Note 021
From Chapter 59 of the Decline & Fall

As counts of Vexin, the kings of France were the vassals and advocates of the monastery of St. Denys. The saint's peculiar banner, which they received from the abbot, was of a square form, and a red or flaming colour. The oriflamme appeared at the head of the French armies from the 12th to the 15th century (Ducange sur Joinville, Dissert. xviii. p. 244 - 253).

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