MENOLOGIOft: The equivalent in the Greek Church of the Calendarium and Martyrologium of the Latin Church. It contains a list of the festivals in honor of the saints and martyrs, together with short notices of the life and death of the saint or martyr celebrated. It is not to be confused with the Menaion (q.v.), which contains the offices for the day as well as the " Acts " of the saint. The basis of the present Menologion was laid in 886 under the Emperor Basil. See ACTA MARTYRuM, AcTA SANCroRum, II., § 1.

MENSES PAPALES ("PAPAL MONTHS"): A term applied to the pope's right of making appointments to certain benefices falling vacant in certain specified months, while the bishops and other patrons appointed in the remaining months. The arrangement is set down in the Roman chancery regulations, under No. IX. The point should be particularly noted that in common parlance the expression " papal months " is incorrectly supposed to mean the same as odd months, alternating months, alternativa mensium, while in fact the papal months are January, February, April, May, July, August, October, and November. There is one defined exception to the rule as stated, and this is specifically laid down in the chancery regulations, namely, that in favor of the patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops who contemplate personal residence in their sees, the eight papal months are reduced to six, and in such fashion that the pope has reserved for himself only the six odd months (January, March, May, July, September, November).

The origin of the papal months rests on the following facts. From the twelfth century, the popes began to recommend incumbents for vacant benefices in case of particular churches, at first through the channel of written requests (precw); and if this proved ineffectual, they would then

supply the place with the designated incumbent, by a mandatory reseript (naandatum de providendo). When the mandate itself was not observed, it was customary to issue, in due succession, liUrw monir torim, prmceptarim and executorim (briefs of admo. nition, injunction, and execution); and then, if necessary, the " execution "followed. Since these mandates came to be issued, for the most part, in favor of indigent petitioners, such concessions were styled per f-m communem, or in forma pauperum. Before long, however, the issue of mandata de providendo was applied to benefices not only actually but also prospectively vacant, which involved a violation of a provision of the Lateran Council of 1179, forbidding the bestowal of a contingent incumbency. A regulation of the practise was undertaken by the Council of Basel (1418) and by the Concordat of Vienna 1448; though it came to be much modified later by custom and by special indults.

The right of the papal months is still in existence, although with fresh modifications in modern times, or under special agreements. Thus the Bavarian concordat of 1817 provides that the king shall appoint two canonries in the six apostolic or papal months. In the case of Prussia, the bull De salute am marum (1821) decrees " from this time forth, canonries falling vacant in the months of January, March, May, July, September and November, shall be bestowed in the manner hitherto observed in the Chapter of Breslau." In Breslau, by virtue of his title as sovereign duke of Silesia, the king had exercised the right of nomination to vacant canonries in the odd months, the bishop supplying credentials as to canonical fitness, whereupon the papal brief of provision was issued. In various other countries, the papal months have lapsed along with other curial reservations; as in Hanover, the territories belonging to the ecclesiastical province of the Upper Rhine, etc. E. SEHLIN(i.


MENTZER, BALTHASAR: The name of four German scholars.

1. Balthasar the Elder: Theologian; b. at Allendorf (11 m. e. of Marburg) Feb. 27, 1565; d. at Marburg Jan. 6, 1627. After preliminary studies at the gymnasium at Hersfeld, he entered the University of Marburg in 1583; became pastor at Kirtorf in 1589; and professor at Marburg in 1596, enjoying the friendship of Ludwig III., landgrave of Hesse, until the latter's death in 1604. Mentzer was a strict adherent of Lutheran orthodoxy; the course of the new landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, Maurice, in favoring the Reformed type of doctrine was therefore a severe blow, intensified by the prohibition of discussions which involved the points at issue between Lutherans and Reformed and by the sending of advocates of the Reformed teachings to preach in Marburg. This gave an opportunity to the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt to interfere in the affairs of Hesse. He therefore, in 1605 invited Mentzer and two other professors to establish a gymnasium at Giessen for the protection of Lutheranism. The new institution was a success from the first, and this led to the founding


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Xetcalfe THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 332 Xethodists character, hence the term is not to be construed as everywhere identical with stibium. Whether the Hebrew hashmal (Ezek. i. 4, 27; viii. 2) is to be iden tified with the elektron, " amber," of the ancients, and whether "amber" is the designation of a me tallic substance are matters of debate. Neither is it certain that the "fine brass" of Rev. i. 15, ii. 18, and the " burnished braes " of Ezek. i. 7; Dan. a. 6; the " bright brass " in Ezra viii. 27, should be inter preted to mean the " Corinthian brass," an alloy of gold, silver and copper, although in these in stances the reference is to an alloy more valuable and finer than ordinary brass. I. BENZINGER. BIBLIOGRAPHY: K. C. W. Bahr, $ymbolik den mosaischen Cultus, i. 258-295, Heidelberg, 1837; R. F. Burton, Gold Mines of Midian, London, 1878= Bensinger, Arddolopie, pp. 148-149; Nowack Archdolopie, pp. 243 eqq.; J. P. A. Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, New York, 1894; G. Mas paro, Hiat· ancienne des peuplea de 1'orient, i. 750-757, ii. 534, Paris, 1898, Eng. trans]., Passing of as Empires, and Dawn of Civilization, London, 1899-1902; F. Vigour oux, Dictionnairs, part xxvi. columns 1045-47; idem, La Bible et lee &couvertm modernes, iv. 299-302, Paris. 1898; JE, viii. 513-515; the articles in DB and EB on the individual metals (gold, silver, iron, etc.), and EB, iii. 3097-98, with the references to other articles there indicated. METCALFE, WILLIAM MUSHAM: Church of Scotland; b. at York, England, Sept. 14, 1840. He was educated at New College, London, and after being minister of Tigh-na-bruaich, Argyllshire, from 1873 to 1878, became minister of South Parish, Paisley, which position he still retains. He was likewise assessor to the lord rector of St. Andrews University from 1892 to 1898, and is chairman of the Local Endowment Educational Trust, and a governor of the Paisley Technical College and School of Arts. In theological position he is liberal. 1. In England. 1. Wesleyan Methodists. John Wesley; Early Life (§ 1). Early Associations (§ 2). Bands; Class Meetings (¢ 3). Love Feasts, Prayer-meetings, Lay Preaching (§ 4). Origin of Conferences; George Bell (§ 5). The Deed of Declaration (§ 8). Events after Wesley's Death (¢ 7). Polity (¢ 8). Eminent Officers and Representa tives (¢ 9). Educational and Missionary Agen cies (§ 10). Wesleyan Methodism in Ireland (§ 11). 2. Calvinistic Methodists. 3. The Methodist New Connection. 4. Primitive Methodists. 5. The Protestant Methodists. 8. The Wesleyan Methodist Associa tion. The United Free Churches. 7. L

Besides editing the quarterly Scottish Review from 1882 to 1900, he has written or edited The Natural Truth of Christianity (Paisley, 1880); The Reaaonablenesa of Christianity (1882); Pinkerton's Vita! Antiques Sanctorum Sconce (2 vole., 1889); Ancient Lives of Scottish, Saints from the Latin and Icelandic (1895); Scottish Legends of the Saints (3 vole., Edinburgh, 189s); Charters and Documents relating to the Burgh of Paisley (Paisley, 1902); The Legends of Saints Ninian and Machar in the Scottish Dialect of the Fourteenth Century (1904); and History of the County of Renfrew (1905).


METH, EZEKIEL: German mystic and leader of a band of enthusiasts; b. in Langensalza (19 m. n.w. of Erfurt) late in the sixteenth century; d. at Erfurt Oct. 26, 1640. The founder of the sect was Meth's uncle, Esaias Stiefel, but Meth appears to have been the real leader. For the characteristics of the sect, which entertained beliefs partaking of the peculiarities of those of the Quakers, Anabaptists, and Schwenckfeldiana, see STCE1rEr., E$wIw$. Stiefel was supposed to be immortal, and after his death in 1627 proved this supposition to be mistaken, Meth returned to the Lutheran Church.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. F. GSeehel, Chronik der Stadt Lunpen salza, ii. 310, Leipeie, 1820; G. Arnold, UnparEeyische Kirrhen-and Ketzer-Hiatorie, Theil III., cap. iv., 4vols., Frankfort, 1700-1b.




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