint [unter Gestalt des Brotes und Weines], et distribuantur vescentibus [da ausgetheilt und genommen wird] in Cœna Domini; et improbant secus docentes [Derhalben wird auch die Gegenlehr verworfen].1515In the edition of 1540 the tenth article reads thus: 'De cœna Domini docent quod cum pane et vino vere exhibeantur corpus et sanguis Christi vescentibus in Cœna Domini.' The disapproval of other views is omitted. This is by far the most important departure from the original edition, and has caused much controversy. See Vol. I. p. 241. Of the Supper of the Lord they teach that the [true] body and blood of Christ are truly present [under the form of bread and wine], and are [there] communicated to those that eat in the Lord's Supper [and receive]. And they disapprove of those that teach otherwise [wherefore also the opposite doctrine is rejected].
Art. XI.De Confessione. Art. XI.Of Confession.
De Confessione docent, quod absolutio privata in Ecclesiis retinenda Concerning confession, they teach that private absolution be retained
sit, quanquam in confessione non sit necessaria omnium delictorum enumeratio Est enim impossibilis juxta Psalmum (xix. 12): Delicta quis intelligit? in the churches, though enumeration of all offenses be not necessary in confession. For it is impossible; according to the Psalm: 'Who can understand his errors?"
Art. XII.De Pœnitentia. Art. XII.Of Repentance.
De pœnitentia docent, quod lapsis post Baptismum contingere posit remissio peccatorum, quocunque tempore cum convertuntur [zu aller Zeit, so sie zur Busse kommen]; et quod Ecclesia talibus redeuntibus ad pœnitentia absolutionem impartiri debeat. Touching repentance, they teach that such as have fallen after baptism may find remission of sins, at what time they are converted [whenever they come to repentance], and that the Church should give absolution unto such as return to repentance.
Constat autem pœnitentia proprie his duabus partibus: Altera est contricio seu terrores incussi conscientæ agnito peccato. Altera est fides, quæ concipitur ex Evangelio seu absolutione, et credit propter Christum remitti peccata, et consolatur conscientiam, et ex terroribus liberat. Deinde sequi debent bona opera, quæ sunt fructus pœnitentiæ. Now repentance consisteth properly of these two parts: One is contrition, or terrors stricken into the conscience through the acknowledgment of sin; the other is faith, which is conceived by the Gospel, or absolution, and doth believe that for Christ's sake sins be forgiven, and comforteth the conscience, and freeth it from terrors. Then should follow good works, which are fruits of repentance.
Damnant Anabaptistas, qui negant semel justificatos posse amittere Spiritum Sanctum. Item, qui contendunt quibusdam tantam perfectionem in hac vita contingere, ut peccare non possint [dass diejenigen so einst sind fromm worden, nicht They condemn the Anabaptists, who deny that men once justified can lose the Spirit of God, and do contend that some men may attain to such a perfection in this life that they can not sin. [Here are rejected those who teach that those who have once been holy can not
wieder fallen mögen]. Damnantur et Novatiani, qui nolebant absolvere lapsos post Baptismum redeuntes ad pœnitentiam. Rejiciuntur et isti, qui non docent remissionem peccatorum per fidem contingere, sed jubent nos mereri gratiam per satisfactiones nostras. fall again.] The Novatians are also condemned, who would not absolve such as had fallen after baptism, though they returned to repentance. They also that do not teach that remission of sins is obtained by faith, and who command us to merit grace by satisfactions, are rejected.
Art. XIII.De Usu Sacramentorum. Art. XIII.Of the Use of Sacraments.
De usu Sacramentorum docent, quod Sacramenta instituta sint, non modo ut sint notæ professionis inter homines, sed magis ut sint signa et testimonia voluntatis Dei erga nos, ad excitandam et confirmandam fidem in his, qui utuntur, proposita. Itaque utendum est Sacramentis ita, ut fides accedat, quæ per Sacramenta exhibentur et ostenduntur. Concerning the use of the Sacraments, they teach that they were ordained, not only to be marks of profession among men, but rather that they should be signs and testimonies of the will of God towards us, set forth unto us to stir up and confirm faith in such as use them. Therefore men must use Sacraments so as to join faith with them, which believes the promises that are offered and declared unto us by the Sacraments.
Damnant igitur illos, qui docent, quod Sacramenta ex opere operato justificent, nec docent fidem requiri in usu Sacramentorum, quæ credat remitti peccata. Wherefore they condemn those that teach that the Sacraments do justify by the work done, and do not teach that faith which believes the remission of sins is requisite in the use of Sacraments.
Art. XIV.De Ordine Ecclesiastico. Art. XIV.Of Ecclesiastical Orders.
De ordine Ecclesiastico [Kirchen-Regiment] docent, quod nemo debeat in Ecclesia publice docere, Concerning Ecclesiastical Orders [Church Government], they teach that no man should publicly
aut Sacramenta administrare, nisi rite vocatus [ohne ordentlichen Beruf]. in the Church teach, or administer the Sacraments, except he be rightly called [without a regular call].
Art. XV.De Ritibus Ecclesiasticis. Art. XV.Of Ecclesiastical Rites.
De ritibus Ecclesiasticis [von Menschen gemacht] docent, quod ritus illi servandi sint, qui sine peccato servari possunt, et prosunt ad tranquillitatem et bonum ordinem in Ecclesia, sicut certæ feriæ, festa et similia. De talibus rebus tamen admonentur homines, ne conscientiæ onerentur, tanquam talis cultus ad salutem necessarius sit. Concerning Ecclesiastical rites [made by men], they teach that those rites are to be observed which may be observed without sin, and are profitable for tranquility and good order in the Church; such as are set holidays, feasts, and such like. Yet concerning such things, men are to be admonished that consciences are not to be burdened as if such service were necessary to salvation.
Admonentur etiam, quod traditiones humanæ institutæ ad placandum Deum, ad promerendam gratiam et satisfaciendum pro peccatis, adversentur Evangelio et doctrinæ fidei. Quare vota et traditiones de cibis et diebus, etc., institutæ ad promerendam gratiam, et satisfaciendum pro peccatis inutiles sint et contra Evangelium. They are also to be admonished that human traditions, instituted to propitiate God, to merit grace, and make satisfaction for sins, are opposed to the Gospel and the doctrine of faith. Wherefore vows and traditions concerning foods and days, and such like, instituted to merit grace and make satisfaction for sins, are useless and contrary to the Gospel.
Art. XVI.De Rebus Civilibus. Art. XVI.Of Civil Affairs.
De rebus civilibus docent, quod legitimæ ordinationes civiles sint bona opera Dei, quod Christianis liceat gerere Magistratus, exercere judicia, judicare res ex Imperatoriis et aliis præsentibus legibus supplicia jure constituere, Concerning civil affairs, they teach that such civil ordinances as are lawful are good works of God; that Christians may lawfully bear civil office, sit in judgments, determine matters by the imperial laws, and other laws in present force,
jure bellare, militare, lege contrahere, tenere proprium, jusjurandum postulantibus magistratibus dare, ducere uxorem, nubere. Damnant Anabaptistas, qui interdicunt hæc civilia officia Christianis. Damnant et illos, qui Evangelicam perfectionem non collocant in timore Dei et fide, sed in deserendis civilibus officiis, quia Evangelium tradit justiciam æternam cordis. Interim non dissipat Politiam aut Œconomiam, sed maxime postulat conservare tanquam ordinationes Dei, et in talibus ordinationibus exercere caritatem. Itaque necessario debent Christiani obedire magistratibus suis et legibus; nisi cum jubent peccare, tunc etiam magis debent obedire Deo quam hominibus (Acts v. 29). appoint just punishments, engage in just war, act as soldiers, make legal bargains and contracts, hold property, take an oath when the magistrates require it, marry a wife, or be given in marriage. They condemn the Anabaptists who forbid Christians these civil offices. They condemn also those that place the perfection of the Gospel, not in the fear of God and in faith, but in forsaking civil offices, inasmuch as the Gospel teacheth an everlasting righteousness of the heart. In the mean time, it doth not disallow order and government of commonwealths or families, but requireth especially the preservation and maintenance thereof, as of God's own ordinances, and that in such ordinances we should exercise love. Christians, therefore, must necessarily obey their magistrates and laws, save only when they command any sin; for then they must rather obey God than men (Acts v. 29).
Art. XVII.De Christi Reditu ad Judicium. Art. XVII.Of Christ's Return to Judgment.
Item docent, quod Christus apparebit in consummatione mundi [am jüngsten Tag] ad judicandum, e mortuos omnes resuscitabit, piis et electis dabit vitam æternam et perpetua gaudia, impios autem homines ac Also they teach that, in the consummation of the world [at the last day], Christ shall appear to judge, and shall raise up all the dead, and shall give unto the godly and elect eternal life and everlasting joys; but ungodly men and the devils
diabolos condemnabit, ut sine fine crucientur. shall he condemn unto endless torments.
Damnant Anabaptistas, qui sentiunt hominibus damnatis ac diabolis finem pænarum futurum esse. Damnant et alios, qui nunc spargunt Judaicas opiniones, quod ante resurrectionem mortuorum pii regnum mundi occupaturi sint, ubique oppressis impiis [eitel Heilige, Fromme ein weltlich Reich haben, und alle Gottlosen vertilgen werden]. They condemn the Anabaptists who think that to condemned men and the devils shall be an end of torments. They condemn others also, who now scatter Jewish opinions, that, before the resurrection of the dead, the godly shall occupy the kingdom of the world, the wicked being every where suppressed [the saints alone, the pious, shall have a worldly kingdom, and shall exterminate all the godless].
Art. XVIII.De Libero Arbitrio. Art. XVIII.Of Free Will.
De libero arbitrio docent, quod humana voluntas habeat aliquam libertatem ad efficiendam civilem justiciam et deligendas res rationi subjectas. Sed non habet vim sine Spiritu Sancto efficiendæ justiciæ Dei seu justiciæ spiritualis, quia animalis homo non percipit ea, quæ sunt Spiritus Dei (1 Cor. ii. 14); sed hæc fit in cordibus, cum per verbum Spiritus Sanctus concipitur. Concerning free will, they teach that man's will hath some liberty to work a civil righteousness, and to choose such things as reason can reach unto; but that it hath no power to work the righteousness of God, or a spiritual righteousness, without the Spirit of God; because that the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God (1 Cor. ii. 14). But this is wrought in the heart when men do receive the Spirit of God through the Word.
Hæc totidem verbis dicit Augustinus lib. III. Hypognosticon: Esse fatemur liberum arbitrium omnibus hominibus, habens quidem judicium rationis, non per quod sit idoneum in iis, quæ ad Deum pertinent, sine Deo aut inchoare These things are in as many words affirmed by St. Augustine, Hypognosticon, lib. iii.: 'We confess that there is in all men a free will, which hath indeed the judgment of reason; not that it is thereby fitted, without God, either to
aut certe peragere: sed tantum in operibus vitæ præsentis tam bonis, quam etiam malis. Bonis dico, quæ de bono naturæ oriuntur, i.e., velle laborare in agro, velle manducare et bibere, velle habere amicum, velle habere indumenta, velle fabricare domum, uxorem velle ducere, pecora nutrire, artem discere diversarum rerum bonarum, vel quicquid bonum ad præsentem pertinet vitam. Quæ omnia non sine divino gubernaculo subsistunt, imo ex ipso et per ipsum sunt et esse cœperunt. Malis vero dico, ut est, velle idolum colere, velle homicidium, etc. begin or to perform any thing in matters pertaining to God, but only in works belonging to this present life, whether they be good or evil. By good works, I mean those which are of the goodness of nature; as to will to labor in the field, to desire meat or drink, to desire to have a friend, to desire apparel, to desire to build a house, to marry a wife, to nourish cattle, to learn the art of divers good things, to desire any good thing pertaining to this present life; all which are not without God's government, yea, they are, and had their beginning from God and by God. Among evil things, I account such as these: to will to worship an image; to will manslaughter, and such like.'
Damnant Pelagianos et alios, qui docent, quod sine Spiritu Sancto, solis naturæ viribus possimus Deum super omnia diligere; item præcepta Dei facere, quoad substantiam actuum. Quanquam enim externa opera aliquo modo efficere natura possit, potest enim continere manus a furto, a cede: tamen interiores motus non potest efficere, ut timorem Dei, fiduciam erga Deum, castitatem, patientiam, etc.1616The wording of this article is considerably changed in the edition of 1540. They condemn the Pelagians and others, who teach that by the powers of nature alone, without the Spirit of God, we are able to love God above all things; also to perform the commandments of God, as touching the substance of our actions. For although nature be able in some sort to do the external works (for it is able to withhold the hands from theft and murder), yet it can not work the inward motions, such as the fear of God, trust in God, chastity, patience, and such like.
Art. XIX.De Causa Peccati. Art. XIX.Of the Cause of Sin.
De causa peccati docent, quod tametsi Deus creat et conservat naturam, tamen causa peccati est voluntas malorum, videlicet diaboli et impiorum, quæ non adjuvante Deo avertit se a Deo, sicut Christus ait (John viii. 44): Cum loquitur mendacium, ex se ipso loquitur. Touching the cause of sin, they teach that, although God doth create and preserve nature, yet the cause of sin is the will of the wicked; to wit, of the devil and ungodly men; which will, God not aiding, turneth itself from God, as Christ saith: 'When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own' (John viii. 44).
Art. XX.De Bonis Operibus.1717This article is enlarged to more than double its original size in the altered edition of 1540. Art. XX.Of Good Works.
Falso accusantur nostri, quod bona opera prohibeant. Nam scripta eorum, quæ extant de decem præceptis, et alia simili argumento testantur, quod utiliter docuerint de omnibus vitæ generibus et officiis, quæ genera vitæ, quæ opera in qualibet vocatione Deo placeant. De quibus rebus olim parum docebant Concionatores, tantum puerilia et non necessaria opera urgebant, ut certas ferias, certa jejunia, fraternitates, peregrinationes, cultus Sanctorum, rosaria, monachatum et similia. Hæc adversarii nostri admoniti nunc dediscunt, nec perinde prædicant hæc inutilia opera, ut olim. Preterea incipient fidei mentionem facere, de qua olim mirum erat silentium. Docent nos non tantum operibus justificari, sed conjungunt fidem Ours are falsely accused of forbidding good works. For their writing extant upon the Ten Commandments, and others of the like argument, do bear witness that they have to good purpose taught concerning every kind of life, and its duties; what kinds of life, and what works in every calling, do please God. Of which things preachers in former times taught little or nothing: only they urged certain childish and needless works; as, keeping of holidays, set fasts; fraternities, pilgrimages, worshiping of saints, the use of rosaries, monkery, and such like things. Whereof our adversaries having had warning, they do now unlearn them, and do not preach concerning these unprofitable works, as they were wont. Besides, they begin now to make mention of faith, concerning which
et opera, et dicunt, nos fide et operibus justificari. Quæ doctrina tolerabilior est priore, et plus afferre potest consolationis, quam vetus ipsorum doctrina. there was formerly a deep silence. They teach that we are not justified by works alone; but they conjoin faith and works, and say we are justified by faith and works. Which doctrine is more tolerable than the former one, and can afford more consolation than their old doctrine.
Cum igitur doctrina de fide, quam oportet in Ecclesia præcipuam esse, tam diu jacuerit ignota, quemadmodum fateri omnes necesse est, de fidei justitia altissimum silentium fuisse in concionibus, tantum doctrinam operum versatam esse in ecclesiis, nostri de fide sic admonuerunt ecclesias: Whereas, therefore, the doctrine of faith, which should be the chief one in the Church, hath been so long unknown, as all men must needs grant, that there was the deepest silence about the righteousness of faith in their sermons, and that the doctrine of works was usual in the churches; for this cause our divines did thus admonish the churches:
Principio, quod opera nostra non possint reconciliare Deum, aut mereri remissionem peccatorum et gratiam et justificationem, sed hanc tantum fide consequimur, credentes, quod propter Christum recipiamur in gratiam, qui solus positus est Mediator et Propitiatorium (1 Tim. ii. 5), per quem reconcilietur Pater. Itaque qui confidit, operibus se mereri gratiam, is aspernatur Christi meritum et gratiam, et querit sine Christo humanis viribus viam ad Deum, cum Christus de se dixerit (John xiv. 6): Ego sum via, veritas et vita. First, that our works can not reconcile God, or deserve remission of sins, grace, and justification at his hands, but that these we obtain by faith only, when we believe that we are received into favor for Christ's sake, who alone is appointed the Mediator and Propitiatory, by whom the Father is reconciled. He, therefore, that trusteth by his works to merit grace, doth despise the merit and grace of Christ, and seeketh by his own power, without Christ, to come unto the Father; whereas Christ hath said expressly of himself, 'I am the way, the truth, and the life' (John xiv. 6).
Hæc doctrina de fide ubique in Paulo tractatur (Eph. ii. 8): Gratia salvi facti estis per fidem, et hoc non ex vobis, Dei donum est, non ex operibus, etc. Et ne quis cavilletur, a nobis novam Pauli interpretationem excogitari, tota hæc causa habet testimonia Patrum. Nam Augustinus multis voluminibus defendit gratiam et justitiam fidei contra merita operum. Et similia docet Ambrosius de vocatione gentium, et alibi. Sic enim inquit de vocatione gentium: Vilesceret redemptio sanguinis Christi, nec misericordiæ Dei humanorum operum prærogativa succumberet, si justificatio, quæ fit per gratiam, meritis præcedentibus deberetur, ut non munus largientis, sed merces esset operantis. This doctrine of faith is handled by Paul almost every where: 'By grace ye are saved through faith, and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God, not of works' (Eph. ii. 8, 9). And lest any here should cavil, that we bring in a new-found interpretation, this whole cause is sustained by testimonies of the Fathers. Augustine doth in many volumes defend grace, and the righteousness of faith, against the merit of works. The like doth Ambrose teach in his book, De Vocatione Gentium, and elsewhere; for thus he saith of the calling of the Gentiles: 'The redemption made by the blood of Christ would be of small account, and the prerogative of man's works would not give place to the mercy of God, if the justification which is by grace were due to merits going before; so as it should not be the liberality of the giver, but the wages or hire of the laborer.'
Quanquam autem hæc doctrina contemnitur ab imperitis, tamen experiuntur piæ ac pavidæ conscientiæ, plurimum eam consolationis afferre, quia conscientiæ non possunt reddi tranquillæ per ulla opera, sed tantum fide, cum certo statuunt, quod propter Christum habeant placatum Deum; quemadmodum Paulus docet This doctrine, though it be contemned of the unskillful, yet godly and fearful consciences find by experience that it bringeth very great comfort: because that consciences can not be quieted by any works, but by faith alone, when they believe assuredly that they have a God who is propitiated for Christ's sake; as St. Paul teacheth, 'Being justified
(Rom. v. 1): Justificati per fidem, pacem habemus apud Deum. Tota hæc doctrina ad illud certamen perterrefactæ conscientiæ referenda est, nec sine illo certamine intelligi potest. Quare male judicant de ea re homines imperiti et prophani, qui Christianam justitiam nihil esse somniant, nisi civilem et philosophicam justitiam. by faith, we have peace with God' (Rom. v. 1). This doctrine doth wholly belong to the conflict of a troubled conscience; and can not be understood, but where the conscience hath felt that conflict. Wherefore, all such as have had no experience thereof, and all that are profane men, who dream that Christian righteousness is naught else but a civil and philosophical righteousness, are poor judges of this matter.
Olim vexabantur conscientiæ doctrina operum, non audiebant ex Evangelio consolationem. Quosdam conscientia expulit in desertum, in monasteria, sperantes ibi se gratiam merituros esse per vitam monasticam. Alii alia excogitaverunt opera ad promerendam gratiam et satisfaciendum pro peccatis. Ideo magnopere fuit opus, hanc doctrinam de fide in Christum tradere et renovare, ne deesset consolatio pavidis conscientiis, sed scirent fide in Christum apprehendi gratiam et remissionem peccatorum et justificationem. Formerly men's consciences were vexed with the doctrine of works; they did not hear any comfort out of the Gospel. Whereupon conscience drove some into the desert, into monasteries, hoping there to merit grace by a monastical life. Others devised other works, whereby to merit grace, and to satisfy for sin. There was very great need, therefore, to teach and renew this doctrine of faith in Christ; to the end that fearful consciences might not want comfort, but might know that grace, and forgiveness of sins, and justification, are received by faith in Christ.
Admonentur etiam homines, quod hic nomen fidei non significet tantum historiæ notitiam, quails est in impiis et diabolo, sed significet fidem, quæ credit non tantum historiam, ed etiam Another thing, which we teach men, is that in this place the name of Faith doth not only signify a knowledge of the history, which may be in the wicked, and in the devil, but that is signifieth a faith
effectum historiæ, videlicet hunc articulum, remissionem peccatorum, quod videlicet per Christum habeamus gratiam, justitiam et remissionem peccatorum. Jam qui scit, se per Christum habere propitium Patrem, is vere novit Deum, scit, se ei curæ esse, invocat eum; denique non est sine Deo, sicut gentes. Nam diaboli et impii non possunt hunc articulum credere, remissionem peccatorum. Ideo Deum tanquam hostem oderunt, non invocant eum, nihil boni ab eo expectant. Augustinus etiam de fidei nomine hoc modo admonet lectorem et docet, in Scripturis nomen fidei accipi, non pro notitia, qualis est in impiis, sed pro fiducia, quæ consolatur et erigit perterrefactas mentes. Which believeth, not only the history, but also the effect of the history; to wit, the article of remission of sins; namely, that by Christ we have grace, righteousness, and remission of sins. Now he that knoweth that he hath the Father merciful to him through Christ, this man knoweth God truly; he knoweth that God hath a care of him; he loveth God, and calleth upon him; in a word, he is not without God, as the Gentiles are. For the devils and the wicked can never believe this article of the remission of sins; and therefore they hate God as their enemy; they call not upon him, they look for no good thing at his hands. After this manner doth Augustine admonish the reader touching the name of Faith, and teacheth that this word Faith is taken in Scriptures, not for such a knowledge as is in the wicked, but for a trust, which doth comfort and lift up disquieted minds.
Præterea docent nostri, quod necesse sit bona opera facere, non ut confidamus per ea gratiam mereri, sed propter voluntatem Dei. Tantum fide apprehenditur remissio peccatorum ac gratia. Et quia per fidem accipitur Spiritus Sanctus, jam corda renovantur et induunt novos affectus, ut parere bona opera Moreover, ours teach that it is necessary to do good works; not that we may trust that we deserve grace by them, but because it is the will of God that we should do them. By faith alone is apprehended remission of sins and grace. And because the Holy Spirit is received by faith, our hearts are now renewed, and so put on new affections,
possint. Sic enim ait Ambrosius: Fides bonæ voluntatis et justæ actionis genitrix est. Nam humanæ vires, sine Spiritu Sancto, plenæ sunt impiis affectibus, et sunt imbecilliores, quam ut bona opera possint efficere coram Deo. Ad hæc, sunt in potestate diaboli, qui impellit homines ad varia peccata, ad impias opiniones, ad manifesta scelera. Quemadmodum est videre in philosophis, qui et ipsi conati honeste vivere, tamen id non potuerunt efficere, sed contaminati sunt multis manifestis sceleribus. Talis est imbecillitas hominis, cum est sine fide et sine Spiritu Sancto, et tantum humanis viribus se gubernat. so that they are able to bring forth good works. For thus saith Ambrose: 'Faith is the begetter of a good will and of good actions.' For man's powers, without the Holy Spirit, are full of wicked affections, and are too weak to perform any good deed before God. Besides, they are in the devil's power, who driveth men forward into divers sins, into profane opinions, and into heinous crimes; as was to be seen in the philosophers, who, assaying to live an honest life, could not attain unto it, but were defiled with many heinous crimes. Such is the weakness of man, when he is without faith and the Holy Spirit, and hath no other guide but the natural powers of man.
Hinc facile apparet, hanc doctrinam non esse accusandam, quod bona opera prohibeat, sed multo magis laudandam, quod ostendit, quomodo bona opera facere possimus. Nam sine fide nullo modo potest humana natura primi aut secundi præcepti opera facere. Sine fide non invocat Deum, a Deo nihil expectat, non tollerat crucem, sed querit humana præsidia, confidit humanis præsidiis. Ita regnant in corde omnes cupiditates et humana consilia, cum abest fides et fiducia erga Deum. Hereby every man may se that this doctrine is not to be accused, as forbidding good works; but rather is much to be commended, because it showeth after what sort we must do good works. For without faith the nature of man can by no means perform the works of the First or Second Table. Without faith, it can not call upon God, hope in God, bear the cross; but seeketh help from man, and trusteth in man's help. So it cometh to pass that all lusts and human counsels bear sway in the heart so long as faith and trust in God are absent.
Quare et Christus dixit: Sine me nihil potestis facere (John xv. 5). Et Ecclesia canit: Sine tuo numine nihil est in homine, nihil est innoxium. Wherefore, also, Christ saith, 'Without me ye can do nothing' (John xv. 5), and the Church singeth, 'Without thy power is naught in man, naught that is innocent.'
Art. XXI.De Cultu Sanctorum.1818Considerably enlarged in the edition of 1540. Art. XXI.Of the Worship of Saints.
De cultu Sanctorum docent, quod memoria Sanctorum proponi potest, ut imitemur fidem eorum et bona opera juxta vocationem; ut Cæsar imitari potest exemplum Davidis in bello gerendo ad depellendos Turcas a patria. Nam uterque Rex est. Sed Scriptura non docet invocare Sanctos, seu petere auxilium a Sanctis; quia unum Christum nobis proponit mediatorem, propitiatorium, pontificem et intercessorem. Hic invocandus est, et promisit, se exauditurum esse preces nostras, et hunc cultum maxime probat, videlicet, ut invocetur in omnibus afflictionibus (1 John ii. 1). Si quis peccat, habemus advocatum apud Deum, etc. Touching the worship of saints, they teach that the memory of saints may be set before us, that we may follow their faith and good works according to our calling; as the Emperor may follow David's example in making war to drive away the Turks from his country; for either of them is a king. But the Scripture teacheth not to invocate saints, or to ask help of saints, because it propoundeth unto us one Christ the Mediator, Propitiatory, High-Priest, and Intercessor. This Christ is to be invocated, and he hath promised that he will hear our prayers, and liketh this worship especially, to wit, that he be invocated in all afflictions. 'If any man sin, we have an advocate with God, Jesus Christ the righteous' (1 John ii. 1).
Art. XXII. Art. XXII.
Hæc fere summa est doctrinæ apud nos, in qua cerni potest, nihil inesse, quod discrepet a Scripturis, vel ab Ecclesia Catholica, This is about the sum of doctrine among us, in which can be seen that there is nothing which is discrepant with the Scriptures, or with the
vel ab Ecclesia Romana quatenus ex scriptoribus [aus der Väter Schrift] nota est. Quod cum ita sit, inclementer judicant isti qui nostros pro hæreticis haberi postulant. Sed dissensio est de quibusdam [Traditionen und] abusibus, qui sine certa autoritate in ecclesias irrepserunt, in quibus etiam, si qua esset dissimilitudo, tamen decebat hæc lenitas episcopos, ut propter Confessionem, quam modo recensuimus, tolerarent nostros, quia ne Canones quidem tam duri sunt, ut eosdem ritus ubique esse postulent, neque similes unquam omnium ecclesiarum ritus fuerunt. Quanquam apud nos magna ex parte veteres ritus diligenter servantur. Falsa enim calumnia est, quod omnes ceremoniæ, omnia vetera instituta in ecclesiis nostris aboleantur. Verum publica querela fuit, abusus quosdam in vulgaribus ritibus hærere. Hi, quia non poterant bona conscientia probari, aliqua ex parte correcti sunt.1919The first sentence of the conclusion of Part I. is much longer in the German text: 'Dies ist fast die Summa der Lehre, welche in unsern Kirchen zu rechtem christlichem Unterricht und Trost der Gewissen, auch zu Besserung der Gläubigen gepredigt und gelehret ist,' etc. The rest also differs considerably. Church Catholic, or even with the Roman Church, so far as that Church is known from writers [the writings of the Fathers]. This being the case, they judge us harshly who insist that we shall be regarded as heretics. But the dissension is concerning certain [traditions and] abuses, which without any certain authority have crept into the churches; in which things, even if there were some difference, yet would it be a becoming lenity on the part of the bishops that, on account of the Confession which we have now presented, they should bear with us, since not even the Canons are so severe as to demand the same rites every where, not were the rites of all churches at any time the same. Although among us in large part the ancient rites are diligently observed. For it is a calumnious falsehood, that all the ceremonies, all the things instituted of old, are abolished in our churches. But the public complaint was that certain abuses were connected with the rites in common use. These, because they could not with good conscience be approved, have to some extent been corrected.
Pars II. Part Second.
Cum ecclesiæ apud nos de nullo articulo fidei dissentiant ab Ecclesia Catholica [nicht gelehret wird zuwider der heiligen Schrift, oder gemeiner christlichen Kirchen], tantum paucos quosdam abusus omittant, qui novi sunt [etliche Missbräuche, welche zum Theil mit der Zeit selbst eingerissen, zum Theil mit Gewalt aufgericht] et contra voluntatem Canonum vitio temporum recepti, rogamus, ut Cæsarea Majestas clementer audiat, et quid sit mutatum, et quæ fuerint causæ, quo minus coactus sit populus illos abusus contra conscientiam observare. Inasmuch as the churches among us dissent in no article of faith from [the holy Scriptures, or] the Church Catholic [the Universal Christian Church], and only omit a few of certain abuses, which are novel [in part have crept in with time, in part have been introduced by violence], and, contrary to the purport of the Canons, have been received by the fault of the times, we beg that Your Imperial Majesty would clemently hear both what ought to be changed and what are the reasons that the people ought not to be forced against their consciences to observe those abuses.
Nec habeat fidem Cæsarea Majestas istis, qui, ut inflamment odia hominum adversus nostros, miras calumnias spargunt in populum. Hoc modo irritatis animis bonorum virorum initio præbuerunt occasionem huic dissidio, et eadem arte conantur nunc augere discordias. Nam Cæsarea Majestas haud dubie comperiet tolerabiliorem esse formam et doctrinæ et ceremoniarum apud nos, quam qualem homines iniqui et malevoli describunt. Nor should Your Imperial Majesty have faith in those who, that they may inflame the hatred of men against us, scatter amazing slanders among the people. In this way, the mind of good men being angered at the beginning, they gave occasion to this dissension, and by the same art they now endeavor to increase the discords. For beyond doubt your Imperial Majesty will find that the form, both of doctrines and of ceremonies, among us is far more tolerable than that
Porro veritas ex vulgi rumoribus aut maledictis inimicorum colligi non potest. Facile autem hoc judicari potest, nihil magis prodesse ad dignitatem ceremoniarum conservandam et alendam reverentiam ac peitatem in populo, quam si ceremoniæ rite fiant in ecclesiis. which these wicked and malicious men describe. The truth, moreover, can not be gathered from common rumors and the reproaches of enemies. But it is easy to judge this, that nothing is more profitable to preserve the dignity of ceremonies and to nurture reverence and piety among the people than that the ceremonies should be rightly performed in the churches.
Art. I.De Utraque Specie.2020In the edition of 1540 Melanchthon changed the order of the articles, and put the Art. De Missa first. Art. I.Of both Kinds [in the Lord's Supper].
Laicis datur utraque species Sacramenti in Cœna Domini, quia hic mos habet mandatum Domini (Matt. xxvi. 27): Bibite ex hoc omnes. Ubi manifeste præcepit Christus de poculo, ut omnes bibant; et ne quis possit cavillari, quod hoc ad sacerdotes tantum pertineat, Paulus ad Corinth. (1 Cor. xi. 26) exemplum recitat, in quo apparet, totam Ecclesiam utraque specie usam esse. Et diu mansit hic mos in Ecclesia, nec constat, quando aut quo autore mutatus sit; tametsi Cardinalis Cusanus recitet, quando sit approbatus.2121The German edition omits the reference to Cardinal Nicolas de Cusa (d. 1464), but adds the clause which follows. [Und dieser Brauch ist lange Zeit in der Kirchen blieben, wie man durch Both kinds of the Sacrament in the Lord's Supper are given to the laity, because that this custom hath the commandment of the Lord: 'Drink ye all of this' (Matt. xxvi. 27); where Christ doth manifestly command concerning the cup that all should drink. And that no man might cavil that this doth only pertain to the priests, the example of Paul to the Corinthians witnesseth that the whole Church did use both kinds in common (1 Cor. xi. 28). And this custom remained a long time in the Church; neither is it certain when or by what authority it was changed; although the Cardinal de Cusa relates when it was approved. [And this custom remained a long
die Historien und der Väter Schriften beweisen kann]. Cyprianus aliquot locis testatur, populo sanguinem datum esse. Idem testatur Hieronymus, qui ait, sacerdotes Eucharistiæ ministrant, et sanguinem Christi populis dividunt. Imo Gelasius Papa mandat, ne dividatur Sacramentum (Dist. II. De Consecratione. Cap. Comperimus). Tantum consuetudo non ita vetus aliud habet. Constat autem, quod consuetudo, contra mandata Dei introducta, non sit probanda, ut testantur Canones (Dist VIII. Cap. Veritate) cum sequentibus. Hæc vero consuetudo non solum contra Scripturam, sed etiam contra veteres Canones et exemplum Ecclesiæ recepta est. Quare si qui maluerunt utraque specie Sacramenti uti, non fuerunt cogendi, ut aliter facerent cum offensione conscientiæ. Et quia divisio Sacramenti non convenit cum institutione Christi, solet apud nos omitti processio, quæ hactenus fieri solita est. time in the churches, as may be proved from history and the writings of the Fathers.] Cyprian in certain places doth witness that the blood was given to the people; the same thing doth Jerome testify, saying, 'The priests do minister the Eucharist, and communicate the blood of Christ to the people.' Nay, Pope Gelasius commandeth that the Sacrament be not divided (Dist. II., De Consecr. Cap. Comperimus). Only a custom, not thus ancient, doth otherwise. But it is manifest that a custom, brought in contrary to the commandments of God, is not to be approved, as the Canons do witness (Dist. VIII., Cap. Veritate) with the words which follow. Now this custom has been received, not only against the Scripture, but also against the ancient Canons and the example of the Church. Therefore if any would rather use both kinds in the Sacrament, they are not to be compelled to do otherwise with the offense of their conscience. And because that the division of the Sacrament doth not agree with the institution of Christ, among us it is the custom to omit that procession which hitherto hath been in use.
Art. II.De Conjugio Sacerdotum. Art. II.Of the Marriage of Priests.
Publica querela fuit de exemplis Sacerdotum, qui non continebant. There was a common complaint of the examples of such priests as
Quam ob causam et Pius Papa dixisse fertur, fuisse aliquas causas, cur ademptum sit sacerdotibus conjugium, sed multo majores esse causas, cur reddi debeat; sic enim scribit Platina. Cum igitur sacerdotes apud nos publica illa scandala vitare vellent, duxerunt uxores, ac docuerunt, quod liceat ipsis contrahere matrimonium. Primum, quia Paulus dicit (1 Cor vii. 2): Unusquisque habeat uxorem suam propter fornicationem. Item (9): Melius est nubere, quam uri. Secundo, Christus inquit (Matt. xix. 12): Non omnes capiunt verbum hoc; ubi docet, non omnes homines ad cælibatum idoneos esse, quia Deus creavit hominem ad procreationem (Gen. i. 28). Nec est humanæ potestatis, sine singulari dono et opere Dei creationem mutare. Igitur qui non sunt idonei ad cælibatum, debent contrahere matrimonium. Nam mandatum Dei et ordinationem Dei nulla lex humana, nullum votum tollere potest. Ex his causis docent Sacerdotes, sibi licere uxores ducere. Constat etiam, in Ecclesia veteri Sacerdotes fuisse maritos. Nam et Paulus ait (1 Tim. iii. 2), Episcopum eligendum esse, qui sit maritus Et in Germania were not continent. For which cause Pope Pius is reported to have said, that 'there were certain causes for which marriage was forbidden to priests, but there were many weightier causes why it should be permitted again;' for so Platina writeth. Whereas, therefore, the priests among us seek to avoid these public offenses, they have married wives, and have taught that it is lawful for them to enter into marriage. First, because that Paul saith, 'To avoid fornication, let every man have his wife;' again, 'It is better to marry than to burn' (1 Cor vii. 2, 9). Secondly, Christ saith, 'All men can not receive this word' (Matt. xix. 11); where he showeth that all men are not fit for a single life, because that God created mankind male and female (Gen. i. 28). Nor is it in man's power, without a special gift and work of God, to alter his creation. Therefore such as are not meet for a single life ought to contract marriage. For no law of man, no vow, can take away the commandment of God and his ordinance. By these reasons the priest do prove that they may lawfully take wives. And it is well known that in the ancient churches priests were married. For Paul saith, 'That a bishop must be chosen which is a husband' (1 Tim. iii. 2).
primum ante annos quadringentos Sacerdotes vi coacti sunt ad cælibatum, qui quidem adeo adversati sunt, ut Archiepiscopus Moguntinus, publicaturus edictum Rom. Pontificis de ea re, pene ab iratis Sacerdotibus per tumultum oppressus sit. Et res gesta est tam inciviliter, ut non solum in posterum conjugia prohiberentur, sed etiam præsentia, contra omnia jura divina et humana, contra ipsos etiam Canones, factos non solum a Pontificibus, sed a laudatissimis Synodis, distraherentur. Et cum senescente mundo paulatim natura humana fiat imbecillior, convenit prospicere, ne plura vitia serpant in Germaniam. Porro Deus instituit conjugium, ut esset remedium humanæ infirmitatis. Ipsi Canones veterem rigorem interdum posterioribus temporibus propter imbecillitatem hominum laxandum esse dicunt, quod optandum est, ut fiat et in hoc negotio. Ac videntur ecclesiis aliquando defuturi pastores, si diutius prohibeatur conjugium. And in Germany, not until about four hundred years ago, were the priests by violence compelled to live a single life; who then were so wholly bent against the mater, that the Archbishop of Mentz, being about to publish the Pope of Rome's decree to that effect, was almost murdered in a tumult by the priests in their anger. And the matter was handled so rudely, that not only were marriages forbidden for the time to come, but also such as were then contracted were broken asunder, contrary to all laws divine and human, contrary to the Canons themselves, that were before made not only by Popes, but also by most famous Councils. And seeing that, as the world decayeth, man's nature by little and little waxeth weaker, it is well to look to it, that no more vices do overspread Germany. Furthermore, God ordained marriage to be a remedy for a man's infirmity. The Canons themselves do say that the old rigor is now and then in latter times to be released because of the weakness of men. Which it were to be wished might be done in this matter also. And if marriage be forbidden any longer, the churches may at length want pastors.
Cum autem extet mandatum Dei, cum mos Ecclesiæ notus Seeing, then, that there is a plain commandment of God; seeing the
sit, cum impurus cælibatus plurima pariat scandala, adulteria et alia scelera, digna animadversione boni magistratus: tamen mirum est, nulla in re majorem exerceri sævitiam, quam adversus conjugium Sacerdotum. Deus præcepit honore afficere conjugium. Leges in omnibus rebus publicis bene constitutis, etiam apud Ethnicos, maximis honoribus ornaverunt. At nunc capitalibus pænis excruciantur, et quidem Sacerdotes, contra Canonum voluntatem, nullam aliam ob causam, nisi propter conjugium. Paulus vocat doctrinam dæmoniorum, quæ prohibet conjugium (1 Tim. iv. 1, 3). Id facile nunc intelligi potest, cum talibus suppliciis prohibitio conjugii defenditur. use of the Church is well known; seeing that impure single life bringeth forth very many offenses, adulteries, and other enormities worthy to be punished by the godly magistrate, it is a marvel that greater cruelty should be showed in no other thing than against the marriage of priests. God had commanded to honor marriage; the laws in all well-ordered commonwealths, even among the heathen, have adorned marriage with very great honors. But now men are cruelly put to death, yea, and priests also, contrary to the mind of the Canons, for no other cause but marriage. Paul calleth that 'a doctrine of devils' which forbiddeth marriage (1 Tim. iv. 1, 3); which may now very well be seen, since the forbidding of marriage is maintained by such punishments.
Sicut autem nulla lex humana potest mandatum Dei tollere, ita nec votum potest tollere mandatum Dei. Proinde etiam Cyprianus suadet, ut mulieres nubant, quæ non servant promissam castitatem. Verba ejus sunt hæc, Lib. I., Epistola XI.: 'Si autem perseverare nolunt, aut non posunt, melius est, ut nubant, quam ut in ignem deliciis suis cadant; certe nullum fratribus aut sororibus But as no law of man can take away the law of God, no more can any vow whatsoever. Therefore Cyprian also giveth counsel, that those women should marry who do not keep their vowed chastity. His words are these, in the 1st Book, the 2d Epistle: 'If they will not or are not able to endure, it is far better they should marry than that they should fall into the fire by their importunate desires. In any wise let them give no offense to their
scandalum faciant? Et æquitate quadam utuntur ipsi Canones erga hos, qui ante justam ætatem voverunt, quomodo fere hactenus fieri consuevit. brethren or sisters.' Yea, even the Canons show some kind of justice towards such as before their ripe years did vow chastity, as hitherto the use hath for the most part been.
Art. III.De Missa.2222The word here denotes the public service with the holy communion. Missa (= missio, dismissal) is usually derived from the formula—missa or dismissa est ecclesia—by which in the ante-Nicene Church the catechumens were dismissed before the communion-service began, hence the division of the ancient service into two distinct parts, the missa catechumenorum and the missa fidelium. Art. III.—Of the Mass.2323The word here denotes the public service with the holy communion. Missa (= missio, dismissal) is usually derived from the formula—missa or dismissa est ecclesia—by which in the ante-Nicene Church the catechumens were dismissed before the communion-service began, hence the division of the ancient service into two distinct parts, the missa catechumenorum and the missa fidelium.
Falso accusantur Ecclesiæ nostræ, quod Missam aboleant; retinetur enim Missa, apud nos, et summa reverentia celebratur. Servantur et usitatæ ceremoniæ fere omnes, præterquam quod Latinis cantionibus [neben lateinischem Gesang] admiscentur alicubi Germanicæ, quæ additæ sunt ad docendum populum. Nam ad hoc unum opus est ceremoniis, ut doceant imperitos. Our churches are wrongfully accused to have abolished the Mass. For the Mass is retained still among us, and celebrated with great reverence; yea, and almost all the ceremonies that are in use, saving that with the things sung in Latin we mingle certain things sung in German at various parts of the service, which are added for the people's instruction. For therefore alone we have need of ceremonies, that they may teach the unlearned.
Et non modo Paulus præcipit (1 Cor. xiv. 9) uti lingua intellecta populo in ecclesia, sed etiam ita constitutum est humano jure. Assuevit populus, ut una utantur Sacramento, si qui sunt idonei, id quoque auget reverentiam ac religionem publicarum ceremoniarum. Nulli enim admittuntur, nisi antea explorati. Admonentur etiam homines de dignitate et usu Sacramenti, quantam consolationem This is not only commanded by St. Paul, to use a tongue that the people understand (1 Cor. xiv. 9), but man's law hath also appointed it. We accustom the people to receive the Sacrament together, if so be any be found fit thereunto; and that is a thing that doth increase the reverence and due estimation of the public ceremonies. For none are admitted, except they be first proved. Besides, we put men in
afferat pavidis conscientiis, ut discant Deo credere, et omnia bona a Deo expectare et petere. mind of the worthiness and use of the Sacrament, how great comfort it bringeth to timid consciences; that they may learn to believe God, and to look for and crave all good things at his hands.
Hic cultus delectat Deum, tails usus Sacramenti alit pietatem erga Deum. Itaque non videntur apud adversarios Missæ majore religione fieri, quam apud nos. This worship doth please God; such a use of the Sacrament doth nourish piety towards God. Therefore it seemeth not that Masses be more religiously celebrated among our adversaries than with us.
Constat autem hanc quoque publicam et longe maximum querelam omnium bonorum virorum diu fuisse, quod Missæ turpiter prophanarentur, cottatæ ad quæstum. Neque enim obscurum est, quam late pateat hic abusus in omnibus templis, a quælibus celebrentur Missæ, tantum propter mercedem aut stipendium, quam multi contra interdictum Canonum celebrent. Paulus autem graviter minatur his, qui indigne tractant Eucharistiam, cum ait (1 Cor. xi. 27): 'Qui ederit panem hunc, aut biberit calicem Domini indigne, reus erit corporis et sanguinis Domini.' Itaque cum apud nos admonerentur Sacerdotes de hoc peccato, desierunt apud nos privatæ Missæ, cum fere nullæ privatæ Missæ nisi quæstus causa fierent. Neque ignoraverunt hos But it is evident that of long time this hath been the public and most grievous complaint of all good men, that Masses are basely profaned, being used for gain. And it is not unknown how far this abuse hath spread itself in all churches; of what manner of men Masses are used, only for a reward, or for wages; and how many do use them against the prohibition of the Canons. But Paul doth grievously threaten those who treat the Lord's Supper unworthily, saying, 'He that eateth this bread or drinketh this cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord' (1 Cor. xi. 27). Therefore, when the priests among us were admonished of this sin, private Masses were laid aside among us, seeing that for the most part there were no private Masses but only for lucre's sake. Neither were
abusus episcopi, qui si correxissent eos in tempore, minus nunc esset dissensionum. Antea sua dissimulatione multa vitia passi sunt in Ecclesiam serpere. Nunc sero incipiunt queri de calamitatibus Ecclesiæ, cum hic tumultus non aliunde sumpserit occasionem, quam ex illis abusibus, qui tam manifesti erant, ut tolerari amplius non possent. Magnæ dissensiones de Missa, de Sacramento extiterunt. Fortasse dat pœnas orbis tam diuturnæ prophanationis Missarum, quam in Ecclesiis tot seculis toleraverunt isti, qui emendare et poterant et debebant. Nam in Decalogo scriptum est (Exod. xx. 7): 'Qui Dei nomine abutitur, non erit impunitus.' At ab initio mundi nulla res divina ita videtur unquam ad quæstum collata fuisse, ut Missa. the bishops ignorant of these abuses, and if they had amended them in time, there had now been less of dissensions. Heretofore, by their dissembling, they suffered much corruption to creep into the Church; now they begin, though it be late, to complain of the calamities of the Church; seeing that this tumult was raised up by no other mean than by those abuses, which were so evident that they could no longer be tolerated. There were many dissensions, concerning the Mass, concerning the Sacrament. And perhaps the world is punished for so long a profaning of Masses, which they, who both could and ought to have amended it, have so many years tolerated in the churches. For in the Ten Commandments it is written, 'He that taketh in vain the name of the Lord shall not be held guiltless' (Exod. xx. 7). And from the beginning of the world there neither was nor is any divine thing which seems so to have been employed for gain as the Mass.
Accessit opinion, quæ auxit privatas Missas in infinitum, videlicet quod Christus sua passione satisfecerit pro peccato originis, et instituerit Missam, in qua fieret oblatio pro quotidianis delictis, mortalibus et venialibus. Hinc manavit publica opinio, There was added an opinion, which increased private Masses infinitely: to wit, that Christ by his passion did satisfy for original sin, and appointed the Mass, wherein an oblation should be made for daily sins, both mortal and venial. Hereupon a common opinion was
quod Missa sit opus delens peccata vivorum et mortuorum ex opere operato. Hic cœptum est disputari, utrum una Missa, dicta pro pluribus, tantundem valeat, quantum singulæ pro singulis. Hæc disputatio peperit istam infinitam multitudinem Missarum. De his opinionibus nostri admonuerunt, quod dissentiant a Scripturis Sanctis, et ledant gloriam passionis Christi. Nam passio Christi fuit oblatio et satisfactio, non solum pro culpa originis, sed etiam pro omnibus reliquis peccatis, ut ad Hebræos (x. 10) scriptum est: 'Sanctificati sumus per oblationem Jesu Christi semel.' Item (Heb. x. 14): 'Una oblatione consumavit in perpetuum sanctificatos.' Item, Scriptura docet, nos coram Deo justificari per fidem in Christum, cum credimus, nobis remitti peccata propter Christum. Jam si Missa delet peccata vivorum et mortuorum ex opere operato, contingit justificatio ex opere Missarum, non ex fide, quod Scriptura non patitur. Sed Christus jubet (Luke xxii. 19) 'facere in sui memoriam,' quare Missa instituta est, ut fides in iis, qui utuntur Sacramento, recordetur, quæ beneficia accipiat per received, that the Mass is a work that taketh away the sins of the quick and the dead, and that for the doing of the work. Here men began to dispute whether one Mass said for many were of as great force as particular Masses said for particular men. This disputation hath brought forth that infinite multitude of Masses. Our preachers have admonished concerning these opinions that they do depart from the holy Scriptures, and diminish the glory of the passion of Christ. For the passion of Christ was an oblation and satisfaction, not only for original sin, but also for all other sins; as it is written in the Epistle to the Hebrews (x. 10): 'We are sanctified by the oblation of Jesus Christ once made;' also, 'By one oblation he hath perfected forever them that are sanctified' (Heb. x. 14). The Scripture also teacheth that we are justified before God through faith in Christ, when we believe that our sins are forgiven for Christ's sake. Now, if the Mass do take away the sins of the quick and the dead, even for the work's sake that is done, then justification cometh by the work of Masses, and not by faith; which the Scripture can not endure. But Christ commandeth us 'to do it in remembrance of himself' (Luke xxii. 19), therefore
Christum, et erigat et consoletur pavidam conscientiam. Nam id est meminisse Christi, beneficia meminisse, ac sentire, quod vere exhibeantur nobis. Nec satis est historiam recordari, quia hanc etiam Judæi et impii recordari possunt. Est igitur ad hoc facienda Missa, ut ibi porrigatur Sacramentum his, quibus opus est consolatione, sicut Ambrosius ait: 'Quia semper pecco, semper debeo accipere medicinam.' the Mass has been instituted that faith in them which use the Sacrament may remember what benefits it receiveth by Christ, and that it may raise and comfort the fearful conscience. For this is to remember Christ, to wit, to remember his benefits, and to feel and perceive that they be indeed imparted unto us. Nor is it sufficient to call to mind the history; because that the Jews also and the wicked can do. Therefore the Mass must be used to this end, that there the Sacrament may be reached unto them that have need of comfort as Ambrose saith, 'Because I do always sin, therefore I ought always to receive the medicine.'
Cum autem Missa sit talis communicatio Sacramenti, servatur apud nos uns communis Missa singulis feriis atque aliis etiam diebus, si qui Sacramento velint uti, ubi porrigitur Sacramentum his, qui petunt. Neque hic mos in Ecclesia novus est, nam veteres ante Gregorium non faciunt mentionem privatæ Missæ; de comuni Missa plurimum loquuntur. Chrysostomus ait: 'Sacerdotem quotidie stare ad altare, et alios ad communionem accersere, alios arcere.' Et ex Canonibus veteribus apparet, unum aliquem celebrasse Missam, a quo reliqui presbyteri et diaconi And seeing that the Mass is such a communion of the Sacrament, we do observe one common Mass every holy day, and on other days, if any will use the Sacrament, at which times it is offered to them that desire it. Neither is this custom newly brought into the Church. For the ancients, before Gregory's time, make no mention of any private Mass; of the common Mass they speak much. Chrysostom saith that 'the priest doth daily stand at the altar, and call some unto the Communion, and put back others.' And by the ancient Canons I is evident that some one did celebrate the Mass, of whom the other elders
sumpserunt corpus Domini. Sic enim sonant verba Canonis Niceni: 'Accipiant diaconi secundum ordinem post presbyteros ab episcopo vel a presbytero sacram communionem.' Et Paulus (1 Cor. xi. 33) de communione jubet, ut alii alios expectant, ut fiat communis participatio. and deacons did receive the body of the Lord. And Paul, concerning the Communion, commandeth, 'that one tarry for another' (1 Cor. xi. 33), that so there may be a common participation.
Postquam igitur Missa apud nos habet exemplum Ecclesiæ, ex Scriptura et Patribus, confidimus improbari eam non posse, maxime cum publicæ ceremoniæ magna ex parte similes usitatis serventur; tantum numerus Missarum est dissimilis, quem propter maximos et manifestos abusus certe moderari prodesset. Nam olim etiam in ecclesiis frequentissimis non fiebat quotidie Missa, ut testatur Historia Tripartita Lib. IX. Cap. 38: 'Rursus autem in Alexandria Quarta et Sexta feria Scripturæ leguntur, easque Doctores interpretantur, et omnia fiunt præter solennem oblationis morem.' Seeing, therefore, that the Mass amongst us hath the example of the Church, out of the Scripture, and the Fathers, we trust that it can not be disapproved; especially since our public ceremonies are kept, the most part, like unto the usual ceremonies; only the number of Masses is not alike, the which, by reason of very great and manifest abuses, it were certainly far better to be moderated. For in times past also, in the churches whereunto was greatest resort, it was not the use to have Mass said every day, as the Tripartite History, lib. ix. cap. 38, doth witness. 'Again,' saith it, 'in Alexandria, every fourth and sixth day of the week, the Scriptures are read, and the doctors do interpret them; and all other things are done also, expect only the celebration of the Eucharist.'
Art. IV.De Confessione. Art. IV.Of Confession.
Confessio in ecclesiis apud nos non est abolita, non enim solet porrigi corpus Domini, nisi antea exploratis et absolutis. Et docetur populus diligentissime de fide absolutionis, de qua ante hæc tempora magnum erat silentium. Docentur homines, ut absolutionem plurimi faciant, quia sit vox Dei et mandato Dei pronuncietur. Confession is not abolished in our churches. For it is not usual to communicate the body of our Lord, except to those who have been previously examined and absolved. And the people are taught most carefully concerning the faith required to absolution, about which before these times there has been a deep silence. Men are taught that they should highly regard absolution, inasmuch as it is God's voice, and pronounced by God's command.
Ornatur potestas clavium, et commenoratur, quantam consolationem afferat perterrefactis conscientiis, et quod requirat Deus fidem, ut illi absolutioni tanquam voci de cœlo sonanti credamus, et quod illa fides in Christum vere consequatur et accipiat remissionem peccatorum. The power of the keys is honored, and mention is made how great consolation it brings to terrified consciences, and the God requires faith that we believe that absolution as a voice sounding from heaven, and that this faith in Christ truly obtains and receives remission of sins.
Antea immodice extollebantur satisfactiones; fidei et meriti Christi ac justitiæ fidei nulla fiebat mentio; quare in ha parte minime sunt culpandæ ecclesiæ nostræ. Nam hoc etiam adversarii tribuere nobis coguntur, quod doctrina de pœnitentia diligentissime a nostris tractata ac patefacta sit. Aforetime satisfactions were immoderately extolled; of faith, and the merit of Christ, and justification by faith, no mention was made. Wherefore on this point our churches are by no means to be blamed. For this even our adversaries are compelled to concede in regard to us, that the doctrine of repentance is most diligently treated and laid open by us.
Sed de confessione docent, quod enumeratio delictorum non But of Confession our churches teach that the enumeration of sins
sit necessaria, nec sint onerandæ conscientiæ cura enumerandi omnia delicta, quia impossibile est omnia delicta recitare, ut testatur Psalmus (xix. 13): 'Delicta quis intelligit?' Item Jeremias (xvii. 9): 'Pravum est cor hominis et inscrutabile' Quod si nulla peccata nisi recitata remitterentur, nunquam adquiescere conscientæ possent, quia plurima peccata neque vident, neque meminisse possunt. is not necessary, nor are consciences to be burdened with the care of enumerating all sins, inasmuch as it is impossible to recount all sins, as the Psalm (xix. 12) testifies: 'Who can understand his errors?' So also Jeremiah (xvii. 9): 'The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked. Who can know it?' But if no sins were remitted except what were recounted, consciences could never find peace, because very many sins they neither see nor can remember.
Testantur et veteres scriptores enumerationem non esse necessariam. Nam in Decretis citatur Chrysostomus, qui sic ait: 'Non tibi dico, ut te prodas in publicum, neque apud alios te accuses, sed obedire te volo prophetæ dicenti: "Revela ante Deum viam tuam." Ergo tua confitere peccata apud Deum, verum judicem, cum oratione. Delicta tua pronuncia non lingua, sed conscientiæ tuæ memoria,' etc. Et Glosa (De Pœnitentia, Dist. V. Cap. Consideret), fatetur humani juris esse confessionem [dass die Beicht nicht durch die Schrift geboten, sondern durch die Kirche eingesetzt sei]. The ancient writers also testify that the enumeration is not necessary. For in the Decrees Chrysostom is cited, who speaks thus: 'I do not say to thee that thou shouldst discover thyself in public, or accuse thyself before others, but I would have thee obey the prophet when he says: "Reveal thy way unto the Lord." Therefore with prayer confess thy sins before God the true Judge. Pronounce thine errors, not with the tongue, but with the memory of thy conscience.' And the Gloss (Of Repentance, Dist. V., Chap. Consideret), admits that Confession is of human right only [is not commanded in Scripture, but has been instituted by the Church].
Verum confessio, cum propter maximum absolutionis beneficium, Nevertheless, on account of the very great benefit of absolution,
tum propter alias conscientiarum utilitates apud nos retinetur. as well as for other uses to the conscience, Confession is retained among us.
Art. V.De Discrimine Ciborum. Art. V.Of the Distinction of Meats, and of Traditions.
Publica persuasio fuit non tantum vulgi, sed etiam docentium in ecclesiis, quod discrimina ciborum et similes tradtiones humanæ sint opera utilia ad promerendum gratiam et satisfactoria pro peccatis. Et quod sic senserit mundus, apparet ex eo, quia quotidie instituebantur novæ ceremoniæ, novi ordines, novæ feriæ, nova jejunia, et Doctores in templis exigebant hæc opera tanquam necessarium cultum ad promerendam gratiam, et vehementer terrebant conscientias, si quid omitterent. It hath been a general opinion, not of the people alone, but also of such as are teachers in the churches, that the differences of meats, and such like human traditions, are works available to merit grace, and are satisfactions for sins. And that the world thus thought is apparent by this—that daily new ceremonies, new orders, new holidays, new fasts, were appointed; and the teachers in the churches did exact these works as a service necessary to deserve grace; and they did greatly terrify men's consciences, if aught were omitted.
Ex hac persuasione de traditionibus multa incommoda in Ecclesia secuta sunt. Primo, obscurata est doctrina de gratia et justitia fidei, quæ es præcipua pars Evangelii, et quam maxime oportet, extare et eminere in Ecclesia, ut meritum Christi bene cognoscatur, et fides, quæ credit remitti peccata propter Christum, longe supra opera collocetur. Quare et Paulus in hunc locum maxime incumbit, legem et traditiones humanas Of this persuasion concerning traditions many disadvantages have followed in the Church. For first the doctrine of grace is obscured by it, and also the righteousness of faith, which is the principal part of the Gospel, and which it behooveth most of all to stand forth and to have the pre-eminence in the Church, that the merit of Christ may be well known, and faith, which believeth that sins are remitted for Christ's sake, may be exalted far above works. For which cause also Paul
removet, ut ostendat justitiam Christianam aliud quiddam esse, quam hujusmodi opera, videlicet fidem, quæ credit peccata gratis remitti propter Christum. At hæc doctrina Pauli pene tota oppressa est per traditiones, quæ pepererunt opinionem, quod per discrimina ciborum et similes cultus oporteat mereri gratiam et justitiam. In pœnitentia nulla mentio fiebat de fide, tantum hæc opera satisfactoria proponebantur, in his videbatur pœnitentia tota consistere. lays much stress on this point: he removeth the law and human traditions, that he may show that the righteousness of Christ is a far other thing than such works as these be, namely, a faith, which believeth that sins are freely remitted for Christ's sake. But this doctrine of Paul is almost wholly smothered by traditions, which have bred an opinion, that, by making difference in meats, and such like services, a man should merit grace and justification. In their doctrine of repentance there was no mention of faith; only these works of satisfaction were spoken of: repentance seemed to consist wholly in these.
Secundo, hæ traditiones obscuraverunt præcepta Dei, quia traditiones longe præferebantur præceptis Dei. Christianismus totus putabatur esse observatio certarum feriarum, rituum, jejuniorum, vestitus. Hæ observationes erant in possessione honestissimi tituli, quod essent vita spiritualis et vita perfecta. Interim mandata Dei juxta vocationem nullam laudem habebant, quod paterfamilias educabat sobolem, quod mater pariebat, quod princeps regebat rem publicam, hæc putabantur esse opera mundane et imperfecta et longe deteriora illis splendidis Secondly, these traditions obscured the commandments of God, because traditions were preferred far above the commandments of God. All Christianity was thought to be an observation of certain holidays, rites, fasts, and attire. These observations were in possession of a most goodly title, that they were the spiritual life and the perfect life. In the mean time God's commandments, touching every man's calling, were of small estimation: that the father brought up his children, that the mother nurtured them, that the prince governed the commonwealth. These were reputed worldly affairs, and imperfect, and far
observationibus. Et hic error valde cruciavit pias conscientias, quæ dolebant se teneri imperfecto vitæ genere, in conjugio, in magistratibus, aut aliis funtionibus civilibus, mirabantur monachos et similes, et falso putabant illorum observationes Deo gratiores esse. inferior to those glittering observances. And this error did greatly torment pious consciences, which were grieved that they were held by an imperfect kind of life, in marriage, in magistracy, or in other civil functions. They had the monks, and such like, in admiration, and falsely imagined that the observances of these men were more grateful to God than their own.
Tertio, traditiones attulerunt magna pericula conscientiis, quia impossibile erat omnes traditiones servare, et tamen homines arbitrabantur has observationes necessarios esse cultus. Gerson scribit, 'multos incidisse in desperationem, quosdam etiam sibi mortem conscivisse, quia senserant, se non posse satisfacere traditionibus,' et interim consolationem nullam de justitia fidei et de gratia audierant. Videmus Summistas et Theologos colligere traditiones, et quærere ἐπιεικείας, ut levent conscientias, non satis tamen expediunt, sed interdum magis injiciunt laqueos conscientiis. Et in colligendis traditionibus ita fuerunt occupatæ scholæ et conciones, ut non vacaverit attingere Scripturam, et quærere utiliorem doctrinam de fide, de cruce, de spe, de dignitate civilium rerum, de Thirdly, traditions brought great danger to men's consciences, because it was impossible to keep all traditions, and yet men thought the observation of them to be necessary services. Gerson writeth that 'many fell into despair, and some murdered themselves, because they perceived that they could not keep the traditions;' and all this while they never heard the comfort of the righteousness of faith, or of grace. We see the Summists and Divines gather together the traditions, and seek qualifications of them, to unburden men's consciences; and yet all will not serve, but meantime they bring more snares upon the conscience. The schools and pulpits have been so busied in gathering together the traditions, that they had not leisure to touch the Scripture, and to seek out a more profitable doctrine—of faith, of the cross, of hope, of the dignity of civil affairs,
consolatione conscientiarum in arduis tentationibus. Itaque Gerson et alii quidam Theologi graviter questi sunt, se his rixis traditionum impediri, quo minus versari possent in meliore genere doctrinæ. Et Augustinus vetat onerare conscientias hujusmodi observationibus, et prudenter admonet Januarium, ut sciat eas indifferenter observandas esse; sic enim loquitur. of the comfort of conscience in arduous trials. Wherefore Gerson and some other Divines have made grievous complaints, that they were hindered by these strifes about traditions, so that they could not be occupied in some better kind of doctrine. And Augustine forbiddeth that men's consciences should be burdened with observations of this kind, and doth very prudently warn Januarius to know that they are to be observed as things indifferent; for he so speaketh.
Quare nostri non debent videri hanc causam temere attigisse, aut odio episcoporum, ut quidam falso suspicantur. Magna necessitas fuit, de illis erroribus, qui nati erant ex traditionibus male intellectis, admonere ecclesias. Nam Evangelium cogit urgere doctrinam in ecclesiis de gratia et justitia fidei, quæ tamen intelligi non potest, si putent homines se mereri gratiam per observationes ab ipsis electas. Sic igitur docuerunt, quod per observationem traditionum humanarum non possimus gratiam mereri, aut justificari, quare non est sentiendum, quod hujusmodi observationes sint necessarius cultus. Wherefore our ministers must not be thought to have touched this matter rashly, or from hatred of the bishops, as some do falsely surmise. There was great need to admonish the churches of those errors, which did arise from mistaking of traditions; for the Gospel compelleth men to urge the doctrine of grace and of the righteousness of faith in the Church; which yet can never be understood if men suppose that they can merit remission of sins and justification by observances of their own choice. Thus, therefore, they teach us that we can not merit grace or justification by the observation of man's traditions; and therefore we must not think that such observations are necessary service.
Addunt testimonia ex Scriptura. Hereunto they add testimonies
Christus (Matt. xv. 3) excusat Apostolos, qui non servaverant usitatam traditionem, quæ tamen videbatur de re non illicita, sed media esse, et habere cognationem cum baptismatibus legis; et dicit (ver. 9): 'Frustra colunt me mandatis hominum.' Igitur non exigit cultum inutilem. Et Paulo post addit (ver. 11): 'Omne quod intrat in os, non inquinat hominem.' Item (Rom. xiv. 17): 'Regnum Dei non est esca aut potus.' Col. ii. 16: 'Nemo judicet vos in cibo, potu, sabbato aut die festo.' Item (ver. 20 sq.): 'Si mortui estis cum Christo ab elementis mundi, quare tanquam viventes in mundo decreta facitis: Ne attingas, ne gustes, ne contrectes?' out of the Scriptures. Christ excuseth his Apostles who kept not the received tradition (which yet seemed to be about a matter not unlawful, but indifferent, and to have some affinity with the baptisms of the law), and saith, 'They worship me in vain with the commandments of men' (Matt. xv. 9). Christ, therefore, exacteth no unprofitable service. And a little after, he addeth: 'Whatsoever entereth in at the mouth defileth not the man' (ver. 11). So also (Paul): 'The kingdom of God is not meat and drink' (Rom. xv. 17). 'Let no man judge you in meat or drink, or in respect of the Sabbath-days, or of a holiday' (Col. ii. 16). Again: 'If ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though ye lived in the world, are ye subject to traditions: Touch not, taste not, handle not?' (ver. 20, 21).
Ait Petrus (Acts xv. 10, 11): 'Quare tentatis Deum, imponentes jugum super cervices discipulorum, quod neque nos neque patres nostri portare potuimus, sed per gratiam Domini nostri Jesu Christi credimus salvari, quemadmodum et illi.' Hic vetat Petrus onerare conscientias pluribus ritibus sive Mosi, sive aliis. Et. (1 Tim. iv. 1–3) vocat prohibitionem ciborum 'doctrinam Peter saith, 'Why tempt ye God, laying a yoke upon the necks of the disciples, which neither we nor our fathers were able to bear? But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they' (Acts xv. 10, 11). Here Peter forbiddeth to burden the consciences with many rites, whether they be of Moses' or of any others' appointing. And he (Paul) calleth the forbidding of
dæmoniorum,' quia pugnat cum Evangelio, talia opera instituere aut facere, ut per ea mereamur gratiam, aut quod non posit existere Christianismus sine tali cultu. meats 'a doctrine of devils' (1 Tim. iv. 1), because that it is against the Gospel to appoint or do such works, to the end that by them we may merit grace or justification, or as though Christianity could not exist without such service.
Hic objiciunt adversarii, quod nostri prohibeant disciplinam et mortificationem carnis, sicut Jovinianus. Verum aliud deprehendetur ex scriptis nostrorum. Semper enim docuerunt de cruce, quod Christianos oporteat tollerare afflictiones. Hæc est vera, seria et non simulata mortificatio, variis afflictionibus exerceri et crucifigi cum Christo. Insuper docent, quod quilibet Christianus debeat se corporali disciplina aut corporalibus exercitiis et laboribus sic exercere et cærcere, ne saturitas aut desidia estimulet ad peccandum, non ut per illa exercitia mereamur gratiam, aut satis faciamus pro peccatis. Et hanc corporalem disciplinam oportet semper urgere, non solum paucis et constitutis diebus. Sicut Christus præcipit (Luke xxi. 34): 'Cavete, ne corpora vestra graventur crapula.' Item (Matt. xvii. 21): 'Hoc genus dæmoniorum non ejicitur nisi jejunio et oratione.' Et Paulus ait (1 Cor. ix. 27): 'Castigo Here our adversaries object against us, that our ministers hinder all good discipline and mortification of the flesh, as Jovinian did. But the contrary may be seen by our men's writings. For they have always taught, touching the cross, that Christians ought to bear afflictions. This is the true, earnest, and unfeigned mortification, to be exercised with divers afflictions, and to be crucified with Christ. Moreover they teach that every Christian must so by bodily discipline, or bodily exercises and labor, exercise and keep himself under, that plenty and sloth do not stimulate him to sin; not that he may by such exercises merit grace, or satisfy for sins. And this corporal discipline should be used always, not only on a few and set days; according to the commandment of Christ: 'Take heed lest your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting' (Luke xxi. 34). Again: 'This kind (of devils) goeth not out but by prayer and fasting' (Matt. xvii. 21). And Paul saith, 'I keep under my body,
corpus meum, et redigo in servitutem.' Ubi clare ostendit, se ideo castigare corpus, non ut per eam disciplinam mereatur remissionem peccatorum, sed ut corpus habeat obnoxium et idoneum ad res spirituales et ad faciendum officium juxta vocationem suam. Itaque non damnantur ipsa jejunia, sed traditiones, quæ certos dies, certos cibos præscribunt, cum periculo conscientiæ, tanquam istiusmodi opera sint necessarius cultus. and bring it into subjection' (1 Cor. ix. 27), where he plainly showeth that he did therefore chastise his body; not that by that discipline he might merit remission of sins, but that his body might be apt and fit for spiritual things, and to do his duty according to his calling. Therefore we do not condemn fasts themselves, but the traditions which prescribe certain days and certain meats, with danger to the conscience, as though such works as these were a necessary service.
Servantur tamen apud nos pleræque traditiones, quæ conducunt ad hoc, ut res ordine geratur in Ecclesia; ut ordo lectionum in Missa et præcipuæ feriæ. Sed interim homines admonentur, quod talis cultus non justificet coram Deo, et quod non sit ponendum peccatum in talibus rebus, si omittantur sine scandalo. Hæc libertas in ritibus humanis non fuit ignota Patribus. Nam in Oriente alio tempore servaverunt Pascha quam Romæ, et cum Romani propter hanc dissimilitudinem accusarent Orientem schismatic, admoniti sunt ab aliis, tales mores non oportere ubique similes esse. Et Irenæus inquit: 'Dissonantia jejunii fidei consonantiam non solvit;' sicut Yet most of the traditions are observed among us which tend unto this end, that things may be done orderly in the Church; as, namely, the order of Lessons in the Mass and the chiefest holidays. But, in the mean time, men are admonished that such a service doth not justify before God, and that it is not to be supposed there is sin in such things, if they be left undone, without scandal. This liberty in human rites and ceremonies was not unknown to the Fathers. For in the East they kept Easter at another time than they did in Rome; and when they of Rome accused the East of schism for this diversity, they were admonished by others that such customs need not be alike every where. And Irenæus saith: 'The disagreement
et Dist. XII.2424Viz., in Decret. P. I. Dist. XII. cap. 10, quod incipit a verbis: 'Novit fraternitas tua.' Vide Corp. jur. Can. ed. Richter, Tom. I. p. 25 sq. (From Bindseil.) Gregorius Papa significant, talem dissimilitudinem non ledere unitatem Ecclesiæ. Et in Historia Tripartita, lib. nono, multa colliguntur exempla dissimilium rituum, et recitantur hæc verba: 'Mens Apostolorum fuit, non de diebus festis sancire, sed prædicare bonam conversationem et pietatem [Glaube und Liebe zu lehren].' about fasting doth not break off the agreement of faith.' Besides, Pope Gregory, in the 12th Distinction, intimates that such diversity doth not hurt the unity of the Church; and in the Tripartite History, lib. 9, many examples of dissimilar rites are gathered together, and these words are there rehearsed: 'The mind of the Apostles was, not to give precepts concerning holidays, but to preach godliness and a holy life [faith and love].'
Art. VI.De Votis Monachorum. Art. VI.Of Monastic Vows.
Quid de votes monachorum apud nos doceatur, melius intelliget, si quis meminerit, qualis status fuerit monasteriorum, quam multa contra Canones in ipsis monasteriis quotidie fiebant. Augustini tempore erant libera colegia, postea, corrupta disciplina, ubique addita sunt vota, ut tanquam excogitato carcere disciplina restitueretur. What is taught among us touching the Vows of Monks will be better understood if one call to mind what was the state of monasteries, and how many things were every day committed in the monasteries contrary to the Canons. In Augustine's time cloister-fraternities were free; but afterwards, when discipline was corrupted, vows were every where laid upon them, that, as it were in a newly devised prison, the discipline might be restored again.
Additæ sunt paulatim supra vota aliæ multæ observationes. Et hæc vincula multis ante justam ætatem contra Canones injecta sunt. Over and besides vows, many other observances by little and little were added. And these bands and snares were cast upon many, before they came to ripe years, contrary to the Canons.
Multi inciderunt errore in hoc vitæ genus, quibus etiam si non deesent anni, tamen judicium de suis viribus defuit. Qui sic irretiti erant, cogebantur manere, etiam si quidam beneficio Canonum liberari possent. Et hoc accidit magis etiam in monasteriis virginum, quam monachorum, cum sexui imbecilliori magis parcendum esset. Many through error fell into this kind of life unawares, who, though they wanted not years, yet they wanted discretion to judge of their strength and ability. They who were once got within these nets were constrained to abide in them, though, by the benefit of the Canons, some might be set at liberty. And that fell out rather in the monasteries of nuns than of monks; although the weaker sex ought more to have been spared.
Hic rigor displicuit multis bonis viris ante hæc tempora, qui videbant puellas et adolescentes in monasteria detrudi propter victum, videbant, quam infœliciter succederet hoc consilium, quæ scandala pareret, quos laqueos conscientiis injiceret. Dolebant autoritatem Canonum in re periculosissima omnino negligi et contemni. This rigor and severity displeased many good men heretofore, when they saw young maids and young men thrust into monasteries, there to get their living. They saw what an unhappy issue this counsel had, what offenses it bred, and what snares it laid upon consciences. They were grieved that the authority of the Canons was wholly neglected and contemned in a thing most dangerous.
Ad hæc mala accedebat talis persuasio de votes, quam constat etiam olim displicuisse ipsis monachis, si qui paulo cordatiores fuerunt. Docebant vota paria esse baptismo, docebant se hoc vitæ genere mereri remissionem peccatorum et justificationem coram Deo. Imo addebant, vitam monasticam non tantum justitiam mereri coram To all these evils there was added such a persuasion concerning vows, as, it is well known, did in former times displease the monks themselves, if any of them were somewhat wiser than the rest. They taught that vows were equal to baptism; they taught that by this kind of life they merited remission of sins and justification before God; yea, they added that the
Deo, sed amplius etiam, quia servaret non modo præcepta, sed etiam consilia Evangelica. Ita persuadebant monasticam professionem longe meliorem esse baptismo, vitam monasticam plus mereri, quam vitam magistratuum, vitam pastorum et similium, qui in mandatis Dei sine facticiis religionibus suæ vocationi serviunt. monk's life did not only merit righteousness before God, but more than that, because it observed not only the commandments, but also the counsels of the Gospel. And thus they taught that the monk's profession was better than baptism; that the monk's life did merit more than the life of magistrates, of pastors, and such like, who, in obedience to God's commandment, followed their calling without any such religions of man's making.
Nihil horum negari potest, extant enim in libris eorum. None of these things can be denied: they are to be seen in their writings.
Quid fiebat postea in monasteriis? Olim erant scholæ sacrarum literarum, et aliarum disciplinarum, quæ sunt utiles Ecclesiæ, et sumebantur inde pastores et episcopi: nunc alia res est; nihil opus est recitare nota. Olim ad discendum conveniebant: nunc fingunt institutum esse vitæ genus ad promerendam gratiam et justitiam; imo prædicant esse statum perfectionis, et longe præferunt omnibus aliis vitæ generibus a Deo ordinatis. What occurred afterwards in the monasteries? In old time they were schools for the study of sacred letters, and other branches of knowledge, which were profitable to the Church; and thence were pastors and bishops taken: but now the case is altered. It is needless to rehearse what is notorious. In old time they came together into such places to learn; but now they feign that it is a kind of life taken up to merit remission of sins and justification; yea, they say it is a state of perfection, and prefer it to all other kinds of life, the kinds that God ordained.
Hæc ideo recitavimus nihil odiose exaggerantes, ut melius intelligi We have therefore mentioned these things, not to excite odium,
posset de hac re doctrina nostrorum. exaggerating nothing, to the end that the doctrine of our churches touching this matter might be understood.
Primum de his, qui matrimonia contrahunt, sic docent apud nos, quod liceat omnibus, qui non sunt idonei a cælibatum, contrahere matrimonium, quia vota non possunt ordinationem ac mandatum Dei tollere. Est autem hoc mandatum Dei (1 Cor. vii. 2): 'Propter fornicationem habeat unusquisque uxorem suam.' Neque mandatum solum, sed etiam creatio et ordinatio Dei cogit hos ad conjugium, qui sine singulari Dei opere non sunt excepti, juxta illud (Gen. ii. 18)): 'Non est bonum homini esse solum.' Igitur non peccant isti, qui obtemperant huic mandato et ordinationi Dei. First, concerning such as contract marriage, thus they teach among us: that it is lawful for any to marry that are not adapted for a single life; forasmuch as vows can not take away God's ordinance and commandment. The commandment of God is, 'To avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife' (1 Cor. vii. 2). And not only the commandment, but also the creation and ordinance of God, compelleth such unto marriage as without the special work of God are not exempted; according to that saying, 'It is not good for man to be alone' (Gen. ii. 18). They, therefore, that are obedient to this commandment and ordinance of God do not sin.
Quid potest contra hæc opponi? Exaggeret aliquis obligationem voti, quantum volet, tamen non poterit efficere, ut votum tollat mandatum Dei. Canones docent, 'in omni voto jus superioris excipi:' quare multo minus hæc vota contra mandata Dei valent. What can be said against these things? Let a man exaggerate the bond of a vow as much as he will, yet can he never bring to pass that the vow shall take away God's commandment. The Canons teach, 'that in every vow the right of the superior is excepted:' much less, therefore, can these vows, which are contrary to God's commandment, be of force.
Quodsi obligatio votorum nullas If so be that the obligation of
haberet causas, cur mutari posit: nec Romani Pontifices dispensassent; neque enim licet homini obligationem, quæ simpliciter est juris divini, rescindere. Sed prudenter judicaverunt Romani Pontifices æquitatem in hac obligatione adhibendam esse. Ideo sæpe de votis dispensasse leguntur. Nota est historia de Rege Arragonum, revocato ex monasterio, et extant exempla nostri temporis. vows has no causes why it might be changed, then could not the Roman Pontiffs have dispensed therewith. For neither is it lawful for man to disannul that bond which doth simply belong to the law of God. But the Roman Pontiffs have judged very prudently, that in this obligation there must equity be used; therefore they often, as we read, have dispensed with vows. The history of the King of Arragon, being called back out of a monastery, is well known; and there are examples in our own time.
Deinde, cur obligationem exaggerant adversarii seu effectum voti, cum interim de ipsa voti natura sileant, quod debet esse in re possibili,2525The ed. princeps reads possibi—a typographical error. quod debet esse voluntarium, sponte et consulto conceptum. At quomodo sit in potestate hominis perpetua castitas, non est ignotum. Et quotusquisque sponte et consulto vovit? Puellæ et adolescentes, priusquam judicare possunt, persuadentur ad vovendum, interdum etiam coguntur. Secondly, why do our adversaries exaggerate the obligation or the effect of the vow; when in the mean time they speak not a word of the very nature of a vow, that it ought to be in a thing possible, ought to be voluntary, and taken up of a man's own accord, and with deliberation? But it is not unknown how far perpetual chastity is in the power of a man. And how many a one amongst them is there that doth vow of his own accord and well advised? Maidens and youths, before they know how to judge, are persuaded, yea, sometimes also compelled to vow.
Quare non est æquum tam rigide de obligatione disputare, cum omnes fateantur contra Wherefore it is not meet to dispute so rigorously of the obligation, seeing that all men confess that it is
voti naturam esse, quod non sponte, quod inconsulto admittitur. against the nature of a vow, that it is not done of a man's own accord, nor advisedly.
Plerique Canones recindunt vota ante annum XV. contracta, quia ante illam ætatem non videtur tantum esse judicii, ut de perpetua vita constitui possit. Alius Canon, plus concedens hominum imbecillitati, addit annos aliquot, vetat enim ante annum XVIII. votum fieri. Sed utrum sequemur? Maxima pars habet excusationem, cur monasteria deserant, quia plurimi ante hanc ætatem voverunt. The Canons for the most part disannul vows which are made before fifteen years of age; because that before one come to that age there seemeth not to be so much judgment that determination may be made concerning a perpetual life. Another Canon, permitting more to the weakness of men, doth add some years more; for it forbiddeth a vow to be made before one be eighteen years of age. But which of these shall we follow? The greatest part have this excuse for forsaking monasteries, because most of them vowed before they came to this age.
Postremo, etiam si voti violatio reprehendi posset, tamen non videtur statim sequi, quod conjugia talium personarum dissolvenda sint. Nam Augustinus negat debere dissolvi, XXVII. quæst. I. Cap. Nuptiarum; cujus non est levis auctoritas, etiamsi alii postea aliter senserunt. Last of all, even though the breaking of a vow were to be reprehended, yet it seems not to follow directly that the marriages of such persons are to be dissolved. For Augustine, in his 27th quest. 1st chap. Of Marriages, doth deny that they ought to be dissolved; and his authority is not lightly to be esteemed, although others afterwards have thought otherwise.
Quanquam autem mandatum Dei de conjugio videatur plerosque liberare a votis, tamen afferunt nostri et aliam rationem de votis, quod sint And although the commandment of God touching wedlock doth free most men from vows; yet our teachers do also bring another reason concerning vows, to show that they are
irrita, qui omnis cultus Dei, ab hominibus sine mandato Dei institutus et electus ad promerendam justificationem et gratiam, impius est, sicut Christus ait (Matt. xv. 9): 'Frustra colunt me mandatis hominum.' Et Paulus ubique docet, justitiam non esse quærendam ex nostris observationibus et cultibus, qui sint excogitati ab hominibus, sed contingere eam per fidem credentibus, se recipi in gratiam a Deo propter Christum. void: because that all the worship of God, instituted of men without the commandment of God, and chosen to merit remission of sins and justification, is wicked; as Christ saith: 'In vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men' (Matt. xv. 9). And Paul doth every where teach that righteousness is not to be sought of our own observances, and services which are devised by men; but that it cometh by faith to those that believe that they are received into favor by God for Christ's sake.
Constat autem monachos docuisse, quod facticiæ religiones satisfaciant pro peccatis, mereantur gratiam et justificationem. Quid hoc est aliud, quam de gloria Christi detrahere, et obscurare ac negare justitiam fidei? Sequitur igitur, ista vota usitata impios cultus fuisse; quare sunt irrita. Nam votum impium et factum contra mandata Dei non valet, neque enim debet votum vinculum esse iniquitatis, ut Canon dicit. But it is evident that the monks did teach that these counterfeited religions satisfy for sins, and merit grace and justification. What else is this than to detract from the glory of Christ, and to obscure and deny the righteousness of faith? Wherefore it followeth that these common vows were wicked services, and are therefore void. For a wicked vow, and that which is made against the commandments of God, is one of no force; neither, as the Canon saith, ought a vow to be a bond of iniquity.
Paulus dicit (Gal. v. 4): 'Evacuati estis a Christo, qui in lege justificamini, a gratia excidistis.' Ergo etiam, qui votes justificari volunt, evacuantur a Paul saith, 'Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace' (Gal. v. 4). They, therefore, who wish to be
Christo, et a gratia excidunt. Nam et hi, qui votis tribuunt justificationem, tribuunt propriis operibus hoc, quod proprie ad gloriam Christi pertinet. Neque vero negari potest, quin monachi docuerint, se per vota et observationes suas justificari et mereri remissionem peccatorum, imo affinxerunt absurdiora, dixerunt se aliis mutuari sua opera. Hæc si quis velit odiose exaggerare, quam multa possit colligere, quorum jam ipsos monachos pudet. justified by vows, are made void of Christ, and fall from grace. For they also who attribute justification to their vows, attribute to their own works what properly belongs to the glory of Christ. Nor truly can it be denied that the monks taught that they are justified by their vows and observances, and merit the remission of sins; nay, they invented yet greater absurdities, and said they could transfer their good works to others. If any man wished to expand these things, so as to excite odium, how many things might he rehearse whereof the monks themselves are now ashamed!
Ad hæc persuaserunt hominibus, facticias religiones esse statum Christianæ perfectionis. An non est hoc justificationem tribuere operibus? Non est leve scandalum in Ecclesia, populo proponere certum cultum ab hominibus excogitatum sine mandato Dei, et docere, quod talis cultus justificet homines: quia justitia fidei, quam maxime oportet tradi in Ecclesia, obscuratur, cum illæ mirificæ religiones angelorum, simulatio paupertatis et humilitatis, et cælibatus offunduntur oculis hominum. Moreover, they would persuade men that these invented religious orders are a state of Christian perfection. Or is this not attributing justification to works? It is no light offense in the Church to propound unto the people a certain service devised by men, without the commandment of God, and to teach that such a service doth justify men; because that the righteousness of faith, which ought especially to be taught in the Church, is obscured when those marvelous religions of angels, the pretense of poverty and humility, and of celibacy, are cast before men's eyes.
Præterea obscurantur præcepta Moreover, the commandments of
Dei et verus cultus Dei, cum audiunt homines, solos monachos esse in statu perfectionis, quia perfectio Christiana est serio timere Deum, et rursus concipere magnam fidem, et confidere propter Christum, quod habeamus Deum placatum, petere a Deo, et certo expectare auxilium in omnibus rebus gerendis, juxta vocationem; interim foris diligenter facere bona opera, et servire vocationi. In his rebus est vera perfectio et verus cultus Dei, non est in cælibatu, aut mendicitate, aut veste sordida. God, and the true worship of God, are obscured when men hear that monks alone are in that state of perfection; because that Christian perfection is this, to bear God sincerely, and again, to conceive great faith, and to trust assuredly that God is pacified towards us, for Christ's sake; to ask, and certainly to look for, help from God in all our affairs, according to our calling; and outwardly to do good works diligently, and to attend to our vocation. In these things doth true perfection and the true worship of God consist: it doth not consist in singleness of life, in beggary, or in vile apparel.
Verum populus concipit multas perniciosas opiniones ex illis falsis preconiis vitæ monasticæ. Audit sine modo laudari cælibatum: ideo cum offensione conscientiæ versatur in conjugio. Audit solos mendicos esse perfectos: ideo cum offensione conscientiæ versatur in conjugio. Audit solos mendicos esse perfectos: ideo cum offensione conscientæ retinet possessiones, negotiatur. Audit consilium Evangelicum esse de non vindicando: ideo alii in privata vita non verentur ulcisci, audiunt enim consilium esse, non præceptum. Alii omnes magistratus et civilia officia judicant indigna esse Christianis. The people doth also conceive many pernicious opinions from these false commendations of the monastic life. They hear celibacy praised above measure; therefore with offense of conscience they live in marriage. They hear that mendicants only are perfect; therefore with offense of conscience they keep their possessions, and buy and sell. They hear that the Gospel only giveth counsel not to take revenge; therefore some in private life are not afraid to avenge themselves; for they hear that it is a counsel, not a commandment. Others do think that all magistracy and civil offices are unworthy of Christian men.
Leguntur exempla hominum, qui deserto conjugio, deserta reipublicæ administratione, abdiderunt se in monasteria. Id vocabant fugere ex mundo, et quærere vitæ genus, quod Deo magis placeret, nec videbant, Deo serviendum esse in illis mandatis, quæ ipse tradidit, non in mandatis, quæ sunt excogitata ab hominibus. Bonum et perfectum vitæ genus est, quod habet mandatum Dei. De his rebus necesse est admonere homines. Et ante hæc tempora reprehendit Gerson errorem monachorum de perfectione, et testatur, suis temporibus novam vocem fuisse, quod vita monastica sit status perfectionis. We read examples of men who, forsaking wedlock, and leaving the government of the commonwealth, have hid themselves in monasteries. This they called flying out of the world, and seeking a kind of life which is more acceptable to God: neither did they see that God is to be served in those commandments which he himself hath delivered, not in the commandments which are devised by men. That is a good and perfect kind of life which hath the commandment of God for it. It is necessary to admonish men of these things. And before these times Gerson did reprehend this error of the monks concerning perfection; and witnesseth, that in his time this was a new saying, that the monastical life is a state of perfection.
Tam multæ impiæ opiniones hærent in votis, quod justificent, quod sint perfectio Christiana, quod servent consilia et præcepta, quod habeant opera supererogationis. Hæc omnia cum sint falsa et inania, faciunt vota irrita. Thus many wicked opinions do cleave fast unto vows: as that they merit remission of sins and justification, that they are Christian perfection, that they do keep the counsels and commandments, that they have works of supererogation. All these things (seeing they be false and vain) do make vows to be of none effect.
Art. VII.De Potestate Ecclesiastica. Art. VII.Of Ecclesiastical Power.
Magnæ disputationes fuerunt de potestate Episcoporum, in There have been great controversies touching the power of Bishops;
quibus nonnulli incommode commiscuerunt potestatem Ecclesiasticam et potestatem gladii. in which many have incommodiously mingled together the Ecclesiastical power and the power of the sword.
Et ex hac confusione maxima bella, maximi motus extiterunt, dum Pontifices, freti potestate clavium, non solum novos cultus instituerunt reservatione casuum, violentis excommunicationibus conscientias oneraverunt, sed etiam regna mundi transferre et imperatoribus adimere imperium conati sunt. And out of this confusion there have sprung very great wars and tumults, while that the Pontiffs, trusting in the power of the keys, have not only appointed new kinds of service, and burdened men's consciences by reserving of cases, and by violent excommunications; but have also endeavored to transfer worldly kingdoms from one to another, and to despoil emperors of their power and authority.
Hæc vitia multo ante reprehenderunt in Ecclesia homines pii et eruditi. Itaque nostri ad consolandas conscientias coacti sunt ostendere discrimen ecclesiasticæ potestatis et potestatis gladii, et docuerunt utramque propter mandatum Dei religiose venerandam et honore afficiendam esse, tanquam summa Dei beneficia in terris. These faults did godly and learned men long since reprehend in the Church; and for that cause our teachers were compelled, for the comfort of men's consciences, to show the difference between the ecclesiastical power and the power of the sword. And they have taught that both of them, because of God's commandment, are dutifully to be reverenced and honored, as the chiefest blessings of God upon earth.
Sic autem sentiunt, potestatem clavium seu potestatem Episcoporum, juxta Evangelium, potestatem esse seu mandatum Dei, prædicandi Evangelii, remittendi et retinendi peccata, et administrandi Sacramenta. Nam cum Now their judgment is this: that the power of the keys, or the power of the Bishops, by the rule of the Gospel, is a power or commandment from God, of preaching the Gospel, of remitting or retaining sins, and of administering the Sacraments.
hoc mandata Christus mittit Apostolos (John xx. 21 sqq.): 'Sicut misit me Pater, ita et ego mitto vos. Accipite Spiritum Sanctum: quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis, et quorum retinueritis peccata, retenta sunt.' Mark xvi. 15: 'Ite, prædicate Evangelium omni creaturæ,' etc. For Christ doth send his Apostles with this charge: 'As the Father hath sent me, even so send I you. Receive ye the Holy Ghost: whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained' (John xx. 21–23). 'Go and preach the Gospel to every creature,' etc. (Mark xvi. 15).
Hæc potestas tantum exercetur docendo seu prædicando verbum, et porrigendo Sacramenta, vel multis vel singulis juxta vocationem, quia conceduntur non res corporales, sed res æternæ, justitia æterna, Spiritus Sanctus, vita æterna. Hæc non possunt contingere nisi per ministerium verbi et Sacramentorum; sicut Paulus dicit (Rom. i. 16): 'Evangelium est potentia Dei ad salutem omni credenti.' This power is put in execution only by teaching or preaching the Word and administering the Sacraments, either to many or to single individuals, in accordance with their call. For thereby not corporal things, but eternal, are granted; as an eternal righteousness, the Holy Ghost, life everlasting. These things can not be got but by the ministry of the Word and of the Sacraments, as Paul saith, 'The Gospel is the power of God to salvation to every one that believeth' (Rom. i. 16).
Itaque cum potestas ecclesiastica concedat res æternas, et tantum exerceatur per ministerium verbi: non impedit politicam administrationem; sicut ars canendi nihil impedit politicam administrationem. Nam politica administration versatur circa alias res, quam Evangelium: magistratus defendit non mentes, sed corpora et res corporales Seeing, then, that the ecclesiastical power concerneth things eternal, and is exercised only by the ministry of the Word, it hindereth not the political government any more than the art of singing hinders political government. For the political administration is occupied about other matters than is the Gospel. The magistracy defends not the minds, but the bodies, and
adversus manifestas injurias, et coërcet homines gladio et corporalibus pænis, ut justitiam civilem et pacem retineat. bodily things, against manifest injuries; and coerces men by the sword and corporal punishments, that it may uphold civil justice and peace.
Non igitur commiscendæ sunt potestates ecclesiastica et civilis: ecclesiastica suum mandatum habet Evangelii docendi et administrandi Sacramenta. Non irrumpat in alienum officium, non transferat regna mundi, non abroget leges magistratuum, non tollat legitimam obedientiam, non impediat judicia de ullis civilibus ordinationibus aut contractibus, non præscribat leges magistratibus de forma rei publicæ; sicut dicit Christus (John xviii. 36): 'Regnum meum non est de hoc mundo.' Item (Luke xii. 14): 'Quis constituit me judicem aut divisiorem super vos?' Et Paulus ait (Phil. iii. 20): 'Nostra politia in cœlis est.' 2 Cor. x. 4: 'Arma militiæ nostræ non sunt carnalia, sed potentia Dei, ad destruendas cogitationes,' etc. Ad hunc modum discernunt nostri utriusque potestatis officia, et jubent utramque honore afficere et agnoscere, utramque Dei donum et beneficium esse. Wherefore the ecclesiastical and civil powers are not to be confounded. The ecclesiastical power hath its own commandment to preach the Gospel and administer the Sacraments. Let it not by force enter into the office of another; let it not transfer worldly kingdoms; let it not abrogate the magistrates' laws; let it not withdraw from them lawful obedience; let it not hinder judgments toughing any civil ordinances or contracts; let it not prescribe laws to the magistrate touching the form of the republic; as Christ saith, 'My kingdom is not of this world' (John xviii. 36). Again, 'Who made me a judge or a divider over you?' (Luke xii. 14). And Paul saith, 'Our conversation [citizenship] is in heaven' (Phil. iii. 20). 'The weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but might through God, casting down imaginations,' etc. (2 Cor. x. 4). In this way do our teachers distinguish between the duties of each power one from the other, and do warn all men to honor both powers, and to acknowledge both to be the [highest] gift and blessing of God.
Si quam habent Episcopi potestatem If so be that the Bishops have
gladii, hanc non habent Episcopi ex mandato Evangelii, sed jure humano donatam a regibus et imperatoribus, ad administrationem civilem suorum bonorum. Hæc interim alia functio est, quam ministerium Evangelii. any power of the sword, they have it not as Bishops by the commandment of the Gospel, but by man's law given unto them of kings and emperors, for the civil government of their goods. This, however, is a kind of function diverse from the ministry of the gospel.
Cum igitur de jurisdictione Episcoporum quæritur, discerni debet imperium ab ecclesiastica jurisdictione. Porro secundum Evangelium, seu, ut loquuntur, de jure divino, nulla jurisdictio competit Episcopis, ut Episcopis, hoc est, his, quibus est commissum ministerium Verbi et Sacramentorum, nisi remittere peccata, item, cognoscere doctrinam, et doctrinam ab Evangelio dissentientem rejicere, et impios, quorum nota est impietas, excludere a communione Ecclesiæ, sine vi humana, sed Verbo. Hic necessario et de jure divino debent eis Ecclesiæ præstare obedientiam, juxta illud (Luke x. 16): 'Qui vos audit, me audit.' Therefore, when the question touches the jurisdiction of Bishops, government must be distinguished from ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Again, by the Gospel, or, as they term it, by divine right, Bishops, as Bishops—that is, those who have the administration of the Word and Sacraments committed to them—have no other jurisdiction at all, but only to remit sin, also to take cognizance of [to judge in regard to] doctrine, and to reject doctrine inconsistent with the Gospel, and to exclude from the communion of the Church, without human force, but by the Word [of God], those whose wickedness is known. And herein of necessity the churches ought by divine right to render obedience unto them; according to the saying of Christ, 'He that heareth you heareth me' (Luke x. 16).
Verum cum aliquid contra Evangelium docent aut statuunt, tunc habent Ecclesiæ mandatum Dei, quod obedientiam prohibet (Matt. vii. 15): 'Cavete a Pseudo-prophetis.' But when they teach or determine any thing contrary to the Gospel, then have the churches a commandment of God, which forbiddeth obedience to them: 'Beware
Gal. i. 8: 'Si Angelus de cœlo aliud Evangelium evangelizaverit, anathema sit.' 2 Cor. xiii. 8: 'Non possumus aliquid contra veritatem, sed pro veritate,' Item (10): 'Data est nobis potestas ad ædificationem, non ad destructionem.' Sic et Canones præcipiunt (II. Quæst. VII. Cap. Sacerdotes, et Cap. Oves). Et Augustinus contra Petiliani Epistolam inquit: 'Nec Catholicis Episcopis consentiendum est, sicubi forte falluntur, aut contra Canonicas Dei Scripturas aliquid sentiunt.' of false prophets' (Matt. vii. 15). 'If an angel from heaven preach any other Gospel, let him be accursed' (Gal. i. 8). 'We can not do any thing against the truth, but for the truth' (2 Cor. xiii. 8). Also, 'This power is given us to edify, and not to destroy' (2 Cor. xiii. 10). So do the Canons command (II. Quæst. 7, Cap. Sacerdotes, and Cap. Oves). And Augustine, in his Treatise against Petilian's Epistle, saith, 'Neither must we subscribe to Catholic Bishops, if they chance to err, or determine any thing contrary to the canonical divine Scriptures.'
Si quam habent aliam vel potestatem, vel jurisdictionem in cognoscendis certis causis, videlicet matrimonii, aut decimarum, etc., hanc habent humano jure; ubi cessantibus Ordinariis coguntur Principes, vel inviti, suis subditis jus dicere, ut pax retineatur. If so be that they have any other power or jurisdiction, in hearing and understanding certain cases, as namely, of Matrimony, and Tithes, etc., they hold it by human right. But when the ordinaries fail [to attend to this office], princes are constrained, whether they wish to do so or not, to declare the law to their subjects, for maintaining of peace.
Præter hæc disputatur, utrum Episcopi seu Pastores habeant jus instituendi ceremonias in Ecclesia, et leges de cibis, feriis, gradibus ministrorum, seu ordinibus, etc., condendi. Hoc jus qui tribuunt Episcopis, allegant testimonium (John xvi. 12): 'Adhuc Besides these things, there is a controversy whether Bishops or Pastors have power to institute ceremonies in the Church, and to make laws concerning meats, and holidays, and degrees, or orders of ministers, etc. They that ascribe this power to the Bishops allege this
multa habeo vobis dicere, sed non potestis portare modo. Cum autem venerit ille Spiritus veritatis, docebit vos omnem veritatem.' Allegant etiam exemplum Apostolorum, qui prohibuerunt abstinere a sanguine et suffocato. Allegant Sabbatum mutatum in diem Dominicum, contra Decalogum ut videtur. Nec ullum exemplum magis jactatur, quam mutatio Sabbati. Magnam contendunt Ecclesiæ potestatem esse, quod dispensaverit de præcepto Decalogi. testimony for it: 'I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye can not bear them now; but when that Spirit of truth shall come, he shall teach you all truth' (John xvi 12, 13). They allege also the examples of the Apostles, who commanded to abstain from blood, and that which was strangled (Acts xv. 29). They allege the change of the Sabbath into the Lord's day, contrary, as it seemeth, to the Decalogue; and they have no example more in their mouths than the change of the Sabbath. They will needs have the Church's power to be very great, because it hath dispensed with a precept of the Decalogue.
Sed de hac quæstione nostri sic docent, quod Episcopi non habent poststatem statuendi aliquid contra Evangelium, ut supra ostensum est, docent idem Canones IX. Distinct. Porro contra Scripturam est, traditiones condere aut exigere, ut per eam observationem satis faciamus pro peccatis, aut mereamur gratiam et justitiam. Leditur enim Gloria meriti Christi, cum talibus observationibus conamur mereri justificationem. Constat autem propter hanc persuasionem, in Ecclesia pene in infinitum crevisse traditiones, oppressa interim doctrina de fide But of this question ours do thus teach: that the Bishops have no power to ordain any thing contrary to the Gospel, as was showed before. The same also do the Canons teach: Distinct. 9. Moreover, it is against the Scripture to ordain or require the observation of any traditions, to the end that we may merit remission of sins, and satisfy for sins by them. For the glory of Christ's merit suffers when we seek by such observances to merit justification. And it is very apparent, that through this persuasion traditions grew into an infinite number in the Church. In the mean while, the doctrine concerning faith, and the
et justitia fidei, quia subinde plures feriæ factæ sunt, jejunia indicta, ceremoniæ novæ, novi honores sanctorum instituti sunt, quia arbitrabantur se autores talium rerum his operibus mereri gratiam. Sic olim creverunt Canones pœnitentiales, quorum adhuc in satisfactionibus vestigial quædam videmus. righteousness of faith, was quite suppressed, for thereupon there were new holidays made, new fasts appointed, new ceremonies, new worships for saints, instituted; because that the authors of such things supposed by these works to merit grace. After the same manner heretofore did the Penitential Canons increase, whereof we still see some traces in satisfactions.
Item, autores traditionum faciunt contra mandatum Dei, cum collocant peccatum in cibis, in diebus et similibus rebus, et onerant Ecclesiam servitute legis, quasi oporteat apud Christianos ad promerendam justificationem cultum esse similem Levitico, cujus ordinationem commiserit Deus Apostolis et Episcopis. Sic enim scribunt quidam, et videntur Pontifices aliqua ex parte exemplo legis Mosaicæ decepti esse. Hinc sunt illa onera, quod peccatum mortale sit, etiam sine offensione aliorum, in feriis laborare minibus, quod sit peccatum mortale omittere horas Canonicas, quod certi cibi polluant conscientiam, quod jejunia sint opera placantia Deum, quod peccatum in casu reservato non posit remitti, nisi accesserit autoritas reservantis, cum quidem ipsi Canones non de reservatione Moreover, the authors of traditions do contrary to the command of God when they find matters of sin in foods, in days, and like things, and burden the Church with the servitude of the law, as if there ought to be among Christians, in order to merit justification, a service like the Levitical, the ordination of which God has committed to the Apostles and Bishops. For this some of them write, and the Pontiffs in some measure seem to be misled by the example of the Law of Moses. From hence are those burdens, that it is mortal sin, even without offense to others, to do manual labor on the festivals, that it is a mortal sin to omit the Canonical Hours, that certain foods defile the conscience, that fastings are works which appease God; that sin, in a reserved case, can not be pardoned, but by the authority of him that reserved it: whereas the Canons speak only of
culpæ, sed de reservatione pœnæ ecclesiasticæ loquantur. reserving of ecclesiastical penalty, and not of the reserving of the fault.
Unde habent jus episcopi has traditiones imponendi Ecclesiis ad illaqueandas conscientias, quum Petrum (Acts xv. 10) vetet 'imponere jugum discipulis,' quum Paulus (2 Cor. xiii. 10) dicat, potestatem ipsis datam esse 'ad ædificationem, non ad destructionem.' Cur igitur augent peccata per has traditiones? Whence, then, have the Bishops power and authority of imposing these traditions upon the churches, for the ensnaring of men's consciences, when Peter forbids (Acts xv. 10) 'to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples,' and St. Paul says (2 Cor. xiii. 10) that the power given him was to edification, not to destruction? Why, therefore do they increase sins by these traditions?
Verum extant clara testimonia, quæ prohibent condere tales traditiones ad promerendam gratiam, aut tanquam necessarias ad salutem. Paulus (Col. ii. 16): 'Nemo vos judicet in cibo, potu, parte diei festi, novilunio aut Sabbatis.' Item (20): 'Si mortui estis cum Christo ab elementis mundi, quare tanquam viventes in mundo, decreta facitis? Non attingas, non gustes, non contrectes; quæ omnia pereunt usu, et sunt mandata et doctrinæ hominum, quæ habent speciem sapientiæ.' Item, ad Titum (i. 14) aperte prohibet traditiones: 'Non attendentes Judaicis fabulis et mandatis hominum aversantium veritatem.' Et Christus (Matt. xv. 14) inquit de his, qui exigent traditions: 'Sinite illos, cæci sunt et duces For there are divers clear testimonies which prohibit the making of such traditions, either to merit grace, or as things necessary to salvation. Paul saith to the Colossians, 'Let no man judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of a holiday, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath days' (Col. ii. 16). Again, 'If ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances (Touch not, taste not, handle not; which all are to perish with the using) after the commandments and doctrines of men? Which things indeed have a show of wisdom' (Col. ii. 20–23). And to Titus he doth plainly forbid traditions; for he saith, 'Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and to commandments of men, that turn from the truth' (Tit. i. 14). And Christ saith of them
cæcorum.' Et improbat tales cultus (13): 'Omnis plantatio, quam non plantavit Pater meus cælestis, eradicabitur.' which urge traditions, 'Let them alone; they be blind leaders of the blind' (Matt. xv. 14). And he condemneth such services: 'Every plant which my heavenly Father hath not planted shall be rooted up' (ver. 13).
Si jus habent Episcopi onerandi ecclesias infinitis traditionibus, et illaqueandi conscientias, cur toties prohibet Scriptura condere et audire traditiones? Cur vocat eas (1 Tim. iv. 1) doctrinas dæmoniorum? Num frustra hæc præmonuit Spiritus Sanctus? If Bishops have authority to burden the churches with innumerable traditions, and to snare men's consciences, why doth the Scripture so oft forbid to make and to listen to traditions? Why doth it call them the doctrines of devils? (1 Tim. iv. 1.) Hath the Holy Ghost warned us of them to no purpose?
Relinquitur igitur, cum ordinationes institutæ tanquam necessariæ, aut cum opinione promerendæ gratiæ, pungent cum Evangelio, Quod non liceat ullis Episcopis tales cultus instituere aut exigere. Necesse est enim in ecclesiis [in der Christenheit] retineri doctrinam de liberate Christiana, quod non sit necessaria servitus legis ad justificationem; sicut in Galatis scriptum est (v. 1): 'Nolite iterum jugo servitutis subjici.' Necesse est retineri præcipuum Evangelii locum, quod gratiam per fidem in Christum, gratis consequamur, non propter certas observationes, aut propter cultus ab hominibus institutos. It remaineth, then, that (seeing ordinances, instituted as necessary, or with the opinion of meriting grace, are repugnant to the Gospel) it is not lawful for any Bishops to institute or exact such worship. For it is necessary that the doctrine of Christian liberty should be maintained in the church [Christendom]: that the bondage of the law is not necessary unto justification, as it is written to the Galatians: 'Be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage' (Gal. v. 1). It necessary that the chiefest point of all the Gospel should be holden fast, that we do freely obtain grace, by faith in Christ, not because of certain observances, or of services devised by men.
Quid igitur sentiendum est de die Dominico et similibus ritibus templorum? Ad hæc respondent [die Unsern], quod liceat Episcopis seu Pastoribus facere ordinationes, ut res ordine gerantur in Ecclesia, non ut per illas mereamur gratiam, aut satis faciamus pro peccatis, aut obligentur conscientiæ, ut judicent esse necessarios cultus, ac sentient se peccare, cum sine offensione aliorum violant. Sic Paulus ordinat (1 Cor. xi. 15) 'ut in congregatione mulieres velent capita' (1 Cor. xiv. 30), 'ut ordine audiantur in Ecclesia interpretes,' etc. What is, then to be thought of the Lord's day, and of like rites of temples? Hereunto they [ours] answer, that it is lawful for Bishops or Pastors to make ordinances, whereby things may be done in order in the Church; not that by them we may merit grace, or satisfy for sins, or that men's consciences should be bound to esteem them as necessary services, and think that they sin when they violate them, without the offense of others. So Paul ordained, 'that women should cover their heads in the congregation' (1 Cor. xi. 6); 'that the interpreters of Scriptures should be heard in order in the Church' (1 Cor. xiv. 27), etc.
Tales ordinations convenit ecclesias propter caritatem et tranquillitatem servare eatenus, ne alius alium offendat, ut ordine et sine tumultu omnia fiant in ecclesiis (1 Cor. xiv. 40, comp. Phil. ii. 14): verum ita, ne conscientiæ onerentur, ut ducant res esse necessarias ad salutem, ac judicent se peccare, cum violant eas sine aliorum offensione, sicut nemo dixerit peccare mulierem, quæ in publicum non velato capite procedit, sine offensione hominum. Such ordinances it behooveth the churches to keep for charity and quietness' sake, so that one offend not another, that all things may be done in order, and without tumult in the churches (1 Cor. xiv. 40 and Phil. ii. 14), but so that consciences be not burdened, so as to account them as things necessary to salvation, and think they sin when they violate them, without offense of others; as no one would say that a woman sins if she went into public with her head uncovered, provided it were without the offense of men.
Talis est observatio diei Dominici, Such is the observation of the
Paschatis, Pentecostes et similium feriarum et rituum. Nam qui judicant Ecclesiæ autoritate pro Sabbato institutam esse diei Dominici observationem, tanquam necessariam, longe errant. Scriptura abrogavit Sabbatum, quæ docet omnes ceremonias Mosaicas, post revelatum Evangelium omitti posse. Et tamen, quia opus erat constituere certum diem, ut sciret populus, quando convenire deberet, apparet Ecclesiam [die christliche Kirche] ei rei destinasse diem Dominicum, qui ob hanc quoque causam videtur magis placuisse, ut haberent homines exemplum Christianæ libertatis, et scirent, nec Sabbati nec alterius diei observationem necessariam esse [dass weder die Haltung des Sabbaths, noch eines andern Tages vonnöthen sei].2626This view of the Christian Sabbath, which was held by all the Reformers, and still prevails on the Continent of Europe, overlooks the important fact that the Sabbath has a moral as well as a ceremonial aspect, and is a part of the Decalogue, which the Lord did not come 'to destroy, but to fulfill' (Matt. v. 17, 18; comp. xxii. 37–40; Rom. iii. 31; x. 4). As a periodical day of rest for the body, and worship for the soul, the Sabbath is founded in the physical and moral constitution of man, and reflects the rest of God after the work of creation (Gen. ii. 3). Under this view it is of primitive origin, like the institution of marriage, and of perpetual obligation, like the other commandments of the Decalogue. A lax theory of the Sabbath naturally leads to a lax practice, and tends to destroy the blessing of this holy day. The Anglo-American churches have an unspeakable advantage over those of the Continent of Europe in their higher theory and practice of Sabbath observance, which dates from the close of the sixteenth century. Even Puritan rigor is better than the opposite extreme. Lord's day, of Easter, of Pentecost, and like holidays and rites. For they that think that the observation of the Lord's day was appointed by the authority of the Church, instead of the Sabbath, as necessary, are greatly deceived. The Scripture, which teacheth that all the Mosaical ceremonies can be omitted after the Gospel is revealed, has abrogated the Sabbath. And yet, because it was requisite to appoint a certain day, that the people might know when they ought to come together, it appears that the [Christian] Church did for that purpose appoint the Lord's day: which for this cause also seemed to have been pleasing, that men might have an example of Christian liberty, and might know that the observation, neither of the Sabbath, nor of another day, was of necessity.
Extant prodigiosæ disputationes de mutatione legis, de ceremoniis novæ legis, de mutatione Sabbati, quæ omnes ortæ sunt There are certain marvelous disputations touching the changing of the law, and the ceremonies of the new law, and the change of the Sabbath:
ex falsa persuasione, quod oporteat in Ecclesia cultum esse similem Levitico, et quod Christus commiserit Apostolis et Episcopis excogitare novas ceremonias, quæ sint ad salutem necessariæ. Hi errores serpserunt in Ecclesiam, cum justitia fidei non satis clare doceretur. Aliqui disputant, diei Dominici observationem non quidem juris divini esse, sed quasi juris divini; præscribunt de feriis, quatenus liceat operari. Hujusmodi disputationes quid sunt aliud, nisi laquei conscientiarum? Quanquam enim conentur epiikeizare [zu lindern und epiiciren] traditiones, tamen nunquam potest æquitas deprehendi [so kann man doch kein ἐπιείκειαν oder Linderung treffen], donec manet opinio necessitatis, quam manere necesse est, ubi ignorantur justitia fidei et libertas Christiana. which all arose from the false persuasion, that there should be a service in the Church, like to the Levitical; and that Christ committed to the Apostles and Bishops the devising new ceremonies, which should be necessary to salvation. These errors crept into the Church, when the righteousness of faith was not plainly enough taught. Some dispute that the observation of the Lord's day is not indeed of the law of God, but as it were of the law of God; and touching holidays, they prescribe how far it is lawful to work in them. What else are such disputations but snares for men's consciences? For though they seek to moderate traditions, yet the equity of them can never be perceived so long as the opinion of necessity remaineth; which must needs remain, where the righteousness of faith and Christian liberty are not know.
Apostoli jusserrunt (Acts xv. 20) 'abstinere a sanguine.' Quis nunc observat? Neque tamen peccant, qui non observant, quia ne ipsi quidem Apostoli voluerunt onerare conscientias tali servitute, sed ad tempus prohibuerunt propter scandalum. Est enim perpetuo voluntas Evangelii [das Hauptstück christlicher Lehre] consideranda in decreto. The Apostles commanded 'to abstain from blood' (Acts xv. 20). Who observeth that nowadays? And yet they do not sin that observe it not. For the Apostles themselves would not burden men's consciences with such a servitude; but they forbade it for a time, because of scandal. For in the decree, the will of the Gospel is always to be considered
Vix ulli Canones servantur accurate, et multi quotidie exotescunt apud illos etiam, qui diligentissime defendunt traditiones. Nec potest conscientiis consuli, nisi hæc æquitas servetur [wo diese Linderung nicht gehalten wird], ut sciamus eos sine opinione necessitatis servari, nec lædi conscientias, etiamsi traditiones exolescant. Scarcely any canons are precisely kept; and many grow out of use daily, yea, even among them that do most busily defend traditions. Neither can there be sufficient care had of men's consciences, except this equity be kept, that men should know that such rites are not to be observed with any opinion of necessity, and that men's consciences are not hurt, though traditions grow out of use.
Facile autem possent Episcopi legitimam obedientiam retinere, si non urgerent servare traditiones, quæ bona conscientia servari non possunt. Nunc imperant cælibatum, nullos recipiunt, nisi jurent se puram Evangelii doctrinam nolle docere. Non petunt Ecclesiæ, ut Episcopi honoris sui jactura sarciant concordiam, quod tamen decebat bonos Pastores facere. Tantum petunt, ut injusta onera remittant, quæ nova sunt, et præter consuetudinem Ecclesiæ Catholicæ [wider den Gebrauch der christlichen gemeinen Kirchen] recepta. Fortassis initio quædam constitutiones habuerunt probabiles causas, quæ tamen posterioribus temporibus non congruent. Apparet etiam quasdam errore receptas esse; quare Pontificiæ clementiæ esset, The Bishops might easily retain lawful obedience, if they would not urge men to observe such traditions as can not be kept with a good conscience. Now they command single life; and they admit none, except they will swear not to teach the pure doctrine of the Gospel. The churches do not desire of the Bishops that they would repair peace and concord with the loss of their honor (which yet good pastors ought to do): they only desire that they would remit unjust burdens, which are both new and received contrary to the custom of the Catholic [Christian Universal] Church. It may well be that some constitutions had some probable reasons when they began, which yet will not agree to latter times. It is evident that some were received through error. Wherefore it were a matter for the pontifical
illas nunc mitigare, quia talis mutatio non labefacit Ecclesiæ unitatem. Multæ enim traditiones humanæ tempore mutatæ sunt, ut ostendunt ipsi Canones. Quod si non potest impetrari, ut relaxentur observationes, quæ sine peccato non possunt præstari, oportet nos regulam Apostolicam sequi (Acts v. 29), quæ præcipit, 'Deo magis obedire, quam hominibus.' gentleness to mitigate them now; for such a change would not overthrow the unity of the Church. For many human traditions have been changed in time, as the Canons themselves declare. But if it can not be obtained that those observances may be relaxed which can not be kept without sin, then must we follow the Apostles' rule, which willeth 'to obey God rather than men' (Acts v. 29).
Petrus (1 Pet. v. 3) vetat Episcopos dominari, et ecclesiis imperare. Nunc non id agitur, ut dominatio eripiatur Episcopis, sed hoc unum petitur, ut patiantur Evangelium pure doceri, et relaxent paucas quasdam observationes, quæ sine peccato servari non possunt. Quod si nihil remiserint, ipsi viderint, quomodo Deo rationem reddituri sint, quod pertinacia sua causam schismati præbent [Spaltung und Schisma, das sie doch billig sollen verhüten helfen]. Peter forbiddeth Bishops to be lords, and to be imperious over the churches (1 Pet. v. 3). Now our meaning is not to have rule taken from the Bishops; but this one thing only is requested at their hands, that they would suffer the Gospel to be purely taught, and that they would relax a few observances, which can not be held without sin. But if they will remit none, let them look how they will give account to God for this, that by their obstinacy they afford cause of schism [division and schism, which it were yet fit they should aid in avoiding].
Epilogus. Conclusion.
Hi sunt præcipui articuli, qui videntur habere controversiam. Quanquam enim de pluribus abusibus dici poterat, tamen, ut fugeremus prolixitatem, præcipua complexi sumus, ex quibus cœtera facile judicari possunt. Magnæ querelæ fuerunt de indulgentiis, de peregrinationibus, de abusu excommunicationis. These are the principal articles which seem to be matters of controversy. For although we might speak of more abuses, yet that we may avoid undue length we have embraced a few, whereby it is easy to judge of the others. Great have been the complaints about indulgences, about pilgrimages, about the abuse of
Parochiæ multipliciter vexabantur per Stationarios. Infinitæ contentiones erant pastoribus cum monachis, de jure parochiali, de confessionibus, de sepulturis, de extraordinariis concionibus, et de aliis innumerabilibus rebus. Hujusmodi negotia prætermisimus, ut illa, quæ sunt in hac causa præcipua, breviter proposita, facilius cognosci possent. Neque hic quicquam ad ullius contumeliam dictum aut collectum est. Tantum ea recitata sunt, quæ videbantur necessario dicenda esse, ut intelligi posit in doctrina ac ceremoniis apud nos nihil esse receptum contra Scripturam aut Ecclesiam Catholicam [gemeiner christlichen Kirchen], quia manifestum est, nos diligentissime cavisse, ne qua nova et impia dogmata in ecclesias nostras serperent [sich einflechte, einreisse und überhand nehme]. excommunication. The parishes have been vexed in manifold ways by the stationarii. Endless contentions have arisen between the pastors and the monks about parochial law, about confession, about burials, about sermons on extraordinary occasions, and about other things without number. Things of this sort we pass over, that those which are chief in this matter, being briefly set forth, may more easily be noted. Nor has any thing been here said or adduced for the purpose of casting reproach on any one. Those things only have been enumerated which it seem necessary to say, that it might be understood that in doctrine and ceremonials among us there is nothing received contrary to Scripture or to the Catholic [Universal Christian] Church, inasmuch as it is manifest that we have diligently taken heed that no new and godless doctrines should creep into our churches.
Hos articulos supra scriptos voluimus exhibere juxta edictum C. M. in quibus confessio nostra exstaret, et eorum, qui apud nos docent, doctrinæ summa cerneretur. Si quid in hac confessione desiderabitur, parati sumus latiorem informationem, Deo volente, juxta Scripturas exhibere [der daran Mangel halt, dem ist man ferner Bericht mit Grund göttlicher heiliger Schrift zu thun erbötig]. In accordance with the Edict of His Imperial Majesty, we wish to present these articles above written, in which is our Confession, and in which is seen a summary of the doctrine of those who teach among us. If any thing be lacking in this Confession, we are prepared, God willing, to present ampler information, in accordance with the Scriptures.
Cæsareæ Majestatis Vestræ, Your Imperial Majesty's
fideles et subditi: most faithful and humble,
Joannes, Dux Saxoniæ, Elector. John, Duke of Saxony, Elector.

Georgius, Marchio Brandenburgensis.

George, Margrave of Brandenburg.
Ernestus, Dux Luneburgensis. Ernest, Duke of Luneburg.
Philippus, Landgravius Hessorum. Philip, Landgrave of Hesse.
Joannes Fridericus, Dux Saxoniæ. John Frederick, Duke of Saxony.
Franciscus, Dux Luneburgensis. Francis, Duke of Luneburg.
Volfgangus, Princeps ab Anhalt. Wolfgang, Prince of Anhalt.

Senatus Magistratusque Nurnbergensis.

Senate and Magistracy of Nuremberg.

Senatus Reutlingensis. Senate of Reutlingen.

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