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Epistle XXXIV.

To John Bishop of Scyllacium17571757    The address in the text is “Episcopo Scillitano.”  That the see was that of Scyllacium in Brutia appears from the contents of the epistle.  Syllacium itself appears to have been a Castrum, which had been erected on land belonging to a monastery.  The epistle is illustrative of Gregory’s anxiety to protect the property and privileges of monasteries against bishops.  See Prolegom., p. xx., and references in Index under Monasteries..

Gregory to John, &c.

It is evidently a very serious thing, and contrary to what a priest should aim at, to 242bwish to disturb privileges formerly granted to any monastery, and to endeavour to bring to naught what has been arranged for quiet.  Now the monks of the Castilliensian monastery in your Fraternity’s city have complained to us that you are taking steps to impose upon the said monastery certain things contrary to what had been allowed by your predecessors and sanctioned by long custom, and to disturb ancient arrangements by a certain injurious novelty.  Wherefore we hereby exhort your Fraternity that, if this is so, you refrain from troubling this monastery under any excuse, and that you try not, through any opportunity of usurpation, to upset what has been long secured to it, but that you study, without any gainsaying, to preserve all its privileges inviolate, and know that no more is lawful to you with regard to the said monastery than was lawful to your predecessors.

Further, inasmuch as they have likewise complained that thy Fraternity has taken certain things from the monastery under the guise of their being, as it were, an offering17581758    Sub xenii quasi specie.  For the meaning of the word xenium, see II. 23, note 8., it is necessary that, if thou recollectest having received anything unbecomingly, thou restore it without delay, lest the sin of avarice seriously convict thee, whom priestly munificence ought to have shewn liberal towards monasteries.  Therefore, while thou preservest all things which, as we have said, have been allowed and preserved by thy predecessors, let it be thy care to keep careful watch over the acts and lives of the monks residing there, and, if thou shouldest find any one living amiss, or (which God forbid) guilty of any sin of uncleanness, to correct such by strict and regular emendation.  For, as we desire your Fraternity to abstain from incongruous usurpations, so we admonish you to be in all ways solicitous in what pertains to rectitude of discipline and the guardianship of souls.

The monks of the aforesaid monastery have also informed us that the camp which is called Scillacium is built on ground belonging to their monastery, and that on this account those who live there pledged themselves in writing17591759    Libellis factis; meaning apparently that there had been written memoranda of agreement. to pay a solatium17601760    The word solatium is variously used, sometimes for any kind of aid or succour; sometimes for remuneration for services done, or grants in aid; here apparently for payment in the way of rent for the land occupied. every year; but that they afterwards thought scorn of it, and idly withheld their stipulated payment.  Let then your Fraternity take care to learn the truth accurately; and, if you should find it so, urgently see to their not delaying to give what they promised, and what also reason requires; that so both they may possess quietly what they hold, and the rights of the monastery may incur no damage.

Furthermore, the monks of the aforesaid monastery have complained to us that their abbot has granted to thy Fraternity by title of gift land within the camp of Scillacium, to the extent of six hundred feet, under pretext of building a church:  and accordingly it is our will that as much land as the walls of the church, when built, can surround shall be claimed as belonging to the church.  But let whatever may be outside the walls of the said church revert without dispute to the possession of the monastery.  For the ordinances neither of worldly laws nor of the sacred canons permit the property of a monastery to be segregated by any title from its ownership.  On this account restore thou this gift of land which has been granted against reason.

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