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SABAOTH, sab'e-eth or sa-ba'-oth: A term used twice in the New Testament (Rom. ix. 29; Jas. v. 4) as a title of God, but in the English Old Testament translated "hosts."

From I Sam. i. 3, throughout the Old Testament the Hebr. zebaoth, "hosts," appears constantly as an element in the attributes ascribed to the God of Israel. The word is used with or without the article in various combinations, such as "Yahweh God of hosts," "Adonai Yahweh of hosts," "Adonai Yahweh God of hosts," "the Lord Adonai of hosts," with variants even from these several

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163 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Seared Xu$i Sacri9oe

Moore, Complete Encyclopedia of Music, Boston, 1854; F. J. Fetis, Biopraphie univeraelle des musiciens, et bsibliographie g_n&ade de la musique, 10 vols., Paris, 18601881; H. Mendel and A. Reisemami, Musikalisches Conversationa-Laxikon, 12 vols., Berlin, 1869-83; J. D. Brown, Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, London, 1886; J. D. Champlin and W. F. Apthorp, Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians, 3 vols., New York, 1888-90; J. Stainer and W. J. Barrett, Dictionary of Mumical Terms, new ed., London, 1898; R. Eitner, Biographisch-br$liopraphiwhes Quellen-Laxikon, 10 vols., Leipsie, 1900-04; G. Grove. Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. J. A. F. Maitland, 5 vols., London, 1904-10; T. Baker, Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 2d ed., New York, 1905; H. Riemann, Muaik-Lexikon, 6th ed., Leipsic, 1905.

On the music of the Latin Church consult: J. Pothier, Der gregorianiache Choral, Tourney, 1881; J. Tardif, Methods thtorique et pratique de Plain-Chant, Angers, 1883; Thiery, etude Bur Is chant gr6poriea, Bruges, 1883; W. J. Walsh, Grammar of Gregorian Music, Dublin, 1885; J. N. Lemmens, Du Chant pr6porien, Ghent, 1886; E. Burnouf, Les Chants de 1'Bglise latine, Paris, 1887; F. A. Gevakrt, Le Chant liturAue done l'bplise latina, Brussels, 1889; idem, Les Origines du chant liturgique done 1'6plise latine, Ghent, 1890; V. J. Coornaert, Traim de Plainchant sacrE, Bruges, 1890; T. E. X. Normand, Torfs, L'Archiologie musicale et Is vrai chant grggorien, Paris, 1890; T. Nisard, L'Arch6ologie musicale d Is vrai chant grigorien, Paris, 1890; L. Lootens, La th6orie musicale du chant g rAgorien, Paris. 1895; P. Wagner, Einfi7hrung in die preporianischen Melodien. Ein Handbuch der Choralkunde, Freiburg, 1895; A. Gastoue, Les Origines du chant romain; l'antiphonaire g regorien, Paris, 1908.

General works on the history of music are: F. W. Mar purg, Hiatoriach-kritische Beitrage zur Gewhichte der Mueik, 5 vols., Berlin, 1744-62; C. Burney, History of Music from the Earliest Ages to the Present Time, 4 vols., London, 1776-1789; Sir John Hawking, History of the Science and Practice of Music, 5 vols., London, 1776, new issue, reedited, 1853-75; M. Gerbert, Scriptores eccleaiaatici de musica sacra, 3 vols., St. Blasieu, 1784 sqq.; J. N. Forkel, Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik, 2 vols., Leipsie, 17881801; T. Busby, General History of Music, 2 vols., London, 1819; J. Jebb, Choral Service of the United Church of England and Ireland, ib. 1843; C. von Winterfeld, Der evangeliache Kirchengesang, 3 parts, Leipsie, 1843-47; idem, ZurGeschichte heiligen Tonkunst, 2 parts, ib.,1850-52; R. G. Kieswetter, History of the Modern Music of Western Europe, London, 1848; N. E. Cornwall, Music as it was and as it is, New York, 1851; C. E. H. de Coussemaker, Hist. de l'harmonie au moyen dge, Paris, 1852; idem, L'Art harmonique 1 ~.-13. siMes, ib. 1865; Austin Phelps, Edwards A. Park, Daniel L. Furber, Hymns and Choirs, Andover, 1860; J. Schliiter, Allgemeine Gesrhichte der Musik, Leipsie, 1863, Eng. tranal., General History of Music, London, 1865; G. von Tucher, Ueber den Gemeindegesang der evangelischen Kirche, Leipsic, 1867; E. Naumann, Die Tonkunst in der Kulturgeschichte, Berlin, 1869-70; idem, Illustrirte Muaikgeschiehle, Stuttgart, 1880-85; F. J. F_tis, Hist. g6nlTale de la musique, 5 vols., Paris, 1859-76; F. L. Ritter, History of Music, 2 vo1s., Boston, 1874; O. Douen, Clement Marot et le PsautierHuguenot; IEudelitt6raire, musicale et bibliographique, Paris, 1878-79; J. Hullah, The Transition Period of Musical History, London and New York, 3 vols., with supplement, 1879-1883; J. Sittard, Compendium der Geschichte der Kirchenmusik, Stuttgart, 1881; W. A. Barrett, English Church Composers, London, 1882; F. A. T. Klinkhardt, Die Kunst, insonderheit die Tonkumt als Dienerin im Heiligtum, Leipsie, 1883; J. S. Curwen, Studies in Worship Music, 2 series, London. 18851888; F. AI. Bbhme, Die Geschichte des Oraloriums, Giitersloh, 1887; E. L. Taunton, History of Church Music, London, 1887; F. G. Edwards, Common Praise; a practical Handbook of Nonconformist Church Music, ib. 1887; A. W. Ambros, Geschichte der DTusik, 3d ed., 3 vols., Leipsie, 18871893; Mrs. M. E. and W. A. Brown, Musical Instruments and their Homes, New York, 1888; P. Krutschek, Die. Kirchenmusik nach dem Willen der Kirche. Regensburg. 1889; F. L. Humphreys, The Evolution of Church Music, London, 1890; P. Wulfrum, Die Entstehung des deutwhen evangelisehen Kirrhenliedes in musikkalischen Beziehung, Leipsic, 1890; J. Love, Scottish Church Music, Edinburgh. 1891 (on hymn tunes); R. B. Daniel, Chapters on Church Music, London, 1894; Henry Davey, Hilt. of English

Music, ib. 1895; F. Bachmann, Grundlagen and Grundfragen zur evangliwhen Kirchenmusik, Giitersloh,1899; H. Riemann, Beruhmte Musiker. I.ebens- and Charakterbilder, Berlin, 1900; A. A. Chapin, Masters of Music, London, 1901; W. S. Pratt, Musical Ministries in the Church: Studies in History, Theory, and Administration of Sacred Music, New York, 1901; idem, Hist. of Music, ib. 1907 (contains bibliography); A. Prosniz, Compendium der Musikgeschichte, 2d ed., Vienna, 1901 sqq.; H. E. Wooldridge, Sir C. H. H. Parry, J. A. F. Maitland, W. H. Hadow, and E. Dannreuther, The Oxford History of Music, 6 vols., Oxford, 1901-05; F. J. Crowest, The Story of Music, Londoh, 1902; E. Dickinson, Music in the History of the Western Church; Criticism on religioaa Music among primitive and ancient Peoples, New York, 1902; F. Brendel, Geschichte der Musik, Leipsic, 1903; O. Keller, Illustrierte Geschichte der Muaik, 2 vols., Munich, 1903--04; H. Riemann, Handbuch der Musikgewhichte, Leipsie, 1904-05; W. J. Baltzell, A Complete History of Music, Philadelphia, 1905; C. H. H. Parry, The Art of Music, 4th ed., London, 1905; E. Dickinson, Growth and Development of Music, ib. 1905; P. Viardot, Histoire de la musugue, Paris, 1905; E. Walker, Hiat. of Music in England, London, 1907; J. S. Bumpus, Hist. of Eng. Cathedral Music, 16/,9-1889, 2 vols., London, 1908; J. H. Edwards, God and Music, New York, 1908; E. S. Lorenz, Practical Church Music, ib. 1909; P. C. Lutkin, Music in the Church, Milwaukee, 1910.

SACRIFICATI. See LAPSED.

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