H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar Notes

Part 2 §§439-





439 D. Reduplication (or the augment for the reduplication) is generally retained in Hom.  Exceptions are ἔρχαται and ἔρχατο from ἔργω shut, ἄνωγα order, ἕσται from ἕννῡμι clothe.  On δέχαται await, ἐδέγμην was expecting cp. 634.





442. b. D. Hom. has ῥε-ρυπωμένος (ῥυπόω soil), ἔμμορε (μείρομαι obtain) for ἐ-σμορε 445 a, ἔσσυμαι (σεύω urge) for ἐ-κι ̯υ-μαι; Ionic has ἔκτημαι.





444 b. D. Hdt. has οἶκα (for ἔοικα), ἔωθα, ἐώθεα; Hom. has ἔωθεν and εἴωθε.





445 D. Hom. δείδω fear stands for δε-δϜω from δε-δϜοι ̯α (cp. δϜέος).  So δείδοικα for δε-δϜοικα. For δείδεκτο greeted we should read δήδεκτο with η-reduplication.  Hdt. has λελάβηκα and -λελαμμένος.  λέλημμαι occurs in tragedy.





446 D. – In Hom. ‘Attic’ reduplication is even more frequent than in Attic; thus, ἐδηδώς from ἔδω eat, ἐρήριπα have fallen, ἐρέριπτο (without lengthening) from ἐρείπω overthrow, ὀρωρέχαται from ὀρέγω reach.   For other poetical forms see in the List of Verbs ἀγείρω, αἱρέω, ἀλάομαι, ἀραρίσκω, ἐρείδω, ἐρίζω, ἔχω, ὄζω, ὁράω, ὄρνῡμι.








448 D. Hom. has many reduplicated second aorists, as πέ-πιθον from πείθω (πιθ-) persuade, κεκλόμην, κε-κλόμενος from κέλομαι command, λε-λαθέσθαι from λανθάνω (λαθ-) escape the notice of, πε-φιδέσθαι from φείδομαι (φιδ-) spare, ἤρ-αρον from ἀραρίσκω (ἀρ-) join, ὤρ-ορον from ὄρνῡμι arouse.  The indicative forms may take the syllabic augment, as in ἐ-πέ-φραδον from φράζω (φραδ-) tell.  From ἐνίπτω chide and ἐρύ̄κω check come ἠνί̄παπον and ἐνένῑπον, and ἠρύ̄κακον.





455. D. For the Doric future -σεόε-, see 540. – For the Epic first aorist -σόε-, see 542 D. – For the doubling of σ in the future and first aorist, see 534 b. D., 544 b. D.





457 D. Hom. has -όε- instead of -ώη-, especially in the 1 aor., 2 aor. of μι- verbs, and 2 aor. pass. (ἐρύσσομεν, δώομεν, τραπείομεν; also in ἴομεν, εἴδομεν).  These forms do not occur in the sing. or 3 pl. active. Verbs in ω rarely show this όε in the present. (Other examples 532, 667 D., 682 D.)





460 D. -ιη- is very rare in Hom. in the dual and plural.