KLARER, klar'er, WALTER: Swiss Reformer; b. at Hundwil, canton of Appenzell, 1499; d. there 1566. He attended the schools in St. Gall, Schaffhausen, and Bern, and then spent four years in the Stipendium regium at Paris, where he studied canon law. He joined the Reformation at its very start, and in 1522 became pastor in his native town. In 1531 he officiated at Herisau, in 1532 at Gossau. During the following ten years he was preacher of Urnasch, in the canton of Appenzell, and from 1543 to 1566 again in Hundwil. He took part in a number of important conferences and disputations, including the Disputation of Bern in 1528. In 1565 he wrote, from memory, a brief history of the Reformation in Appenzell from 1521 to 1531 (ed. J. J. Simler, from a German copy, the original being lost, in Sammlung alter und neuer Urkunden, pp. 803-840, Zurich, 1759; reprinted by Heim from another German copy in the Appenzell Year Book for 1873, pp. 86-106).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Some data from autobiographic sources appeared, ed. Walser, in Appanzeller Chronik, 1740, pp. 390-391; other material is scattered through the sources of the history of the Swiss Reformation.


KLEINERT, klain'ert, HUGO WILHELM PAUL: German Protestant; b. at Vielguth (near Bernstadt, 22 m. e. of Breslau), Silesia, Sept. 25, 1837. He studied at Breslau and Halle (Ph.D., 1857; lic. theol., Breslau, 1860), and was deacon and teacher of religion at the gymnasium of Oppeln 1861-63, and teacher in the Friedrich-Wilhelm gymnasium in Berlin 1863-65. He was then inspector at the Domkandidatenstift, Berlin, 1865-1867, and preacher at St. Gertrude's in the same city 1867-77. Meanwhile, in 1864, he had become privat-docent for Old-Testament exegesis at the University of Berlin, where he was appointed associate professor of the same subject in 1868. Since 1877 he has been professor of Old-Testament exegesis and practical theology. He was made a consistorial counselor in 1873 and in 1894 was created a supreme consistorial counselor. In theology he is Evangelical, although he belongs to the critical school. He has written Ueber das Buch Koheleth (Berlin, 1864); Augustin und Goethe's Faust (1866); Schillers religiöse Bedeutung (1866); the commentary on Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah in J. P. Lange's Bibelwerk (Bielefeld, 1869; Eng. transl., New York, 1874); Untersuchungen zur alttestamentlichen Rechts- und Literaturgeschichte (1872); Abriss der Einleitung zum Alten Testaments in Tabellenform (Berlin, 1878); Die revidierte Lutherbibel (Heidelberg, 1883); Zur christlichen Kultur und Kulturgeschichte (Berlin, 1889); Der preussische Agenden-Entwurf (Gotha, 1894); Selbstgespräche am Kranken- und Sterbelager (Berlin, 1896); Die Profeten Israels in socialer Beziehung (Leipsic, 1905); Homiletik (1907); and Musik und Religion, Gottesdienst und Volksfeier (1908).


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