JUSTUS: First bishop of Rochester and fourth archbishop of Canterbury; d. at Canterbury Nov. 10, 627. He was sent to England with Mellitus (q.v.) and others in 601. Augustine (q.v.) consecrated him bishop for West Kent in 604 and Ethelbert, king of Kent, built him a church at Rochester. In 617 during the heathen reaction under Eadbald, with Mellitus he fled into Gaul, but was recalled after a year and restored to his bishopric (see LAURENCE OF CANTERBURY; MELLITUS). He succeeded Mellitus as archbishop in 624, consecrated Romanus as his successor at Rochester, and sent Paulinus (q.v.) to Northumbria. He received the pallium from Boniface V.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bede, Hist. eccl., i. 29, ii. 3, 4, 8. 18; Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, iii. 72-81; W. F. Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, i. 99-109, London, 1860; W. Bright, Chapters of Early English Church Hist., passim, Oxford, 1897; DCB, iii. 592-593.

JUVENAL, ju've-nal: First patriarch of Jerusalem; d. c. 458. Of his life little is known, and the date and place of his birth, consecration, and death are also uncertain. The aim of his life was to make Jerusalem one of the important sees of Christendom, and the Council of Nicęa had, as a matter of fact, accorded the bishop of Jerusalem special rank and honor, though it placed him under the jurisdiction of the metropolitan of Cęsarea, Juvenal endeavored to realize the concession, and took the first step in this direction by transcending his authority in consecrating in the neighborhood a certain Peter bishop of a newly converted tribe of Saracens and attaching him as so-Called bishop "of Tarembolae" (i.e., "of the camp") to the see of Jerusalem, most probably in 425. This was considered a distinct breach of canon law by the metropolitan of Cęsarea. The resulting difficulties came to a head at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The conditions of the time favored Juvenal. Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople, was accused of heresy; Cyril of Alexandria was temporarily imprisoned; John of Antioch held a separate council; and the see of Rome was represented only by legates. To Juvenal, therefore, in Cyril's absence fell the right of precedence in signing the resolutions; or, in case Cyril was present, Juvenal's name came second. Juvenal did not hesitate to make the most of these conditions. He summoned John of Antioch to proceed at once to Ephesus, ranked


the see of Jerusalem as on a par with that of Rome and gave it the title "apostolic," which he denied to Antioch. These indications show plainly that Juvenal aspired not only after an independent see within the archbishopric of Cęsarea, but after superiority over, or at least, equality with, that of Antioch. He aimed to have the three bishoprics of Palestine attached to Jerusalem, and also, if possible, those of Phenicia and Arabia. The result would be to make the holy city the principal see in the Orient.

Several bishops who had been ordained by Juvenal and were present at Ephesus, supported his claims; this fact, and the absence of the above-mentioned bishops from the principal sees were extremely favorable to his ambitions. Cyril of Alexandria appeared, however, at the fourth session of the council, and at once took charge of the proceedings. He saw the danger not only for the see of Antioch but for that of Alexandria in the existence of a masterful bishop of Jerusalem. He therefore opposed every plan of Juvenal. Neither did the idea of a new competitor for supremacy in Christendom please the fancy of the legates of the Roman see. It could not be foreseen what complications might arise in favor of Jerusalem, particularly since pilgrimages to the holy city were be coming more frequent every year. But Juvenal had gained an advantage of which he made the most. He ordained several new bishops in Palestine without having any stipulated right by canon law. His influence was growing constantly, and Maximus of Antioch at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 acknowledged Juvenal's claims to the three sees Of Palestine on condition that the latter abandon his claims to the sees of Phenicia and Arabia. The council confirmed the agreement.

Juvenal had numerous difficulties with the monophysitic monks of Palestine; and even his life was threatened. He introduced the celebration of Christmas on Dec. 25, possibly to win the favor of Rome. See JERUSALEM, PATRIARCHATE OF; and MONOPHYSITES, § 2.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: The acts of the councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon given in Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol. ii. passim, Eng. transl., vol. iii, passim; the letters of Leo the Great, Eng. transl. in NPNF, 2 ser., vol. xii., cf. pp. 66, 82, 86 97; Evagrius, Hist. eccl., ii., in MPG, lxxxvi. 2. Consult: M. Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, iii. 110 sqq., 164 sqq., Paris, 1740; Vailhe, in Revue de l'orient, iv (1899), 44 sqq.; DCB, iii. 595 sqq.; Neander, Christian Church, vol. ii. passim.


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