H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar Notes

Part 1 256-262





250 D.  1. Hom. has only -οιιν in the gen. and dat. dual.

2. In the dat. pl. Hom. has -σι (βέλεσ-σι, δέπασ-σι), and in a few cases -εσι, reduced from -εσσι (ἀνάκτ-εσι); -σσι occurs after vowels (γένυ-σσι; for γένῡσι?). -εσσι was added both to stems not ending in ς (πόδ-εσσι, βό-εσσι, ἄνδρ-εσσι, ὀΐ-εσσι, 274 D.), and even to stems in ς (έπέ-εσσι). Hom. has also ποσσί, ποσί; Pind. χαρίτεσσι, θέμισσι.  Tragedy has this -εσσι (κορύθ-εσσι), and so Aeolic, and the Doric of Corinth.







257 D. χρώς skin (χρωτ-) and some other words often show a stem with no τ.  Thus, Hom. χροός, χροΐ (also Hdt.), χρόα, and also, but rarely, χρωτός, χρῶτα. Hom. has ἱδρῷ, γέλῳ, ἔρῳ for Att. ἱδρῶτι (ἱδρώς sweat), γέλωτι (γέλως laughter), ἔρωτι (ἔρως love). Hom. has also acc. ἱδρῶ, γέλω (or γέλων), ἔρον (from ἔρος). Some stems in -ιδ are generally ι stems in Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic: Θέτις, Θέτιος (but Θέτιδος Θ 370), Πάρις, Πάριος.






258 D. The other dialects rarely show the τ forms. Hom. has τέρας, τέραα (τείρεα), τεράων, τεράεσσι, κέρας, κέραος, κέραι, κέρα, κεράων, κέρασι and κεράεσσι. Hdt. has ε for α before a vowel (cp. 264 D. 3) in τέρεος, τέρεα (also τέρατος, τέρατα), κέρεος, κέρει, κέρεα, κερέων. Hom. has πεῖρας πείρατος for πέρας πέρατος. From φάος (φόως), whence φῶς, he has dat. φάει, pl. φά̄εα. φάος is used in tragedy.





259 D. Late Greek shows δελφν, ρν, θν shore (Hom. θί̄ς). ἕλμινς worm in Hippocrates has its ν from the oblique cases. Hom. has ἠέρι, ἠέρα from ἀ̄ήρ air; from Κρονων Hom. has Κρονωνος and Κρονονος.  μάκαρς is Doric for μάκᾱρ happy.  Pind. has φρασί (250 N.).  Ionic μείς, Doric μής are from μενς for μηνς (40, 37 D. 1, 2). Aeolic gen. μῆννος is from μηνσ-ος.





260 D. κυκεών potion usually has κυκεῶ for κυκεῶνα.





262 D. Poetry often has πατέρος, πατέρι, μητέρος, μητέρι, etc. Poetical are πατρῶν; θυγατέρι, θύγατρα, θύγατρες, θυγατρῶν, θυγατέρεσσι, θύγατρας, γαστέρος, etc.; and ἀνέρος ἀνέρι, ἀνέρα, ἀνέρες, ἀνέρων, ἀνέρας all with long α. Hom. has ἄνδρεσσι and ἀνδράσι (with -ασι only in this word), Δήμητρος and Δημήτερος.