KITTEL, RUDOLF: German Protestant; b. at Ehningen (15 m. s.w. of Stuttgart), Württemberg, Mar. 28, 1853. He studied at Tübingen 1871-76 (Ph.D., 1879), and, after being a pastor 1876-79, was lecturer at Tübingen 1879-81. He was then professor in a gymnasium at Stuttgart until 1888, when he was appointed professor of Old-Testament exegesis at the University of Breslau, where he was rector in 1896-97. Since 1898 he has been professor of the same subject at Leipsic. He has translated Judges and Samuel for E. F. Kautzsch's Heilige Schrift des Alten Testaments (Freiburg, 1892); and the Psalms of Solomon for the same scholar's Apokryphen and Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments (Tübingen, 1898); edited Chronicles for SBOT (New York, 1895); C. F. A. Dillmann's Handbuch der alttestamentlichen Theologie (Leipsic, 1895); the sixth edition of the same scholar's Kommentar zu Jesaja (1898); and Biblia Hebraica (in collaboration with various other scholars; Leipsic, 1905-07). He is likewise the editor of Saat auf Hoffnung, and has written: Sittliche Fragen (Stuttgart, 1883); Geschichte der Hebräer, (2 vols., Gotha, 1888-92; Eng. transl. by J. Taylor, H. W. Hogg, and E. B. Spiers, 2 vols., London, 1895); Aus dem Leben des Propheten Jesaia (Gotha, 1894); Die Anfänge der hebräischen Geschichtsschreibung im Alten Testament (Leipsic, 1896); commentaries on Kings and Chronicles (in W. Nowack's Handkommentar zum Alten Testament; Göttingen, 1900-02); Die orientalischen Ausgrabungen und die ältere biblische Geschichte (Leipsic, 1903); Der Babel-Bibelstreit und die Offenbarungsfrage (Leipsic, 1903); and Studien zur hebräischen Archäologie und Religionsgeschichte (1908), in Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten Testament, which he edits.


KITTO, JOHN: English Biblical scholar; b. at Plymouth Dec. 4, 1804; d. at Cannstadt, Germany, Nov. 25, 1854. In his eleventh year he had to leave school to assist his father, a stonemason, and in 1817, while carrying slates up a high ladder, he suffered a fall that rendered him completely deaf for the rest of his life. Cut off from ordinary society by this infirmity he now devoted himself to study and resorted to various expedients for earning pennies to procure books. With the exception of a few months spent as apprentice to an ill-natured Plymouth shoemaker, he was in the workhouse from Nov., 1819, till July, 1823. Friends then provided for his support and secured permission for him to use the public library, and in 1824 A. N. Groves (q.v.), a dentist at Exeter, took him as a pupil. In July, 1825, he entered the Missionary College at Islington to learn printing, and in June, 1827, he went to Malta as a printer in the employ of the Church Missionary Society. In Jan., 1829, he returned to England, and the following June he joined Groves' private mission party as tutor to Groves' children. The party reached Bagdad in December. In 1833 he returned to England, obtained employment with Charles Knight, then editor of the publications of the Society for the


Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and wrote industriously for Knights' Penny Magazine and Penny Cyclopædia. Through connections formed with London and Edinburgh publishers he was now enabled to follow his literary bent and make for himself an enviable reputation as a popular writer on Eastern and Biblical subjects. In 1844, though a layman, he was created D.D. by the University of Giessen; in 1845 he was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries; and in 1850, in recognition of his "useful and meritorious literary works," a civil list pension of £100 per annum was conferred upon him. His last years were saddened by ill health and financial difficulties. When, in Feb., 1854, he was forced to stop work, generous friends contributed to his support and enabled him to spend the last three months of his life in Germany. The works for which Kitto is particularly remembered are: The Pictorial Bible (3 vols., London, 1835-38); Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1843-45), which he edited and largely wrote; and Daily Bible Illustrations (8 vols., 1849-53). Other works deserving mention are: Pictorial History of Palestine (2 vols., London, 1841); and The Lost Senses (2 parts, 1845). He also founded and edited the Journal of Sacred Literature (London, 1848-53).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Biographical matter is contained in The Lost Senses, ut sup. Consult: J. E. Ryland, Memoirs of John Kitto. . . . with a critical Estimate of Dr. Kitto's Life and Writings by Professeor Eadie, Edinburgh, 1856; J. Eadie, Life of J. Kitto, ib. 1882; W. M. Thayer, From Poor-House to Pulpit; the Triumphs of . . . John Kitto, Boston, 1859; DNB, xxxi. 233-235.


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