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Titus 2

Titus 2:1

But speak thou (συ δε λαλε). In contrast to these Pharisaic Gnostics in Crete.

Befit (πρεπε). Old verb to be becoming, seemly. See 1Ti 2:10; Eph 5:3 . With dative case διδασκαλια.

Sound (υγιαινουση). Healthful as in 1:13; 2:2; 1Ti 1:10 , common word in the Pastorals.

Titus 2:2

Aged men (πρεσβυτας). See Phm 1:9 for this word. For discussion of family life see also Co 3:18-4:1; Eph 5:22-6:9; 1Ti 5:1-6:2 . For the adjectives here see 1Ti 3:2,8 ; for the substantives see 1Ti 6:11 .

Titus 2:3

Aged women (πρεσβυτιδας). Old word, feminine of πρεσβυτης, only here in N.T. See πρεσβυτερας in 1Ti 5:2 .

Reverent (ιεροπρεπεις). Old word (ειροσ, πρεπε). Only here in N.T. Same idea in 1Ti 2:10 . Like people engaged in sacred duties (Lock).

In demeanour (εν καταστηματ). Late and rare word (inscriptions) from καθιστημ, deportment, only here in N.T.

Not slanderers (μη διαβολους). See 1Ti 3:11; 2Ti 3:3 .

Nor enslaved to much wine (μηδε οινω πολλω δεδουλωμενας). Perfect passive participle of δουλοω, with dative case οινω. See 1Ti 3:8 . "It is proved by experience that the reclamation of a woman drunkard is almost impossible" (White). But God can do the "impossible."

Teachers of that which is good (καλοδιδασκαλους). Compound word found here alone, bona docentes (teaching good and beautiful things). A sorely needed mission.

Titus 2:4

That they may train (ινα σωφρονιζωσιν). Purpose clause, ινα and present active subjunctive of σωφρονιζω, old verb (from σωφρων, sound in mind, σαοσ, φρην, as in this verse), to make sane, to restore to one's senses, to discipline, only here in N.T.

To love their husbands (φιλανδρους εινα). Predicate accusative with εινα of old adjective φιλανδρος (φιλοσ, ανηρ, fond of one's husband), only here in N.T. Ανηρ means man, of course, as well as husband, but only husband here, not "fond of men" (other men than their own).

To love their children (φιλοτεκνους). Another old compound, here only in N.T. This exhortation is still needed where some married women prefer poodle-dogs to children.

Titus 2:5

Workers at home (οικουργους). So the oldest MSS. (from οικοσ, εργου) instead of οικουρους, keepers at home (from κοισο, ουρος, keeper). Rare word, found in Soranus, a medical writer, Field says. Cf. 1Ti 5:13 . "Keepers at home" are usually "workers at home."

Kind (αγαθας). See Ro 5:7 . See Col 3:18; Eph 5:22 for the same use of υποτασσομα, to be in subjection. Note ιδιοις (their own). See 1Ti 6:1 for the same negative purpose clause (ινα μη βλασφημητα).

Titus 2:6

The younger men (τους νεωτερους). Just one item, besides "likewise" (οσαυτως as in 3; 1Ti 2,9 ), "to be soberminded" (σωφρονειν, old verb as in Rom 12:3 ). It is possible to take "in all things" (περ παντα) with σωφρονειν, though the editors take it with verse 7.

Titus 2:7

Shewing thyself (σεαυτον παρεχομενος). Present middle (redundant middle) participle of παρεχω with the reflexive pronoun σεαυτον as if the active voice παρεχων. The Koine shows an increasing number of such constructions (Robertson, Grammar, p. 811). See active in 1Ti 1:4 .

An ensample (τυπον). For this word see 2Th 3:9; Php 3:17 .

Uncorruptness (αφθοριαν). Only example, from late adjective αφθορος (α privative and φθειρω).

Titus 2:8

Sound (υγιÂη, Attic usually υγιÂα in accusative singular), elsewhere in Pastorals participle υγιανÂων (verse 1).

That cannot be condemned (ακαταγνωστον). Only N.T. example (verbal, α privative and καταγνωστος) and in IV Macc. 4:47. Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 200) quotes it from an inscription and the adverb from a papyrus.

He that is of the contrary part (ο εξ εναντιας). "The one on the opposite side" (your opponent). Cf. verse 9; 1Ti 5:14 .

May be ashamed (ινα εντραπη). Final clause with ινα and second aorist passive subjunctive of εντρεπω, to turn, in middle and passive to turn one on himself and so be ashamed (to blush) as in 2Th 3:14; 1Co 4:14 . This sense in the papyri.

Evil (φαυλον). Old word, easy (easy morals), worthless; bad, as in 2Co 5:10 .

Titus 2:9

Servants (δουλους). "Slaves." Supply "exhort" (παρακαλε). See 1Ti 6:1 for "masters" (δεσποταις).

Well-pleasing (ευαρεστους). See on 2Co 5:9 .

Not gainsaying (μη αντιλεγοντας). "Not answer back." See Ro 10:21 .

Titus 2:10

Not purloining (μη νοσφιζομενους). Present middle participle of νοσφιζω, old verb (from νοσφ, apart), in middle to set apart for oneself, to embezzle, in N.T. only here and Ac 5:2f .

Fidelity (πιστιν). See Ga 5:22; 1Ti 5:12 for πιστις in the sense of faithfulness. Nowhere else in the N.T. do we have αγαθη with πιστις as here, but an Oxyr. papyrus (iii. 494, 9) has this very phrase (πασαν πιστιν ενδεικνυμενη). Westcott and Hort put αγαπην in the margin. See 3:2.

That they may adorn (ινα κοσμωσιν). Final clause with ινα and present active subjunctive. See 1Ti 2:9 for κοσμεω. Paul shows slaves how they may "adorn" the teaching of God.

Titus 2:11

Hath appeared (επεφανη). "Did appear," the first Epiphany (the Incarnation). Second aorist passive indicative of επιφαινω, old verb, in N.T. here, 3:4; Lu 1:79; Ac 27:20 .

Bringing salvation (σωτηριος). Old adjective from σωτηρ (Saviour), here alone in N.T. except το σωτηριον (salvation, "the saving act") in Lu 2:30; 3:6; Eph 6:17 .

Instructing (παιδευουσα). See 1Ti 1:20 .

Ungodliness (ασεβειαν). See Ro 1:18 .

Worldly lusts (τας κοσμικας επιθυμιας). Aristotle and Plutarch use κοσμικος (from κοσμος) about the universe as in Heb 9:1 about the earthly. Here it has alone in N.T. the sense of evil "in this present age" as with κοσμος in 1Jo 2:16 . The three adverbs set off the opposite (soberly σωφρονως, righteously δικαιως, godly ευσεβως).

Titus 2:13

Looking for (προσδεχομενο). Present middle participle of προσδεχομα, old verb, the one used of Simeon (Lu 2:25 ) and others (Lu 2:38 ) who were looking for the Messiah.

The blessed hope and appearing of the glory (την μακαριαν ελπιδα κα επιφανειαν της δοξης). The word επιφανεια (used by the Greeks of the appearance of the gods, from επιφανησ, επιφαινω) occurs in 2Ti 1:10 of the Incarnation of Christ, the first Epiphany (like the verb επεφανη, Tit 2:11 ), but here of the second Epiphany of Christ or the second coming as in 1Ti 6:14; 2Ti 4:1,8 . In 2Th 2:8 both επιφανεια and παρουσια (the usual word) occur together of the second coming.

Of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ (του μεγαλου θεου κα σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου). This is the necessary meaning of the one article with θεου and σωτηρος just as in 2 Peter 1:1,11 . See Robertson, Grammar, p. 786. Westcott and Hort read Χριστου Ιησου.

Titus 2:14

Who gave himself for us (ος εδωκεν εαυτον υπερ ημων). Paul's great doctrine (Ga 1:4; 2:20; 1Ti 2:6 ).

That he might redeem us (ινα λυτρωσητα). Final clause, ινα and the aorist middle subjunctive of λυτροω, old verb from λυτρον (ransom), in N.T. only here, Lu 24:21; 1Pe 1:18 .

Purify to himself (καθαριση εαυτω). Final clause with first aorist active subjunctive of καθαριζω, for which verb see Eph 5:26 .

Lawlessness (ανομιας). See 2Th 2:3 .

A people for his own possession (λαον περιουσιον). A late word (from περιειμ, to be over and above, in papyri as well as περιουσια), only in LXX and here, apparently made by the LXX, one's possession, and so God's chosen people. See 1Pe 2:9 (λαος εις περιποιησιν).

Zealous of good works (ζηλωτην καλων εργων). "A zealot for good works." Substantive for which see 1Co 14:12; Ga 1:14 . Objective genitive εργων.

Titus 2:15

With all authority (μετα πασης επιταγης). See 1Co 7:6; 2Co 8:8 . Assertion of authority is sometimes necessary.

Let no man despise thee (μηδεις σου περιφρονειτω). Present active imperative in prohibition of περιφρονεω, old verb, only here in N.T., to think around (on all sides). Literally, "let no man think around thee" (and so despise thee). In 1Ti 4:12 it is καταφρονειτω (think down on), a stronger word of scorn, but this one implies the possibility of one making mental circles around one and so "out-thinking" him. The best way for the modern minister to command respect for his "authority" is to do thinking that will deserve it.

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