LITTLEDALE, RICHARD FREDERICK: Church of England; b. in Dublin Sept. 14, 1833; d. in London Jan. 11, 1890. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1854; M.A., 1858; LL.D., 1862; D.C.L., Oxford, 1862). He was curate of Thorpe Hamlet, Norfolk (1856-57), then of St. Mary the Virgin, Soho, London. (1857-61); but, being compelled by ill-health to abandon parochial work, he devoted himself to religious literature, and became a voluminous writer. As an opponent of the Church of Rome, he attracted much attention. Among, his works may be mentioned: Religious Communities of Women in the Early Church (London, 1862); Offices of the Holy Eastern Church (1863); The Mixed Chalice (1863); The North Side of the Altar (1864); Catholic Ritual in the Church of England (1865); The Elevation of the Host (1865); Early Christian Ritual (1867); Commentary on the Psalms (in continuation of Dr. Neale's, vols. ii.-iv., 1868-74); Commentary on the Song of Songs (1869); Religious Education of Women (1872); Papers on Sisterhoods (1874-78); Last Attempt to reform the Church of Rome from within (1875); Ultramontane Popular Literature (1876); An Inner View of the Vatican Council (1877); Plain Reasons against joining the Church of Rome (1879); A Short History of the Council of Trent (1888); The Petrine Claims: a Critical Inquiry (1889). He contributed to the Encyclopædia Britannica (9th ed.); edited Anselm's Cur Deus Homo? (1863); and shared in editing The Priests' Prayer-Book (1864); The People's Hymnal (1867); Liturgies of SS. Mark, James, Clement, Chrysostom, and Basil (1868-69); The Christian Passover (1873); and The Altar Manual (1877).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, xxxiii. 364-365; O. C. H. King, The Character of Dr. Littledale as a Controversialist, London, 1888. Further literature is indicated in Richardson, Encyclopaedia, p. 634.

LITTLEJOHN, ABRAM NEWKIRK: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Long Island; b. at Florida, N. Y., Dec. 13, 1824; d. at Williamstown, Mass., Aug. 3, 1901. He was educated at Union College (B.A., 1845) and at Princeton Theological Seminary. He was ordained deacon in 1848 and priest the following year. While deacon he officiated at Amsterdam, N. Y., and at Meriden, Conn. He was rector of Christ Church, Springfield, Mass. (1850-51); St. Paul's Church, New Haven, Conn. (1851-60); and Church of the Holy Trinity, Brooklyn, N. Y. (1860-69). During his rectorate in New Haven he was professor of pastoral theology in the Berkeley Divinity School at Middletown, Conn. He was consecrated as the first bishop of the new diocese of Long Island (Jan. 27, 1869), having previously been elected bishop of Central New York, but declined the position. He had oversight of the American Protestant Episcopal churches on the Continent (1874-86). His principal works are: Conciones ad Clerum (New York, 1881); Individualism: its Growth and Tendencies (1881; lectures before the University of Cambridge) and The Christian Ministry at the close of the 19th Century (1884; lectures on the Bishop Paddock foundation, General Theological Seminary, New York).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. S. Perry, The Episcopate in America, p. 195, New York, 1895.



  1. Fundamental Principles.

      Importance and Delimitation of Liturgy (§ 1).

      Theory of Liturgy (§ 2).

      Relation of Liturgy to Doctrine (§ 3).

      Exemplification by the Lutheran Liturgy (§ 4).

      Christian Use of the Term (§ 5).

  2. Historical Development.

      Service in Temple and Synagogue (§ 1.)

      Development of the Christian Service (§ 2).

      Medieval Elaborations (§ 3).

      After the Reformation (§ 4).

  3. Liturgical Formulas.

      Amen (§ 1).

      The Doxologies (§ 2).

      Alleluia (§ 3).

      Hosanna (§ 4).

      Kyrie Eleieon (§ 5).

      Pax vobiscum, Dominos vobiscum (§ 6.)

I. Fundamental Principles:
1. Importance and Delimitation of Liturgy.

Proclamation of the Gospel, prayer, and the administration of the Sacraments belong to the essence of the Church and of public worship as well. If the body of Christ is to be truly edified, the officiating ministers and every member of the congregation must be quickened continually by the Spirit of God. The precise manner, however, in which the principal elements of divine service are combined into a harmonious whole is of less vital importance. Nevertheless, side by side with ecclesiastical wisdom and orthodox belief, a certain sense of the value of constant types and modes of confessional expression is a factor of moment, which, in its turn, reflects a common need that finds its support in the force of historic tradition. Thus arises the liturgy, or the form of worship in ecclesiastical communities. In a restrictive sense, the idea denotes the composite aggregate of the permanent elements of worship outside the sermon; that is, the parts which, in harmony with the principles of religious logic, are comprised in the official Church manual, or liturgy proper. By an extension of the liturgical idea, the entire order of public worship, including the sermon, is thus designated. In the latter case, however, only the relative position of the sermon, and not its content, is considered, the theme and style of the sermon being independent of fixed definition (see HOMILETICS; PREACHING). Equally outside the realm of liturgies is the fact that the communion is celebrated according to Christ's institution; but the questions as to whether the words of institution shall be recited, whether a formula, of distribution shall be employed, and whether an altar or a table shall be used, are distinctly liturgic. Indeed, it was only through the liturgy that the consecration itself became an integral element of the divine service. At the same time, in virtue of its peculiar solemnity, the Lord's Supper (q.v.; see also EUCHARIST; MASS) became the central point of liturgic arrangement, so that the term "liturgy" found its principal application in connection with the celebration of the Eucharist.

2. Theory of Liturgy.

The result of a liturgy was reached neither by divine revelation nor by canonical enactment. The worship of the early Church reveals an exuberance of spiritual life and a great diversity of spiritual gifts, but in so amorphous a state that Paul found himself obliged to urge uniformity in worship (I Cor. xiv.). Though Paul by no means established a working principle for the regulation of public worship, the liturgical tendency was inherent in the factor of historic conservatism which began to exert itself from the very first, as is shown, for instance, by the custom, derived from the synagogue custom (see below, II., § 1), of congregational response to the prayers of thanksgiving. The tendency to create some permanent order, the significance of which should reach beyond the local and transient, implanted itself with formative and regulative power in the administrative organism of the spiritual life. Nevertheless, this process never gained the character of a law; nor were liturgical elaborations so abstract that spontaneously personal elements could not find a place in the official prayers. It is obvious that the composers of particular liturgical forms must remain in the background. But notwithstanding all this, each liturgy is characteristic of the ecclesiastical community to which it appertains; nor must it be forgotten that the phraseology of the sermon has a decided influence upon liturgical expression. Moreover, this festal robe of ceremonial practise, woven by custom, receives its interwoven warp and woof of symbolism and artistic ornament. This is not to be adjudged worldly or unevangelical; since here, too, is discerned rather a vital impulse, proceeding from the divine cosmic dispensation and influencing advantageously the domain of spiritual benefits. The same tendency, in a narrower sense, has given artistic adornment to such liturgical objects as the altar, the pulpit, and the sacred vessels, and has employed special colors in a symbolic scheme to emphasize the proper nature of the festival seasons (See PARAMENTA; SYMBOLISM). A redundancy of these subsidiary devices, to the repression of what is essential to worship, is, however, reprehensible. The Reformation rightly returned to simplicity in this respect, the Reformed Church more decidedly than the German, though even Luther, for all his unrestrained appreciation of the artistic and symbolic, contrived to observe the requisite bounds. See WORSHIP.

3. Relation of Liturgy to Doctrine.

In considering the relation between the liturgy of the Church and its doctrine, it is clear that modifications of doctrine can not remain without influence upon the liturgy, as is attested by the history of worship at every turn. The more the comprehension of the salvation wrought by the death of Christ recedes into the background, the shallower becomes the substance of the Eucharistic prayers. The more strictly the Reformation returned to the Scriptures and to Christ's purpose in the institution of the Eucharist, the more distinctly was this reflected in the revision of Evangelical liturgies. On the other hand, if the true character of an ecclesiastical community is to be


truly known, liturgy as well as doctrine must be considered. It may be laid down as a general principle that the closer the adherence to the simple sense of the Scriptures, the fewer will be the liturgical elaborations in question. The question as to what is essential to a liturgy is not abstract, but should be answered with reverent regard for historic and conservative forms. For even if historic usage were abandoned and a course of absolute innovation were adopted, nevertheless, the new forms thus created would themselves exhibit a marked tendency to resist subsequent innovations.

4. Exemplification by the Lutheran Liturgy.

The present status of the Lutheran liturgy shows evidence of the influence of the principles of conservative reform. In some respects there has been a reaction as regards Luther's alterations in the Deutsche Messe, in favor of still older forms. To the introit of the Mass there corresponds in the Evangelical order of worship, after the opening hymn, an antiphon in Scriptural phraseology adapted especially from the Old Testament. In this the distinctive character of the feast or the church season concerned must be reflected from the very first. The Confiteor, instead of remaining a priestly act of preparation, became a congregational confession of sin--again a return to the pre-Lutheran liturgy. The Kyrie and Gloria following the Confiteor were incorporated in the Lutheran liturgy. The salutation Dominus vobiscum, together with the response Et cum spiritu tuo, both omitted by Luther, were very early restored in the Evangelical liturgies. The reading of Scripture has no longer for its mission the familiarization of the congregation with the Bible, but is designed solemnly to remind them of this treasure, with the accompaniment of responses which may be freely supplemented on occasion. The "voice of Scripture" is followed by the "voice of the Church," the recitation of the Apostles' Creed for which, however, a hymn of like purport, such as Luther's Wir glauben all an einen Gott, may be substituted. In the communion service, Luther still spared the ancient Preface, and also accepted the Agnus Dei. But even in this domain, a refined liturgical sense decided largely in favor of earlier ecclesiastical usage. For instance, the Lord's Prayer was reinstated in its rightful place, before the Pax and the distribution, while the form of distribution was again duly honored. In every direction there was careful insistence upon historic connection, in harmony with Protestant tenets.

5. Christian Use of the Term.

With reference to the application of the term "liturgy" to the sphere of divine service, the Christian use of the word is based on the Septuagint, which translates the Hebrew 'aboda, in relation to the Temple service, by leitourgia. In the New Testament, however, the word does not occur in connection with ceremonial affairs, but indicates the service which the Christian renders to God in faith and obedience, as in Heb. viii. 2, 6; Phil. ii. 17; Rom. xv. 16; or with reference to brotherly support as in Rom. xv. 27; Phil. ii. 25, 30; lI Cor. ix. 2. The relation to ceremonial practises recurs most closely in Acts xiii. 2; though here, too, the idea of ceremonially regulated usage is to be rejected. The ecclesiastical use of the term reverts principally to the Old Testament, significantly implying a transfer of pre-Christian legalism to the Christian dispensation. Hence the current expressions for Levitical and priestly acts were applied to divine worship, especially in order to designate the central and sacrificial act. Moreover, leitourgia and leitourgein were once more employed in the ceremonial sense. The Western Church early borrowed the term to designate the Eucharist. The Evangelical confessions gave preference to the term cærimonia; and it was only under the influence of Humanism (q.v.), beginning with the sixteenth century, that the word liturgia came into current use, first among the Roman Catholics, and later among the Protestants. The term is now often used in a widened sense, and the phrases baptismal, marriage, confirmation, and burial liturgies are loosely employed. For the history of Lutheran liturgies see AGENDA.


II. Historical Development:
1. Service in Temple and Synagogue.

The first Christians, being members of the Jewish Church, followed naturally the Jewish manner of worship. The services to which they were accustomed were those of the Temple (q.v.) and of the Synagogue (q.v.). The temple service was elaborate, and was for the purpose of worship; the synagogue service was simple and was for the purpose of instruction. The temple contributed to liturgical development the tradition of a noble service, in a stately building, with vested clergy, with prayers accompanied by the symbol of Incense (q.v.), with praises sung from the book of psalms, with an altar, and with the varied interest and significance of an ordered sequence of feasts and fasts. The fact, however, that the temple was in Jerusalem, and that it was destroyed and its services ended forever in 70 A.D., gave its liturgical precedents a minor part in the making of the primitive Christian devotions. These were patterned mainly upon those of the synagogue. The synagogue was a plain building, having a platform at the further end. On the platform were seats for church officials, and in the midst was a pulpit. Over the pulpit hung an ever-burning lamp, and back of the pulpit, behind a curtain against the wall, was a chest containing the rolls of the sacred books. The ordinary service began with the Shema, a habitual, daily devotion, like the Lord's Prayer, consisting of three passages of Scripture, Deut. vi. 4-9, xi. 13-21; Num. xv. 37-41. After this came the Shemoneh esreh, or eighteen benedictions, each with a recurring phrase or refrain, followed by an Amen as a congregational response. This was succeeded by the first lesson, taken from the Law, read in seven parts by seven readers, each pronouncing a few verses, the verses being translated into Aramaic, with explanation, comment, and application. The second lesson was a single reading from the Prophets, translated and explained as before (cf. Luke iv. 16 sqq.). With a collection for the poor, and a benediction perhaps with some singing of psalms, the service ended.


2. Development of the Christian Service.

To this service the Christians added a Liturgy of Christ in the Holy Communion; and a Liturgy of the Holy Ghost in the short-lived enthusiasm of the speaking with tongues, and a Liturgy of God the Father in the agape, or love-feast, which assembled the faithful as the family of God to the enjoyment of his blessings. (See AGAPE; EUCHARIST; LORD'S SUPPER). The synagogue service grew into the homiletical introduction to the Holy Communion, called the Missa Catechumenorum, with the reading of passages from the Epistles and the Gospels, followed by a sermon. It affected also the daily prayers. These daily devotions, which came to be called the Divine Office, had their beginning in the observance of hours of prayer. Two such hours were suggested by the natural instincts of the religious life: the morning, at cock-crowing, called matins; the evening, at candle-lighting, called vespers. These were at first observed in private or as times for family worship; but presently they were kept in the consecrated quiet of the church, people coming in at these seasons and saying their prayers, each person by himself. Gradually, other seasons of devotion began to be observed. First, the vigil, which in its original form was a night of prayer before Easter, and then came to precede ordinary Sundays, and then to be a time of spiritual preparation for saints' days. On these occasions the morning prayer was in two parts, one in the night, called matins or nocturns; the other at dawn, called lauds. Then, to meet the eagerness for the privilege of prayer, three hours were kept in the day: the third hour, nine o'clock, called terse, remembering the disciples on the Day of Pentecost; the sixth hour, twelve o'clock, called sext, remembering St. Peter on the housetop; the ninth hour, called none, remembering how Peter and John went into the temple at the hour of prayer. Thus there were six times for daily prayer: matins, lauds, terse, next, none, and vespers. The next step was to make these individual devotions public and congregational, and to have them led by the clergy. Of course, for busy people, such a continual exercise of prayer was impossible. For them, as is common to-day, the daily devotions were for the most part the private prayers which they said at the cock-crow and at the candle-lighting. The faithful who went to church six times a day were mainly ascetics, whose chief interest and occupation in life was the act of prayer. Presently, these devout persons were gathered into groups and societies, and disappeared from sight in monasteries. There they added to the six daily services two more: Prime, as the prayers before the daily chapter meeting, and Compline, before going to bed. Thus the cycle was completed. It had never had much place in the experience of the ordinary layman. It was understood to be intended for the clergy and for the members of religious orders.

3. Medieval Elaborations.

The heart of the daily services was the book of psalms. To recite or sing these psalms was the purpose for which the faithful met at the appointed hours. The psalter was arranged to be gone over in a week. To the psalms were added Scripture readings, and a few prayers, with versicles and responses. The Latin Church introduced hymns in meter, and lengthened lauds and vespers with commemorations of the saints. And the saints, in rapidly increasing numbers, claimed their rights in the services, having lessons and prayers appropriate to their virtues. And the Little Office of the Virgin paralleled all the eight services with an order of its own. These enrichments came to their fulness in the thirteenth century. They made it necessary to use a great number of books in the conduct of the service: the psalter, the antiphonal, the hymnal, the Bible, the collect book, the processional; and for direction, the consuetudinary, the ordinal, and the directorium. With the rise of the Franciscans in the thirteenth century, and the free movement of persons committed to the life of religion, it became necessary to bring this liturgical library into some condensed, compact and portable form, and the Breviary (q.v.) was the result. The order for the Holy Communion bad been similarly enriched and was correspondingly simplified in the Missal (see MASS).

4. After the Reformation.

As the era of the Protestant Reformation came on, the need of further liturgical revision was felt by many, and steps in that direction were taken both with and without ecclesiastical authority. Thus in 1535, Cardinal Quignon at the request of Pope Clement VII. undertook are vision of the breviary. Clement died before the completion of this work, and it was dedicated to Pope Paul III., who formally permitted the secular clergy to substitute it for the breviary unreformed. Quignon altered some things and some he added; he removed some legends from the lectionary; he arranged to have the Bible read at length and not, as had come to be the usage, in detached fragments; he arranged the psalter so as to be read in course and not interrupted by substituting special psalms. Also he took out two-thirds of the saints' days and all the offices of the Virgin, and omitted a great number of versicles, responses, invitationes, and antiphons. In a second edition, however, he restored the antiphons by request of the theological faculty of Paris. This was the authorized breviary of the Western Church until it was superseded in 1568 by the present book, made by a commission of the Council of Trent. In 1543, Archbishop Herman of Cologne (see HERMAN OF WIED) published a directory of public worship, in sympathy with the Reformation. This was composed at his request by Butzer and Melanchthon, on the basis of a form compiled by Luther, called the Nuremberg Liturgy. The book contained forms of prayer and a litany, with directions for the administration of the sacraments, and for other services, with many explanations. One of its characteristic features was the addressing of exhortations to the people. This book was disallowed by the Church, and the archbishop was expelled. These two liturgical revisions were in the hands of Archbishop Cranmer during the preparation of the English Book of Common Prayer, and he made great use of both. For the history of this work see COMMON PRAYER, BOOK OF.


Meanwhile, both in England and on the Continent the conditions of ecclesiastical strife were inducing among many a liturgical reaction. The Lutheran Church, indeed, held to many of the traditions of devotion, but the Calvinistic churches of Switzerland and France, and the Puritan churches of England and Scotland, abandoned the old forms and adopted for the most part an extemporaneous worship. This was an incident in a bitter contention, and proceeded not so much from a dislike of the ancient prayers as from a dislike of the people who insisted on them. This dislike the course of time has mitigated, and at present there is a general return in most of the Protestant churches to the liturgical treasures which the fathers left behind.


III. Liturgical Formulas:

Under this head it is convenient to group together several traditional phrases frequently used in divine worship, and appearing again and again in the most various liturgies.

1. Amen.

The Hebrew amen, when used adverbially in the Scriptures (e.g., Num. v. 22; Deut. xxvii. 15; Ps. xli. 13), has the force of strong affirmation or assent, usually to the words spoken by another, although it may also be used as a preliminary affirmation of the speaker's own, occurring frequently in this sense in the words of Jesus. Its liturgical use is the former. It is thus found in the Jewish rites, as an assent by the congregation to the content of a prayer. The Christian Church borrowed this usage, keeping the Hebrew form, the meaning of which was always familiar to theologians, though perhaps not always to the people at large, for whom a translation was sometimes appended, as in the Coptic liturgies. Its primitive use as conveying the assent of the whole congregation to the prayer of any member (cf. I Cor. xiv. 16) remained when the utterance of the prayer became the office of a distinct clerical class, as is shown by nearly all the Eastern liturgies. An exceptional case is the liturgy contained in the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions, where the "Amen" is assigned to the congregation after three prayers only--the Trisagion (q. v .), the prayer of intercession, and the formula of administration. In the modern Greek Church, the "Amen" is taken from the congregation and given to the choir--and then in comparatively few places. In some Eastern baptismal rites, as still among the Nestorians, it seems to have been customary for the congregation to say Amen after each part of the baptismal formula; in the present Eastern Church it is thus pronounced by the priest, having lost its original meaning and become a mere concluding word. The most obvious retention of the old usage in the West occurs in the Mozarabic Liturgy (q.v.), where some of the responses are indeed assigned to the choir, but the congregation is bidden to answer in other cases, especially with "Amen." In the present Roman rite, the "Amen" belongs either to the assistants or to the choir, or is pronounced by the priest himself, as in the formula of administration at communion and at the end of the Lord's Prayer in the mass. Luther interpreted the "Amen" in the sense of his own doctrine of faith, as "an expression of firm and hearty belief," and the Reformation restored the use of it in a number of cases, though not in all, to the congregation. In the Anglican Book of Common Prayer it occurs at the end of every prayer as the response of the people, except after the first Lord's Prayer in the Communion Office.

2. The Doxologies.

In continuation of the old synagogal custom, the primitive Christians closed every important liturgical prayer with a doxology, and the custom was extended to sermons also. The simplest form was "to thee (or "to whom") be glory throughout all ages" (cf. Rom. xi. 36; Phil. iv. 20; Didache ix. 2, 3; Apostolic Constitutions II., xxii. 11). A number of formulas grew up in the course of time, differing according to the influence of the dogma of the Trinity. While from the second to the beginning of the fourth century the form "to thee be glory in the Holy Ghost through Jesus Christ" was usual, when it became possible to suspect Arianism in such a phrase, it was changed to one which completely coordinated the three Persons, "Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost." The Gloria Patri, known as the lesser doxology to distinguish it from the Gloria in exceleis, was slow to find its way into all the Eastern liturgies. Thus it is not found in the Clementine liturgy of the Apostolic Constitutions or in that of St. James, and even the ninth-century liturgies of St. Chrysostom and St. Basil do not contain it. It is of frequent occurrence, on the other hand, in the Nestorian and Armenian liturgies and in the present liturgy of St. Chrysostom, as well as less often in the various Jacobite rites. The second half, "As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen," does not occur in the East, and is probably of Roman origin. The Synod of Vaison (529) asserts that its use was universal in Italy and Africa, and directs its introduction into Gaul. It is not in the Mozarabic liturgy, where the formula runs "Glory and honor to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost throughout all ages." In the Eastern rites the doxology was used in many different places. The Roman liturgy, on the other hand, lays down fixed rules for its use. It occurs regularly at the end of each psalm, and the first half of it in the responsories of the day and night hours; in the Mass it occurs in the preparation, after the Introit or anthem sung at the beginning of the communion service in the Roman Catholic Church, and after the Lavabo psalm. The custom of using it thus at the end of psalms or parts of psalms is first attested by John Cassian (before 426), and next by Pope Vigilius (d. 555). The assertion of medieval liturgiologists that the practise was introduced by Pope Damasus is possibly true. As the Gloria Patri has a more or less festival or triumphant character, it is wholly or partly omitted on occasions of mourning, as in Holy Week and in services for the dead; in the latter case the Greeks still use it. Luther seems to have ignored the Gloria Patri, although modern Lutheran liturgies put it after the introit. The Gloria in excelsis,


celsis, or Greater Doxology, by an unknown author, occurs in the Eastern liturgies, which vary in the position assigned to it, and also forms the opening of a service for morning prayer found in the Apostolic Constitutions (VII., xlvii.), the pseudo-Athanasian De virginitate, and the Codex Alexandrinus. The Latin version used in the Mass, said to have been made by Hilary of Poitiers, is slightly altered from the original. According to the Liber pontificalis, Pope Telesphorus (q.v.) prescribed the use of the angelic hymn as found in Luke ii. 14 for the Christmas service, and Pope Symmachus (q.v.) of the expanded form for all Sundays and feasts of martyrs. It was then to be used only by bishops; priests might recite it only at Easter and in their first Eucharist. At the end of the eleventh century its use was permitted to priests at all times when it was liturgically prescribed. By the present Roman use, it is omitted on all days not of a festal character. Luther retained it in his Formula missæ, but does not mention it in his Deutsche Messe, though this may be because it was taken by many as going with the Kyrie. Most of the Lutheran service-books retained it, and so did the Reformed; Zwingli provided that it should be intoned by the minister in German, and then taken up by the men and women of the congregation alternately. In the Anglican Book of Common Prayer it was removed from the beginning to the end of the communion service; and in the American it was also permitted to be used as an alternative to the Gloria Patri after the psalms.

3. Alleluia.

The Hebrew formula halleluyah, "praise ye Yahweh," which was frequently used in Jewish worship, passed over untranslated into the Christian services. The earliest indication of this use is Rev. xix. 1-8. In the earliest definitely liturgical use it occurred after the reading of the epistle and at the time of communion. In the Eastern Church it is still used even in penitential seasons and in services for the dead. For the West the earliest evidence is Tertullian, De oratione, xxvii. Here, with the stronger emphasis laid on ecclesiastical seasons, it is not surprising that in the African Church it became customary to omit it in Lent (Augustine, Enarratio in Psalmos cx. cxlviii.), while another passage of Augustine (Epist. ad Januarium, Iv.) implies that in his day it was regularly sung between Easter and Pentecost, and occasionally at other times. According to Sozomen (Hist. eccl., VII., xix.), it was sung at Rome only on Easterday, and this statement is accepted by Cassiodorus (c. 570) and supported by a mention of Vigilantius (c. 400) in Jerome (Contra Vigilantium, i.), although Johannes Diaconus, in the fifth century, speaks of its being used at Rome during the whole paschal season. According to the most probable interpretation of a passage in Gregory the Great's letters (MPL, lxxvii. 956), it would seem that in the pontificate of Damasus (366-384) the eastern custom of singing Alleluia throughout the year found footing in Rome, and that in the fifth century it began to be restricted to the paschal season, while Gregory permitted a wider use. This may be reconciled with the statement of Sozomen by supposing that he referred to a special anthem containing the word "Alleluia," and not to the word itself. According to present Roman usage, the word is omitted altogether from Septuagesima to Easter, being replaced at the beginning of the choir offices by "Praise to thee, O Lord, King of eternal glory." In the paschal season, on the other hand, it is frequently used, being appended to antiphons, versicles and responses, and to the gradual and offertory in the Mass. Luther retained it in the Formula missæ with the gradual, and in the later Lutheran services it is usually placed after the epistle, except in Passion-tide--although Luther prescribed it even here.

4. Hosanna.

Hosanna as a word of praise occurs in the ancient liturgies only in the anthem known as Benedictus (Matt. xxi. 9); and here it is absent from all the liturgies belonging to the Egyptian type and from many of the Syrian class; it was unknown at Antioch in Chrysostom's time, at Jerusalem in Cyril's, and in the Byzantine liturgies of the fifth to the eighth centuries as reconstructed by Brightman. It is found, on the other hand, in the Didache (x. 6) and correspondingly in the Apostolic Constitutions (VII., xxvi. 1; also VIII., xiii. 3); in the Byzantine liturgies of St. Basil and St. Chrysostom; in the liturgy of St. James; in the Armenian and Nestorian liturgies, and in the ninth-century Byzantine. Except in the two first-named sources, it occurs uniformly after the Trisagion or Sanctus. There is reason to believe, however, that this is a later innovation, and that the primitive usage is preserved in the Clementine liturgy of the Apostolic Constitutions, where it occurs immediately before the administration, following the proclamation "Holy things to holy persons." It is even possible that just as the Jews sang Ps. cxviii. 25 sqq. after the Passover meal, so the Christian Benedictus was originally sung at the conclusion of the whole service; and this theory is supported by the fact that in the Armenian liturgy and that of the Coptic Jacobites the phrase "Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord" is placed after the communion of the people. In the West the Benedictus is found in all the most various types of liturgical production, almost without exception in connection with the Sanctus. The only noteworthy variant phenomenon is that in the Gallican liturgy it seems not to have been sung by the choir, as the Sanctus was, but to have more often formed the beginning of a collectio post Sanctus recited by the priest--or perhaps, having been already sung, it was repeated by him to connect the prayer with what had gone before. Luther retained both Sanctus and Benedictus in his Formula missæ, but placed them after the words of institution; in the Deutsche Messe he does not mention the Benedictus. In the later Lutheran service-books the Sanctus and Benedictus usually follow the preface. The Anglican Prayer-Book retains the Sanctus but omits the Benedictus; it is very frequently, however, at the present time, sung immediately before the consecration, as is the Agnus Dei after.

5. Kyrie Eleison.

The prayer "Lord have mercy upon me" or "us" (Gk., Kyrie eleeson me or hemas) occurs a


number of times in the Old and New Testaments, and probably formed a recognized part of the Jewish ritual, from which it passed over into the Christian. The way in which it is mentioned by the authorities for the second half of the fourth century--the Apostolic Constitutions (VIII., vi. 1, 2, viii. 3), Chrysostom, and the Peregrinatio Silviæ (ed. Gamurrini p. 78, Rome, 1888)--implies old-established and wide-spread use. Prayers in the form of litanies seem to have grown up, in which this response was made by the people to the deacon; they were frequently of an intercessory character. The use of the Kyrie eleison as an independent prayer seems to have been later. In this way it is used twelve times in the liturgy of St. James, and three times in that of St. Mark and the Alexandrian liturgy of St. Basil, before the act of communion; it also occurs in the preparation and the dismissal, and was used sometimes in solemn processions. The Greek form is preserved throughout in the Coptic, Abyssinian, and Syriac liturgies. As for Western usage, it may be inferred from the Peregrinatio Silviæ that the Latin form Miserere Domine but not the Greek was familiar to her Gallic fellow countrymen. The same inference may be drawn from the next oldest witness, also Gallic, the second Synod of Vaison (529), which prescribes the "more frequent use" of the Kyrie eleison at mass and morning and evening prayers. It was familiar to the Gallic monks, as is shown by the Regula ad monachos of Bishop Aurelian of Arles (d. 550), where it appears as an independent prayer, sung three times, so also in the rule of St. Benedict. This development on different lines from the East is shown again by a passage in Gregory the Great's letters (IX., xii), from which the conclusions follow that the Latins, unlike the Greeks, had by this time the response Christe eleison; and that Gregory was thinking not of the response to the deacon's bidding-prayer, but of an independent formula repeated a definite number of times. This number is first positively fixed by a ninth-century ordo published by L. Duchesne ((Origines du culte chrétien, p. 442, Paris, 1889), in which it is directed to be sung nine times, three for each invocation, as it is to-day in the Roman mass. Before the discovery of this ordo, Honorius of Autun (d. 1120) was the oldest witness known for the nine-fold Kyrie. In the Milanese liturgy the Kyrie appears after the Gloria in excelsis, after the Gospel, and at the end, three times in each place. In the Mozarabic liturgy it occurs only in one mass, where it is probably due to Roman influence. In a word, the general use of the prayer probably grew up in Rome and spread thence throughout the West. In the Eastern form of a response to the deacon it occurs in the African liturgy, in the Celtic as exhibited in the Stowe Missal, and in a Lenten litany at Milan. Luther retained the Kyrie eleison nine times in the Formula missæ, but only three times in the Deutsche Messe; and thus it remains (in either German, Latin, or Greek) in nearly all Lutheran service-books. The Reformed liturgies dropped it altogether, and the Anglican ritual while retaining it in the Litany, the Visitation Of the Sick, and the Churching of Women (omitted in the latter place by the American book), substituted in a corresponding position the recitation of the Commandments with the response after each "Lord, have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law." In the American ritual, however, the Kyrie is to be said if the summary of the Decalogue (Matt. xxii. 37-40) is substituted in the Ante-Communion for the Decalogue itself.

6. Pax vobiscum, Dominus vobiscum.

The Jewish form of salutation "Peace be unto you," used by the risen Christ to his disciples (John xx. 19, 21, 26), passed into liturgical usage as the greeting of the bishop to the congregation at the beginning of public worship. In the form eirene pasin, "peace be to all," it is found in nearly all Eastern liturgies, usually with the response "And to thy spirit." The formula was frequently used at the beginning of a new division of the service; thus it occurs ten times in the liturgy of St. Mark. In the West Pax vobis or vobiscum is attested by Augustine, Optatus of Mileve, and Ambrose, but it was gradually replaced by Dominus vobiscum (derived from II Thess. iii. 16), probably originating at Rome, and originally used in the introduction to the Preface, where it appears in the Canones Hippolyti (in Greek), in the Gelasian and Gregorian sacramentaries, and in the first Ordo Romanus, as well as in the oldest Milanese liturgy. It is likewise found in the Ethiopic and Egyptian liturgies, and, in an extended form, in the Mozarabic, but does not occur in the Syrian or Byzantine rites. In the Roman Mass of to-day the old custom of the kiss of peace, though preserved only in a symbolic form, is accompanied by the phrase "the peace of the Lord be always with you," with the response "And with thy spirit." The Dominus vobiscum is used regularly before collects, both in the mass and in the choir offices; when the latter are recited by laymen without a priest, the versicle and response "O Lord, hear my prayer" "And let my cry come unto thee" are substituted; just as in the early Middle Ages a distinction was made between Pax vobiscum as the episcopal and Dominus vobiscum as the priestly salutation.

In the Formula missæ Luther retained the Pax vobiscum and the response before the Preface, but not after the Gloria, while in the Deutsche Messe he ignored it entirely. The majority of Lutheran liturgies of the sixteenth century, like Zwingli, on the other hand, retained it after the Gloria, but not before the communion. Modern Lutheran liturgies likewise place it after the Gloria before the collect. In the Anglican Prayer-Book the Dominus vobiscum and its response are placed after the Creed in morning and evening prayer, and it is also used in confirmation.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: I.- II.: Much literature that is pertinent will be found cited under BREVIARY; COMMON PRAYER, BOOK OF; EUCHARIST; LITANY; LORD'S SUPPER; MASS; and WORSHIP, A vast body of sources and discussions is indicated in the three sections of the British Museum Catalogue devoted to liturgies, the entries being admirably arranged for consultation under convenient captions, making reference easy. The following list comprises principally later works. Lists of Mss. are: W. H. J. Weale, Bibliographica liturgica catalogue missalium ritus Latini, London,


1886; H. Ehrensberger, Bibliotheca liturgica, Carlsruhe, 1889; Bibliotheca musico--liturgica, London, 1894 (a list of musical and Latin liturgical manuscripts of the Middle Ages).

Among the sources may be named: James Brogden, Illustrations of the Liturgy and Ritual of the United Church of England and Ireland during the Seventeenth Century, London, 1842; W. Palmer, Origines Liturgicæ; or, Antiquities of the English Ritual, 2 vols., ib. 1845; P. Hall, Fragmenta Liturgica, Documents Illustrative of the Liturgy of the Church of England, 7 vols., Bath, 1848; W. Trollops, The Greek Liturgy of St. James, Edited with an English Introduction and Notes; together with a Latin Version of the Syriac Copy, and the Greek Text restored to its original Purity and accompanied by a literal English Translation, 8 vols., Edinburgh, 1848 ; The Eastern Liturgy of the Holy Catholic, Apostolic, simplifled and supplemented by James Ferretti of Damascus, London, 1866; The Book of Common Order of the Church of Scotland, commonly Known as John Knox's Liturgy and the Directory for the Public Worship of God Agreed upon by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster; Notes by G. W. Sprott and T. Leishman, Edinburgh, 1868; S. C. Malan, Divine Liturgy of the Armenian Church of St. Gregory, London, 1870; F. E. Warren, The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church, 8 vols., New York, 1882; J. M. Neale, The Liturgies of St. Mark, St. James, St. Clement, St. Chrysostom, St. Basil and the Church of Malabar, translated with Introduction and Appendices, London, 1883; C. A. Swainson, The Greek Liturgies, chiefly from Original Authorities. With an Appendix containing the Coptic Ordinary Canon of the Mass from two Manuscripts in the British Museum, ed. and transl., Dr. C. Bezold, ib. 1884; The Divine and Sacred Liturgies of John Chrysostom and Basil the Great, with an Eng. transl., ed. J. N. W. B. Robertson, ib. 1886; A. Maltsev, Die göttlichen Liturgien Johannes Chrysostomos, Basilios des Grossen und Gregorios Dialogos, Berlin, 1890; idem, Die Liturgien der orthodox-katholischen Kirche des Morgenlandes, Berlin, 1894; H. A. Wilson, The Galasian Sacramentary, Liber sacramentorum Romanæ ecclesiæ, ed. with Introduction, critical Notes, and Appendix with two Facsimiles, New York, 1894; C. E. Hammond, Liturgies Eastern and Western, Oxford, 1896; F. E. Warren, The Liturgy and Ritual of the Ante-Nicene Church, London, 1897; F. Cabrol and H. Leclercq, Monumenta ecclesiae liturgica, Paris, 1900; E. C. N. Barfoed, Oldkirkens Liturgier, Copenhagen, 1902; Benedictional of Archbishop Robert of Rouen, ed. H. A. Wilson in Publications of the Henry Bradshaw Society, vol. xxiv., London, 1903; V. Staley, Hierurgia Anglicana; Documents and Extracts illustrative of the Ceremonial of the Anglican Church after the Reformation, edited by Members of the Ecclesiastical Society, ib. 1903; Die nestorianische Taufliturgie ins Deutsche übersetzt von G. Diettrich, Giessen, 1903; A. Baumstark, Liturgia Romana e liturgia dell'Esarcato. Il rito detto Patriarchino e le origini del Canon Missæ Romano, Rome, 1904; A. Schoenfelder, Liturgische Bibliothek; Sammlung gottesdienstlicher Bücher aus dem deutschen Mittelalter, Paderborn, 1904; C. Wordsworth and H. Littlehales, Old Service Books of the English Church, London, 1904; The East Syrian or Nestorian Rite, transl. by A. J. Maclean, ib. 1905; Ordo Romanus primus, with Introduction by E. G. C. F. Atchley, ib. 1905; Rituale Armenorum, the Administration of the Sacraments and the Breviary Rites of the Armenian Church, edited by F. C. Conybeare, Oxford, 1905; The Divine Liturgy of the Holy Apostolic Church of Armenia, Translated by two Armenian Priests, London, 1908; D. Levi, The Form of Prayers for the New Year, Day of Atonement, Feast of the Tabernacles, etc., according to the Custom of the German and the Polish Jews as read in their Synagogues and used in their Families. Carefully revised by I. Levi, 6 vols., London, n.d.

Discussions of the subject are: F. Ehrenfeuchter, Theorie des christlichen Cultus, Hamburg, 1840; T. Kliefoth, Theorie des Cultus der evangelischen Kirche, Ludwigslust, 1844; idem, Liturgische Abhandlungen, 8 vols., Schwerin, 1854-62; C. W. Baird, Eutaxia, or, The Presbyterian Liturgies: Historical Sketches, New York, 1855, reprinted under the title, A Chapter on Liturgies: Historical Sketches, with an introductory Preface and an Appendix by Rev. Thos. Binney, London, 1856; H. Alt, Der christliche Kultus nach seinen verschiedenen Entwickelungsformen und seinen einzelnen Theilen, 2 vols., Berlin, 1860; Ivan Borovnitsky, Origin and Composition of the Roman Catholic Liturgy, and its Difference from that of the Orthodox Church, London, 1863; J. M. Neale, Essays on Liturgiology and Church History: with an Appendix on liturgical Quotations from the Isapostolic Fathers by J. Moultrie, 8 vols., ib. 1867; F. Probst, Liturgie der drei ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte, Tübingen, 1870; H. C. Romanoff, The Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, ib. 1871; T. Bernard, Cours de liturgie romaine, Paris, 1884-93; P. L. P. Guéranger, Institutions liturgiques, ib. 1885; idem, The Liturgical Year, Worcester, 1895; H. Hering, Hülfsbuch zur Einführung in das liturgische Studium, Wittenberg, 1888; P. Freeman, The Principles of Divine Service, London, 1889; H. M. Luckock, The Divine Liturgy, ib. 1889; F. Probst, Liturgie des vierten Jahrhunderts und deren Reform, Münster, 1893; V. Thalhofer, Handbuch der katholischen Liturgik, Freiburg, 1894; L. Clugnet, Dictionnaire grèc-francais des noms liturgiques en usage dans l'eglise grecque, Paris, 1895; A. Ebner, Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte des Missale Romanum im Mittelalter, Freiburg, 1896; F. Magani, L'Antica liturgia Romana, Milano, 1897-99; J. Comper, A Popular Handbook of the Origin, Hist., and Structure of Liturgies, London, 1898; G. Rietschel, Lehrbuch der Liturgik, 2 vols., Berlin, 1899; F. Cabrol, Le Livre de la prière antique, Paris, 1900; idem, Dictionnaire; J. W. Legg, Some Local Reforms of the Divine Service Attempted on the Continent in the Sixteenth Century, London, 1901; L. Duchesne, Christian Worship, a Study of the Latin Liturgy up to the time of Charlemagne, ib. 1904; Nerses Ter-Mikaelian, Das armenische Hymnarium. Studien zu seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung, Leipsic, 1905; F. Cabrol, Les Origines liturgiques, Paris, 1906; P. C. Yorke, The Roman Liturgy, a Hist. and Explanation of the Ceremonies and Prayers, San Francisco, 1906; P. Drews, Die clementinische Liturgie in Rom, Tübingen, 1906; W. H. Frere, The Principles of Religious Ceremonial, London, 1906; V. Staley, Studies in Ceremonial: Essays illustrative of English Ceremonial, London, 1907; H. Bäuerle, Liturgie; Theorie des römisch-katholischen Kultus, Regensburg, 1908; C. P. A. Burnett, Ritual and Ceremonial, London, 1908; L. Duchesne, Origines du culte chrétienne, Paris, 1908; J. Braun, Die liturgische Gewandung im Occident und Orient nach Ursprung and Entwicklung, Verwendung und Symbolik, Freiburg, 1908; Beiträge zur Kenntnis der byzantinischen Liturgie, Berlin, 1908.

III.: For the Amen the most notable contribution is in Cabrol, Dictionnaire, fasc., vi., cols. 1554-73. Consult also: Bingham, Origines, XV., iii. 26; Thalhofer, ut sup., i. 512 sqq.; H. W. Hogg, in JQR, ix (1896), 1-23; E. F. von der Goltz, Das Gebet in der ältesten Christenheit, pp. 157 sqq., Leipsic, 1901; DCA, i. 75-76. On the Doxology consult: Chase, in TS, i. 3 (1891), 168 sqq.; Bingham, Origines, XIV., i. 8, ii. 1-2; V. Thalhofer, ut sup., i. 490 sqq., ii. 77 sqq.; E. C. Achelis, Lehrbuch der praktischen Theologie, i. 394, Leipsic, 1898; E. F. von der Goltz, ut sup., pp. 157 sqq.; DCA, i. 577-579. For Alleluia consult: Cabrol, Dictionnaire, fasc. v., cols. 1226-1246; Bingham, Origines, XIV., ii. 4; V. Thalhofer, ut sup., i. 515 sqq., ii. 100 sqq.; O'Mahony, in Dublin Review, cxx (1897), 345-350; L. Duchesne, Christian Worship, London, 1904; DCA, i. 55-56; DB, ii. 287; EB, ii. 1943-44. On the Hosanna consult: V. Thalhofer, ut sup., ii. 185; Bingham, Origines, II., ix. 3, XIV., ii. 5; DCA, i. 785; DB, ii. 418-419; EB, ii. 2117-20; DCA, i. 749-751. On the Kyrie eleison consult: V. Thalfhofer, ut sup., i. 495-500; E. C. Achelis, in Monatsschrift für Gottesdienst und kirchliche Kunst, iv. 161 sqq., 211 sqq.; L. Duchesne, Christian Worship, London, 1904. On the Pax vobiscum consult: Bingham, Origines, XIII., viii. 13, x. 8, XIV., iv. 14, XV., iii. 2; V. Thalhofer, ut sup., i. 503 sqq., ii. 82, 85, 422; DCA, i. 572.

1 This article should be read in connection with the articles MASS (for the Roman Catholic development), AGENDA, EUCHARIST, and LORD'S SUPPER (for the Protestant side).


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