SIEFFERT, si'fert, FRIEDRICH ANTON EMIL: German Reformed; b. at Konigsberg, Prussia, Dec. 24, 1843. He was educated at the universities of KBnigsberg, Halle, and Berlin (lie. theol., Konigsberg, 1867), and, after being privat-docent at the university of his native city (1867-71), was inspector of the theological seminary at Bonn (1871-73); associate professor at the university of the same city (1873-78); professor of Reformed theology at Erlangen (1878-89); and since 1889 professor of systematic theology and New-Testament exegesis in the Protestant theological faculty of the University of Bonn. He has written Nonnulla ad apocrypha libri Henoehi originem pertinentia (Kbnigsberg, 1867); Ueber den socialen Gegensatz im Neuen Testament (Erlangen, 1888); Die neuesten theologischen Forschungen iiher Busse and Glaube (Berlin, 1896); Das Reeht im Neuen Testament (GSttingen, 1900); Ojfenbarung and heilige Schri(t (Langensalza, 1905); Die Heidenbekehrung im Allen Testament und im Judentum (1908); and Johann Catvi,ns religiose Entwicklung and siUliche Grundrichtung (Leipsic, 1909); besides preparing the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth editions of H. A. W. Meyer's commentary on Galatians (Gottingen, 1880-99).

SIEFFERT, FRIEDRICH LUDWIG: German theologian and Biblical scholar; b. at Elbing (32 m. s.w. of KSnigsberg) Feb. 1, 1803; d. at Bonn Dec . 2, 1877. He prepared for the university at the Gymnasium of Elbing; entered in 1821 the University of Konigsberg, where he studied under Herbart, and also under August Hahn, with whom he collaborated in issuing Chrestomathia syriaca (Leipsic, 1825), taking there his doctorate. He then went to Berlin for the study of theology, particularly under Nean-


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retiring entirely from ministerial work, divided the lectures on theology with Peter Martyr (q.v.), at whose death, in 1562, he took charge of the entire New-Testament department, which he controlled until he died.

Simler was a most prolific author. He began by translating into Latin a number of the works of Bullinger and other Protestant theologians, and by editing a portion of Peter Martyr's writings, although his projected edition of the collected works of the latter was never realized. He was himself deeply interested in problems of dogmatic theology, par ticularly in view of the attacks of Italian antitrini tarians upon Reformed tenets. First assailing the teaching of Francesco Stancaro (q.v.), that Christ was a mediator only in virtue of his human nature, in his Responsio ad maledictum Francisci Stancari Mantuani librum adversus Tigurinae ecclesiae ministros de Trinitate et mediatore nostro Jesu Christo (Zurich, 1563), he likewise wrote, in defense of orthodox Christology, his De aeterno Dei filio Domino et Servatore nostro Jesu Christo et de Spiritu Sancto, adversus veteres et novos antitrinitarios, id est Arianos, Tritheistas, Samosatenianos et Pneumatomachos libri quatuor (Zurich, 1568); Assertio orthodoxae doctrinae de duabus naturis Christi opposita blasphemiis et sophismatibus Simonis Budnaei (1575); Scripts veterum Latina de una persona et duabus naturis Christi adversus Nestorium, Eutychen et Acephalos olim edita (1571); De vera Christi secundum humanam naturam in his terris praesentia orthodoxa expositio (1574); and the anonymous Ministrorum ecclesiae Tigurinae ad confutationem Jacobi Andreae apologia (1575). His Commentarii in Exodum were published posthumously in 1584; and he was the author of Oratio de vita et obatu . . . Petri Martyris Vermilii (Zurich, 1563; Eng. transl. in A. Marten's version of the "Common Places" of Peter Martyr, London, 1583) and De ortu, vita et obitu . . . Heinrici Bullingeri (1575). Besides the works already enumerated, Simler wrote on astronomy, the history of literature, geography, and history, the latter category including his De republica Helvetiorum (Zurich, 1576), which went through repeated editions until the middle of the eighteenth century, and was translated into German, French, and Dutch. His manuscript historical material, collected by his grandson, is preserved in the municipal library of Zurich. (G. MEYER VON KNONAU.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. G. Stuki, Vita Josiae Simleri, Zurich, 1577; W. A. B. Coolidge, Josias Simler et les origines de l'Alpinisme jusqu'en 1600, Grenoble, 1904; G. Meyer van Knonau, in Jahrbuch des Schweizer Alpenklub, xxxii. 217-235; ADB, xxxiv. 355-358.