KETTELER, ket'te-ler, WILHELM EMANUEL, BARON VON: Bishop of Mainz; b. at Münster Dec. 25, 1811; d. at Burghausen (58 m. e. of Munich), Upper Bavaria, July 13, 1877. He was educated by the Jesuits at Brieg, Switzerland. He studied law at Göttingen, Berlin, Munich, and Heidelberg, and was Referendar at Münster 1834-1838. After studying theology at Munich and Münster he received ordination in 1844, became pastor at Hopsten, Westphalia, in 1846, and provost of the Hedwigskirche, Berlin, in 1849. He was appointed bishop of Mainz in 1850. To restore the Church of Rome to its old power and splendor was the great idea of his life; and, as the acknowledged leader of the Ultramontane party in Germany, he fought for this idea with as much adroitness as audacity. At the Council of the Vatican he belonged to the minority, but, as soon as the dogma of papal infallibility was promulgated, he accepted it and published it in his diocese. Well aware of the danger to the realization of his ideas which arose from the establishment of a German empire under the Protestant house of Hohenzollern, he resisted the consolidation of the new organization in every possible way. He opposed vigorously Bismarck's policy of placing the Roman Catholic Church, in its relation to the State, on an equality with other social institutions, and advocated a policy of resistance to state legislation involving ecclesiastical affairs. His numerous writings include, Freiheit, Autarität, und Kirche (Mainz, 1862); Die wahren Grundlagen des religiösen Friedens (1868); Das allgemeine Konzil und seine Bedeutung für unsere Zeit (1869); Die Katholiken im deutschen Reich1873); Der Kulturkampf (1874); and Predigten (2 vols., 1878).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: O. Pfülf, Bischof von Ketteler, 3 vols., Mainz, 1899; F. Greiffenrath, Bischof . . . von Ketteler und die deutsche Socialreform, Frankfort, 1893; J. Wenzel, W. E. . . . von Ketteler, der Lehrer . . . der katholisch-socialen Bestrebungen, Berlin, 1895; E. de Girard, Ketteler et la question ouvrière, Berne, 1896; KL, vi. 402-406.


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