LABADIE, la"ba"di', JEAN DE, LABADISTS: The founder of a Dutch quietistic sect and his adherents. De Labadie, also called Jean de la Badie, was born at Bourg (15 m. n. of Bordeaux) Feb. 13, 1610; d. at Altona Feb. 13, 1674. He studied in the Jesuit school of Bordeaux, and against the wishes of his friends connected himself with the order, although he never became a professed member. After 1626 he devoted himself to philosophy and theology, as well as to the Vulgate and the writings of St. Augustine, developing a mystical and Augustinian trend. He was ordained in 1635, but four years later was released from his vows as a Jesuit at his own request on the plea of ill health. He then began to preach with much success as a secular priest in his native town, as well as in Paris, Amiens (where he was made canon and teacher of theology in 1640), and Abbeville. [He regarded himself as divinely inspired; cf. Déclaration de la foi, p. 84; Historisch verhael Lebens Labadisten Schewingh, p. 109.] He became attracted to the doctrines of the Reformation through his studies of the Scriptures, but was protected against the anger of the monks and priests by Cardinal Richelieu, only in 1645 to be expelled from Amiens by Mazarin as a disturber of the peace [a modification of a sentence to life imprisonment, obtained through an appeal from the assembly of the clergy of France, then in session; Traité de la Sol de Chretiénne.] He went later to the Carmelite


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and America now make provision for lay representation in their general meetings (synods, conferences, conventions, etc.). In Germany and in England State control involves the preponderance of lay authority. In the disestablished Episcopal Church of Ireland lay representation is provided for. In the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States three lay delegates from each church participate in the diocesan conventions, and each diocesan convention sends four lay delegates to the general convention (with an equal number of clerical delegates), which legislates for the entire body. The Reformed bodies of the Presbyterian type amply provide for lay representation in the ruling elders, appointed for life, who participate with the ministers in the presbytery and in the graduated synodical meetings that culminate in the general assembly. Original Wesleyanism made no provision for lay representation. A growing and insistent demand for it led to controversies and schisms. It was adopted in a limited measure, after years of discussion and thorough testing of the sentiments of the constituency, by the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States in 1872. A still more liberal representation (equal to the ministerial) had been accorded to laymen by the Methodist Episcopal Church South in 1866 and put in full operation in 1870. All the Anglo-American congregational bodies (Congregationalists, Baptists, Disciples, Unitarians, Universalists, etc.) have always accorded equality of privileges in general meetings to laymen.--A. H. N.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Hatch, Organization of the Early Christian Churches, lecture v., London, 1895; Bingham, Origines, I., v (gives citations from original authorities); L. Coleman, Ancient Christianity Exemplified, pp. 107-109 et passim, Philadelphia, 1869; H. B. Restarick, Lay Readers: their History, Organization, and Work, New York, 1894; Schaff, Christian Church, ii. 123-131; Neander, Christian Church, consult Index, p. 131; DCA, ii. 912-916; and the literature on the DIDACHEand the APOSTOLICAL CONSTITUTIONS. The development of the distinction between clergy and laity is usually treated in discussions of post-apostolic Christianity.


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