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Letter LXXI. To Lucinius.

Lucinius was a wealthy Spaniard of Bætica who in conformity with the ascetic ideas of his time had made a vow of continence with his wife Theodora. Being much interested in the study of scripture he pro152posed to visit Bethlehem, and in a.d. 397 sent several scribes thither to transcribe for him Jerome’s principal writings. To these on their return home Jerome now entrusts the following letter. In it he encourages Lucinius to fulfil his purpose of coming to Bethlehem, describes the books which he is sending to him, and answers two questions relating to ecclesiastical usage. He also sends him some trifling presents.

Shortly after receiving the letter (written in 398 a.d.) Lucinius died and Jerome wrote to Theodora to console her for her loss (Letter LXXV).

1. Your letter which has suddenly arrived was not expected by me, and coming in an unlooked for way it has helped to rouse me from my torpor by the glad tidings which it conveys. I hasten to embrace with the arms of love one whom my eyes have never seen, and silently say to myself:—‘“oh that I had wings like a dove! for then would I flee away and be at rest.”’22022202    Ps. lv. 6. PBV. Then would I find him “whom my soul loveth.”22032203    Cant. iii. 1. In you the Lord’s words are now truly fulfilled: “many shall come from the east and west and shall sit down with Abraham.”22042204    Matt. viii. 11. In those days the faith of my Lucinius was foreshadowed in Cornelius, “centurion of the band called the Italian band.”22052205    Acts x. 1. And when the apostle Paul writes to the Romans: “whensoever I take my journey into Spain I will come to you: for I trust to see you in my journey, and to be brought on my way thitherward by you;”22062206    Rom. xv. 24. he shews by the tale of his previous successes what he looked to gain from that province.22072207    Italy. Laying in a short time the foundation of the gospel “from Jerusalem and round about unto Illyricum,”22082208    Rom. xv. 19. he enters Rome in bonds, that he may free those who are in the bonds of error and superstition. Two years he dwells in his own hired house22092209    Acts xxviii. 30. that he may give to us the house eternal which is spoken of in both the testaments.22102210    Utriusque instrumenti æternam domum. The ‘twofold record’ is that of the old and new testaments both of which speak of the church under the figure of a house. For the term “instrument” see note on Letter. The apostle, the fisher of men,22112211    Matt. iv. 19. has cast forth his net, and, among countless kinds of fish, has landed you like a magnificent gilt-bream. You have left behind you the bitter waves, the salt tides, the mountain-fissures; you have despised Leviathan who reigns in the waters.22122212    Cf. Ps. civ. 26. Your aim is to seek the wilderness with Jesus and to sing the prophet’s song: “my soul thirsteth for thee, my flesh longeth for thee in a dry and thirsty land where no water is; to see thy power and thy glory, so as I have seen thee in the sanctuary,”22132213    Ps. lxiii. 1, 2. or, as he sings in another place, “lo, then would I wander far off and remain in the wilderness. I would hasten my escape from the windy storm and tempest.”22142214    Ps. lv. 7, 8. Since you have left Sodom and are hastening to the mountains, I beseech you with a father’s affection not to look behind you. Your hands have grasped the handle of the plough,22152215    Luke ix. 62. the hem of the Saviour’s garment,22162216    Matt. ix. 20. and His locks wet with the dew of night;22172217    Cant. v. 2. do not let them go. Do not come down from the housetop of virtue to seek for the clothes which you wore of old, nor return home from the field.22182218    Matt. xxiv. 17, 18. Do not like Lot set your heart on the plain or upon the pleasant gardens;22192219    Gen. xiii. 10. for these are watered not, as the holy land, from heaven but by Jordan’s muddy stream made salt by contact with the Dead Sea.

2. Many begin but few persevere to the end. “They which run in a race run all, but one receiveth the crown.”22202220    Jerome quoting from memory substitutes ‘crown’ for ‘prize.’ But of us on the other hand it is said: “So run that ye may obtain.”22212221    1 Cor. ix. 24. Our master of the games is not grudging; he does not give the palm to one and disgrace another. His wish is that all his athletes may alike win garlands. My soul rejoices, yet the very greatness of my joy makes me feel sad. Like Ruth22222222    Ruth i. 14. when I try to speak I burst into tears. Zacchæus, the convert of an hour, is accounted worthy to receive the Saviour as his guest.22232223    Luke xix. 5. Martha and Mary make ready a feast and then welcome the Lord to it.22242224    Joh. xii. 2. A harlot washes His feet with her tears and against His burial anoints His body with the ointment of good works.22252225    Mark xiv. 8. Simon the leper invites the Master with His disciples and is not refused.22262226    Matt. xxvi. 6. To Abraham it is said: “Get thee out of thy country and from thy kindred and from thy father’s house, unto a land that I will shew thee.”22272227    Gen. xii. 1. He leaves Chaldæa, he leaves Mesopotamia; he seeks what he knows not, not to lose Him whom he has found. He does not deem it possible to keep both his country and his Lord; even at that early day he is already fulfilling the prophet David’s words: “I am a stranger with thee and a sojourner, as all my fathers were.”22282228    Ps. xxxix. 12. He is called “a Hebrew,” in Greek περάτής, a passer-over, for not content with present excellence but forgetting those things which are behind he reaches forth to that which is before.22292229    Phil. iii. 13. He makes his own the words of the psalmist: “they shall go from strength to strength.”22302230    Ps. lxxxiv. 7. Thus his name has a mystic meaning and he has opened for you a way to seek not your own things but those of another. You too must leave your home as he did, and must take for your parents, brothers, and relations only those 153who are linked to you in Christ. “Whosoever,” He says, “shall do the will of my father…the same is my brother and sister and mother.”22312231    Matt. xii. 50.

3. You have with you one who was once your partner in the flesh but is now your partner in the spirit; once your wife but now your sister; once a woman but now a man; once an inferior but now an equal.22322232    His wife Theodora. Under the same yoke as you she hastens toward the same heavenly kingdom.

A too careful management of one’s income, a too near calculation of one’s expenses—these are habits not easily laid aside. Yet to escape the Egyptian woman Joseph had to leave his garment with her.22332233    Gen. xxxix. 12. And the young man who followed Jesus having a linen cloth cast about him, when he was assailed by the servants had to throw away his earthly covering and to flee naked.22342234    Mark xiv. 51, 52. Elijah also when he was carried up in a chariot of fire to heaven left his mantle of sheepskin on earth.22352235    2 Kings ii. 11, 13. Elisha used for sacrifice the oxen and the yokes which hitherto he had employed in his work.22362236    1 Kings xix. 21. We read in Ecclesiasticus: “he that toucheth pitch shall be defiled therewith.”22372237    Ecclus. xiii. 1. As long as we are occupied with the things of the world, as long as our soul is fettered with possessions and revenues, we cannot think freely of God. “For what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? And what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? Or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?”22382238    2 Cor. vi. 14, 15. “Ye cannot,” the Lord says, “serve God and Mammon.”22392239    Matt. vi. 24. Now the laying aside of money is for those who are beginners in the way, not for those who are made perfect. Heathens like Antisthenes22402240    A disciple of Socrates, subsequently the founder of the Cynic School. Fl. 366 b.c. and Crates22412241    See note on Letter LXVI. § 8. the Theban have done as much before now. But to offer one’s self to God, this is the mark of Christians and apostles. These like the widow out of their penury cast their two mites into the treasury, and giving all that they have to the Lord are counted worthy to hear his words: “ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”22422242    Matt. xix. 28.

4. You can see for yourself why I mention these things; without expressly saying it I am inviting you to take up your abode at the holy places. Your abundance has supported the want of many that some day their riches may abound to supply your want;22432243    2 Cor. viii. 14. you have made to yourself “friends of the mammon of unrighteousness that they may receive you into everlasting habitations.”22442244    Luke xvi. 9. Such conduct deserves praise and merits to be compared with the virtue of apostolic times. Then, as you know, believers sold their possessions and brought the prices of them and laid them down at the apostles’ feet:22452245    Acts iv. 34, 35. a symbolic act designed to shew that men must trample on covetousness. But the Lord yearns for believers’ souls more than for their riches. We read in the Proverbs: “the ransom of a man’s soul are his own riches.”22462246    Prov. xiii. 8, LXX. We may, indeed, take a man’s own riches to be those which do not come from some one else, or from plunder; according to the precept: “honour God with thy just labours.”22472247    Prov. iii. 9, LXX. But the sense is better if we understand a man’s “own riches” to be those hidden treasures which no thief can steal and no robber wrest from him.22482248    Cf. Matt. vi. 20.

5. As for my poor works which from no merits of theirs but simply from your own kindness you say that you desire to have; I have given them to your servants to transcribe, I have seen the paper-copies made by them, and I have repeatedly ordered them to correct them by a diligent comparison with the originals. For so many are the pilgrims passing to and fro that I have been unable to read so many volumes. They have found me also troubled by a long illness from which this Lent I am slowly recovering as they are leaving me. If then you find errors or omissions which interfere with the sense, these you must impute not to me but to your own servants; they are due to the ignorance or carelessness of the copyists, who write down not what they find but what they take to be the meaning, and do but expose their own mistakes when they try to correct those of others. It is a false rumour which has reached you to the effect that I have translated the books of Josephus22492249    See note on Letter XXII. § 35. and the volumes of the holy men Papias22502250    A writer of the sub-apostolic age who had been a disciple of the apostle John. He was bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia. and Polycarp.22512251    Another sub-apostolic writer who was also a disciple of John. He became bishop of Smyrna and underwent martyrdom at the age of 86. I have neither the leisure nor the ability to preserve the charm of these masterpieces in another tongue. Of Origen22522252    See note on Letter XXXIII. and Didymus22532253    The blind theologian of Alexandria by whose teaching Jerome had himself profited. See Letter XXXIV. § 3. I have translated a few things, to set before my countrymen some specimens of Greek teaching. The canon of the Hebrew verity22542254    The old testament as translated direct from the Hebrew.—except the octoteuch22552255    The first eight books. which I have at present in hand—I have placed at the disposal of your slaves and copyists. Doubtless you already possess the version from the septuagint22562256    This work Jerome accomplished between the years 383 and 390 a.d. Only the Psalter and Job are extant. 154which many years ago I diligently revised for the use of students. The new testament I have restored to the authoritative form of the Greek original.22572257    This task he undertook at the request of pope Damasus in 383 a.d. See Letter XXVII. For as the true text of the old testament can only be tested by a reference to the Hebrew, so the true text of the new requires for its decision an appeal to the Greek.

6. You ask me whether you ought to fast on the Sabbath22582258    i.e. on Saturday. and to receive the eucharist daily according to the custom—as currently reported—of the churches of Rome and Spain.22592259    At this time the communion was celebrated daily at Constantinople, in Africa, and in Spain. At Rome it was celebrated on every day of the week except Saturday (the Sabbath). See Socrates, H. E. v. 22. Both these points have been treated by the eloquent Hippolytus,22602260    A leading Roman churchman, bishop of Portus, in the early part of the third century, the rival and enemy of pope Callistus and author of many theological treatises, one of which—the Refutation of all Heresies—has recently become famous. and several writers have collected passages from different authors bearing upon them. The best advice that I can give you is this. Church-traditions—especially when they do not run counter to the faith—are to be observed in the form in which previous generations have handed them down; and the use of one church is not to be annulled because it is contrary to that of another.22612261    Compare the similar advice given by Gregory the Great to Augustine of Canterbury (Bede, H. E. 1. 27). As regards fasting, I wish that we could practise it without intermission as—according to the Acts of the Apostles22622262    Nothing in the book of Acts bears out this statement. Fasting at the times mentioned was forbidden in Jerome’s day.—Paul did and the believers with him even in the season of Pentecost and on the Lord’s Day. They are not to be accused of manichæism, for carnal food ought not to be preferred before spiritual. As regards the holy eucharist you may receive it at all times22632263    Daily if you will and on fast days as well as on feast days. without qualm of conscience or disapproval from me. You may listen to the psalmist’s words:—“O taste and see that the Lord is good;”22642264    Ps. xxxiv. 8. you may sing as he does:—“my heart poureth forth a good word.”22652265    Ps. xlv. 1, Vulg. But do not mistake my meaning. You are not to fast on feast-days, neither are you to abstain on the week days in Pentecost.22662266    i.e. the period of fifty days between Easterday and Whitsunday. See Letter XLI. §3. In such matters each province may follow its own inclinations, and the traditions which have been handed down should be regarded as apostolic laws.

7. You send me two small cloaks and a sheepskin mantle from your wardrobe and ask me to wear them myself or to give them to the poor. In return I send to you and your sister22672267    i.e. his wife Theodora. in the Lord four small haircloths suitable to your religious profession and to your daily needs, for they are the mark of poverty and the outward witness of a continual penitence. To these I have added a manuscript containing Isaiah’s ten most obscure visions which I have lately elucidated with a critical commentary. When you look upon these trifles call to mind the friend in whom you delight and hasten the voyage which you have for a time deferred. And because “the way of man is not in himself” but it is the Lord that “directeth his steps;”22682268    Jer. x. 23. if any hindrance should interfere—I hope none may—to prevent you from coming, I pray that distance may not sever those united in affection and that I may find my Lucinius present in absence through an interchange of letters.

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