H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar Notes

Part 1 532-





534 D. Doric and Aeolic always lengthen α to ᾱ (τῑμά̄σω).

b. In verbs with stems originally ending in Hom. often has σσ in the future:  ἀνύω ἀνύσσεσθαι, τελέω τελέσσω; by analogy ὄλλῡμι ὀλέσσω (and ὀλέσω, ὀλεῖται).





535 D. These futures are often uncontracted in Homer (βαλέω, κτενέεις, ἀγγελέουσιν); regularly in Aeolic; in Hdt. properly only when ε comes before ο or ω.





537 D. Doric has -ξω from most verbs in -ζω (516 D.).




539. b. D. For Hom. -οω for -αω, see 645.





539 D. Hom. has ἀεικιῶ, κομιῶ, κτεριῶ; and also τελέω, καλέω, ἐλάω, ἀντιόω, δαμόωσι (645), ἀνύω, ἐρύουσι, τανύουσι. Hdt. always uses the -ιῶ and -ιοῦμαι forms.  Homeric futures in -εω have a liquid before ε, and are analogous to the futures of liquid verbs.





540 D. Hom. ἐσσεῖται (and ἔσσεται, ἔσεται, ἔσται). In Doric there are three forms: (1) -σέω (and -σῶ), -σέομαι (and -σοῦμαι); and often with ευ from εο as -εῦντι, -εῦμες; (2) -σίω with ι from ε before ο and ω; (3) the Attic forms.





542 D. Mixed Aorists. Hom. has some forms of the first aorist with the thematic vowel (όε) of the second aorist; as ἄξετε, ἄξεσθε (ἄγω lead), ἐβήσετο, imper. βήσεο (βαίνω go), ἐδύ̄σετο (δύω set), ἷξον (ἵ̄κω come), οἶσε, οἴσετε, οἰσέμεν, οἰσέμεναι (φέρω bring), imper. ὄρσεο rise (ὄρνῡμι rouse).





543 a. D. Homeric ἠλευάμην and ἠλεάμην avoided, ἔκηα burned (Att. ἔκαυσα), ἔσσευα drove, also have lost σ.





543 b. D. Hom. often has original σσ, as γελάω ἐγέλασσα, τελέω ἐτέλεσσα; in others by analogy, as ὄλλῡμι ὄλεσσα, ὄμνῡμι ὄμοσσα, καλέω κάλεσσα.





544 D. Hom. has Ionic -ηνα for -ᾱνα after ι or ρ. Aeolic assimilates σ to a liquid; as ἔκριννα, ἀπέστελλα, ἐνέμματο, συνέρραισα ( = συνείρᾱσα). Cp. Hom. ὤφελλε (ὀφέλλω increase).





545 D. Hom. often has σσ from dental stems, as ἐκόμισσα ἐκομισσάμην (κομίζω).  Doric has -ξα from most verbs in -ζω; Hom. also has ξ (ἥρπαξε).  See 516 D.





546 D. Hom. has more second aorists than Attic, which favoured the first aorist.  Some derivative verbs have Homeric second aorists classed under them for convenience only, as κτυπέω sound ἔκτυπον; μῡκάομαι roar ἔμυκον; στυγέω hate ἔστυγον.  These forms are derived from the pure verb-stem (485 d, 553).





547 D. Hom. often has no thematic vowel in the middle voice of ω-verbs (ἐδέγμην from δέχομαι receive). See 634. 688.





549 D. (1) Hom. has (ἐ)κέκλετο (κέλο-μαι command), λέλαθον (λήθ-ω lie hid), ἐπέφραδε (φράζω tell), πεπιθεῖν (πείθ-ω persuade). ἠρύ̄κακον (ἐρύ̄κ-ω check), ἠνί̄παπον and ἐνένῑπον (ἐνίπτω chide, ἐνιπ-) have unusual formation. (2) ἐ-πλ-όμην (πέλο-μαι am, come, πελ-).  (3) ἔπραθον (πέρθ-ω sack), ἔταμον (τέμ-ν-ω cut). (4) βλῆτο (βάλλω hit, 128 a).





551 D. Hom. has ἔκτᾰν I slew (κτείνω, κτεν-) with taken from ἔκτᾰμεν, and οὖτα he wounded (οὐτάω).





555 b. D. Hom. δείδω (used as a present) is for δε-δϜο (ι ̯)-α. δειδ- was written on account of the metre when Ϝ was lost. Hom. δέδια is for δε-δ(Ϝ)ι-α with the weak root that is used in δέδιμεν.  See 703 D.











557 D. 1. Hom. has the κ-perfect only in verbs with vowel verb-stems.  Of these some have the second perfect in -α, particularly in participles.  Thus κεκμηώς, Attic κεκμηκώς (κάμ-ν-ω am weary); κεκορηώς (κορέ-ννῡμι satiate); πεφύ̄κᾱσι and πεφύᾱσι (φύω produce).

2. In some dialects a present was derived from the perfect stem; as Hom. ἀνώγω, Theocr. δεδοίκω, πεφύ̄κει (in the 2 perf.: Theocr. πεπόνθω).  Inf. τεθνάκην (Aeol.), part. κεκλήγοντες (Hom.), πεφρί̄κων (Pind.).

3. From μέμηκα (μηκάομαι bleat) Hom. has the plup. ἐμέμηκον.





561 D. Hom. has several forms unknown to Attic:  δέδουπα (δουπ-έ-ω sound), ἔολπα (ἔλπ-ω hope), ἔοργα (ῥέζω work), προ-βέβουλα (βούλομαι wish), μέμηλα (μέλω care for).





562 D. But δέδια fear from δϜι-.  See 555 b. D., 703.





569 D. Hom. never aspirates π, β, κ, γ.  Thus κεκοπώς = Att. κεκοφώς (κόπ-τ-ω cut).  The aspirated perfect occurs once in Hdt. (ἐπεπόμφει 1. 85); but is unknown in Attic until the fifth century b.c. Soph. Tr. 1009 (ἀνατέτροφας) is the only example in tragedy.