KRUEGER, kroi'ger, HERMANN GUSTAV EDUARD: German Protestant; b. at Bremen June 29, 1862. He studied in Heidelberg (1881-83), Jena (1883-84; Ph.D., 1884), Giessen (1884-85; lic. theol., 1886), and Göttingen (1885-86). In 1886 he became privat-docent for theology in Giessen, where he was appointed associate professor of the same subject in 1889. Since 1891 he has been full professor at Giessen, and in 1902-03 was rector of the university. He is primarily a student of patristics and the history of dogma, and belongs to no denomination. Since 1888 he has been a collaborator on the Theologischer Jahresbericht, of which he has been joint editor since 1895, first with H. Holzmann (1895-1901) and later with W. Köhler (since 1901). He has likewise edited the Sammlung ausgewählter Quellenschriften zur Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte, to which he contributed Justins Apologieen (Freiburg, 1891) and Augustin de catechizandis rudibus (1893). He also translated J. Reville's La Religion à Rome sous les Sévères (Leipsic, 1888) and edited the second and third volumes of K. von Hase's Kirchengeschichte auf der Grundlage akademischer Vorlesungen (1890-92) He has written: Monophysitische Streitigkeiten im Zusammenhange mit der Reichspolitik (Jena, 1884); Lucifer von Calaris und das Schisma der Luciferianer (Leipsic, 1886); Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (Freiburg, 1895; Eng. transl. by C. R. Gillet, History of Early Christian Literature, New York, 1897); Was heisst und zu welchem Ende studiert man Dogmengeschichte? (1895); Die Entstehung des Neuen Testaments (1896); Das Dogma vom Neuen Testament


(Giessen, 1896); Die neueren Bemühungen um Wiedervereinigung der christlichen Kirchen (Freiburg, 1897); Petrus Canisius in Geschichte und Legende (Giessen, 1897); Die neuen Funde auf dem Gebiet der ältesten Kirchengeschichte (1898); Die sogenannte Kirchengeschichte des Zacharias Rhetor (Leipsic, 1899); Kritik und Ueberlieferung auf dem Gebiet der Erforschung des Urchristentums (Giessen, 1903); Philipp der Grossmütige als Politiker (1904); Das Dogma von der Dreieinigkeit und Gottmenschheit (Tübingen, 1905); Philipp Melanchthon, eine Charakterskizze (Halle, 1906); and Das Papstthum (Tübingen,1907; Eng. transl., The Papacy; its Idea and its Exponents, New York, 1909).

KRUMMACHER, krum'mah"er : The name of four distinguished Reformed preachers of Germany.

1. Friedrich Adolf Krummacher was born at Tecklenburg (22 m. n.n.e. of Münster) July 13, 1767; d. at Bremen Apr. 4, 1845. He attended the Latin school of his native town and in 1786 became a student of theology at the small Reformed College of Lingen. Dissatisfied with the conditions there, he removed to Halle, where he attended, among others, the lectures of Knapp and Bahrdt. After the completion of his studies, he spent one year as schoolmaster in Bremen. In 1790 he was appointed associate rector of the gymnasium at Hamm. In 1793 he assumed the rectorship of the gymnasium in Mörs, on the left bank of the Rhine, in spite of the menace of war. In 1800 he was called to the professorship of theology and rhetoric at Duisburg. His theology, though tinged by the influences of the period, was marked by a piety and a reverence for Scriptural Christianity which made him a valuable counterpoise to the rationalism of his colleague Grimm. The pressure of Napoleonic autocracy had a paralyzing effect upon the University of Duisburg, and it declined still more after the town carne under the rule of the newly established grand duchy of Berg; the French government did not even pay the salaries of the professors, and after Krummacher's brother-in-law Möller had left the institution in 1805, he was glad to exchange his position in 1807 for that of a country pastor at Kettwig in the romantic valley of the Ruhr, where he soon won the confidence of the Westphalian peasants. In 1812 Duke Alexis Frederick Christian of Anhalt-Bernburg appointed him general superintendent, councilor of the consistory, and chief preacher at Bernburg. In 1820 he declined a call to the University of Bonn as professor of theology. In 1821 the Evangelical Union was introduced in Bernburg under his guidance. From 1824 to 1843, when, owing to old age, he resigned his position, he was pastor of the Church of St. Ansgar in Bremen, where he acquired great popularity, though he could not compete with his colleague Dräske as a preacher.

Krummacher possessed a contemplative esthetic, and poetic nature, a genial disposition with a tender heart, a dignified earnestness, and a child-like simplicity. He was well trained in philology and theology, and his education was very comprehensive. He exerted much influence upon his contemporaries, not only as professor and preacher, but also as poet and prose writer. During the Duisburg period he published Hymnus an die Liebe (Wesel, 1801), followed by Parabeln (Duisburg, 1809; Eng. trans]., Parables, London, 1824 and often), which acquired a permanent place in German literature, and a treatise, then very popular, Ueber den Geist und die Form der evangelischen Geschichte in historischer und ästhetischer Hinsicht (Leipsic, 1805). In his rural solitude at Kettwig he wrote, beside essays and criticisms in magazines, Die Kinderwelt (Duisburg, 1809), a favorite book of Queen Louise; Das Festbüchlein, eine Schrift fürs Volk (1809-18); Apologen und Paramythien (1809); and Bibelkatechismus (1810). While at Bernburg he published the patriotic poem Der Eroberer (1814); the Biblical drama Johannes (Leipsic, 1815); and the anonymous polemical treatise Apostolisches Sendschreiben an die Christengemeinden von dem was Noth thut zur Kirchenverbesserung (1815), called forth by the institution of the so-called liturgical commission in Berlin. Then followed: Leiden, Sterben und Auferstehung unsers Herrn Jesu Christi, twelve pictures after Goltzius with preface and text (Berlin, 1817); Paragraphen zur heiligen Geschichte (1818); Fürst Wolfgang zu Anhalt, eine Reformationspredigt (Dessau, 1820), Briefwechsel zwischen Asmus und seinem Vetter (Duisburg, 1820), a polemical treatise, directed against Voss; Die freie evangelische Kirche, ein Friedensgruss (1821); Bilder und Bildchen (Essen, 1823); Katechismus der christlichen Lehre (1823); and Die christliche Volksschule im Bunde mit der Kirche (1825). To the Bremen period belong: Katechismus der christliehen Lehre nach dem Bekenntnis der evangelischen Kirche (1825); St. Ansgar (Bremen, 1828); Das Täubchen (Essen, 1828); Der Hauptmann Cornelius, sermons on Acts x (Bremen, 1829; Eng. transl., Cornelius the Centurion, Edinburgh, 1839); Die Geschichte des Reichs Gottes nach der heiligen Schrift (Essen, 1831-45); Leben des heiligen Johannes (1833). Krummacher was a most faithful contributor to the Bremer Kirchenbote edited by Mallet. The first parts of the Festbüchlein, the juvenile writings, and the catechism were received with special favor and went into numerous editions.


2. Gottfried Daniel Krummacher, brother of Friedrich Adolf, was born at Tecklenburg (22 m. n.n.e. of Münster) Apr. 1, 1774; d. at Elberfeld (24 m. n.e. of Cologne) Jan. 30, 1837. Even as a boy he gave evidence of a peculiar and dreamy nature. At the University of Duisburg he came under the influence of its rector Franz Arnold Hasenkamp (q.v.), and of Professor Möller, which preserved him from being carried away by the rationalism of Grimm. After the completion of his studies he went to his brother Friedrich Adolf at Hamm where he taught and preached; then he became private tutor in Soest and in 1796 in Mörs, where his brother now was. Thence he was called as preacher to the neighboring town of Baerl, in 1801 to Wülfrath near Elberfeld, and in 1816 to Elberfeld itself. He exerted a wide influence by the whole-hearted sincerity of his character, evidenced in his preaching; but owing to his peculiar education he possessed some rugged and harsh traits. In his theology he followed the Dutch school of


Cocceius and Lampe, but at the same time, especially in the beginning of his activity in Elberfeld, taught absolute predestination with all possible harshness according to the articles of the Synod of Dort. Unlike Lampe, Krummacher attracted only the elect while he repelled the unconverted. In spite of the apparent dryness and stiffness of his sermons, he attracted his hearers by the irresistible power of his conviction, and by the depth and fervor of his Christian experience which he owed chiefly to writings like those of Madame Guyon, Bunyan, Bogatzky, and Tersteegen. From an exegetical standpoint his sermons are open to criticism for their arbitrary Biblical interpretation. Krummacher's appearance at Elberfeld, just at the time of the religious awakening, produced a revival which caused a sensation in the whole country. Carried away by his success, he did not shrink from the very extremes of the doctrine of predestination, and the offensive conduct of his adherents necessitated the interference of the ecclesiastical authorities. Krummacher tried to modify his doctrine and manners, but some of his followers adhered strictly to the principles of predestination, and after his death and that of his nephew joined the Dutch Reformed congregation of Dr. Kohlbrügge in Elberfeld.

Krummacher published a number of sermons: Reformationspredigten (Elberfeld, 1817), Beitrag zur Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist evangelisch? (1828), Jakobs Kampf und Sieg (1829; Eng. transl., Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, London, 1838), Die evangelische Lehre von der Rechtfertigung (1831), Die Wanderungen Israels durch die Wüste nach Kanaan, in Beziehung auf die innere Führung der Gläubigen beleuchtet (1834; Eng. transl., Israel's Wanderings in the Wilderness, 2 vols., London, 1837), Die hohepriesterliche Segensformel (1834), Wahrheit zur Gottseligkeit, oder Hauspostille (1834), Gute Botschaft (1838). Tagliches Manna für Pilger durch die Wüste was published posthumously by his friends (1843). He also published a translation of Calvin's commentary on Philippians (Düsselthal, 1836).

(M. GÖBEL†.)

3. Friedrich Wilhelm Krummacher, elder son of Friedrich Adolf, was born at Mörs (17 m. n.n.e. of Düsseldorf) Jan. 28, 1796; d. at Potsdam Dec. 10, 1868. He studied at the high-schools of Duisburg and Bernburg, and then studied theology in Halle and Jena. In 1819 he became assistant preacher of the Reformed congregation in Frankfort. In 1823 he was appointed preacher at Ruhrort, in 1825 at Gemarke (Barmen). In 1834 he went to Elberfeld as colleague of his uncle Gottfried Daniel. A sermon preached by him on Gal. i. 8, 9 in 1840 at the Church of St. Ansgar in Bremen (translated into English under the title Paul not a Man to Suit the Taste of our Age, London, 1841), occasioned the "Bremen Controversy," which extended over several years and called forth numerous treatises. In 1847 he became preacher at Trinity Church in Berlin, and in 1853 court preacher at Potsdam. His style is sometimes too picturesque and addicted to the use of foreign words; but his homiletic power is undeniable. As he successfully opposed rationalism with all the resources of wit, genius, and faith, and tried to restore the old beliefs, so, with Tholuck and Claus Harms, he was influential in throwing overboard the mechanical mode of preaching which followed Reinhardt.

The most important of F. W. Krummacher's numerous works was Elias der Thisbiter (Elberfeld, 1826; Eng. transl., Elijah the Tishbite, London, 1836; a classic). Other works were: Salomo and Sulamith (1828; Eng. transl., Solomon and Shulamite, London, 1838); Blicke ins Reich der Gnade (1828; Eng. transl., A Glance into the Kingdom of Grace, 1837); Kirchliche Lehrstimmen (1832; Eng. transl., The Church's Voice of Instruction, 1839); Der Prophet Elisa (1837; Eng. transl., Elisha, 1838); Der scheinheilige Rationalismus (1841); Weg zum Heil (1842); Theologische Replik (1846); Das Adventsbuch (Leipsie, 1847); Die Sabbathsgloeke (12 parts, 1851-1858); Das Passionsbuch (1854; Eng. transl., The Suffering Saviour, Edinburgh, 1856); Des Christen Wallfahrt nach der himmlischen Heimath (Berlin, 1858); Immanuel Friedrich Sander (1860); Christus lebt; ein Oster- und Pfingstbuch (1862; Eng. transl., The Risen Redeemer, 1863); David, der König von Israel (1867; Eng. transl., 1867); and an autobiography (Berlin, 1869; Eng. transl., 1869).

(R. KÖGEL†.)

4. Emil Wilhelm Krummacher, younger son of Friedrich Adolf, was born at Mörs (17 m. n.n.e. of Düsseldorf) May 7, 1798; d. at Bonn Jan. 15, 1886. From 1841 to 1876 he was preacher in Duisburg. Like his father and brother he published a number of devotional works, which, however, did not attain the same importance as theirs. Among them are: Hirtenruf zur lebendigen Quelle des Heils (Elberfeld, 1830); Das Dogma von der Gnadenwahl (Duisburg, 1856); and Gideon, der Richter Israels (Elberfeld, 1861).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. A. W. Möller, F. A. Krummacher und seine Freunde, 2 vols., Bremen, 1849; ADB, xvii. 240-243.

2. E. W. Krummacher, Gottfried Daniel Krummachers Leben, Elberfeld, 1838; A. W. Möller, ut sup.; ADB, xvii. 246-247;

3. Friedrich Wilhelm Krummacher, Selbstbiographie, Berlin, 1869; Eng. transl., Autobiography, Edinburgh, 1869; A. Nebe, Zur Geschichte der Predigt, Wiesbaden, 1879; DNB, xvii. 243-246.


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