JOHANN, yo'han, JOHANNES, yo'hãn-nêz. See JOHN.

JOHANNES III. SCHOLASTICUS: Patriarch of Constantinople; b. at Sirimis (near Antioch); d. probably Aug. 31, 577.

The Patriarch Eutychius (q.v.) having been banished on account of his firm attitude against Aphthartodocetism (see JUSTINIAN), Justinian appointed to succeed him, in Jan., 565, Johannes, deputy of the Patriarch Anastasius of Antioch. Before becoming a cleric, Johannes had been a lawyer. According to John of Ephesus (Hist. Eccl., i. and ii.), he was an unsparing oppressor of the Monophysites of the capital. After severe illness, he died in the twelfth year of the Emperor Justin II. whose favor he had enjoyed. Johannes was the author of (1) a "collection of canons," and this while still a presbyter of Antioch; also (2) a legal canon (Justellus, Bibliotheca Juris canonici veteris 2 vols., Paris, 1661, ii. 499-672). The former treatise contains the canons of church councils down to Chalcedon; the latter, the ecclesiastical legislation of the emperors; and both collections are treated systematically. According to Photius (Bibliotheca, cod. lxxv., p. 52, ed. Bekker, 2 vols., Berlin, 1824), Johannes wrote a "catechetical discourse" against the tritheism of Johannes Philoponus (q.v.); according to John of Nikiou (ed. by Zotenberg in JA 1878, ii. 344), also an "initiation."


BIBLIOGRAPHY: ASB, Aug. 1, *67; DCB, iii. 366-367; Fabricius-Harles, Bibliotheca Graeca, xi. 101, xii. 146, 193, 201, 209, Hamburg, 1803-09.

JOHANNES IV. JEJUNATOR: Patriarch of Constantinople; b. in Constantinople; d. Sept. 2, 595. He was a deacon at St. Sophia under the Patriarch Johannes III. Scholasticus (q.v.). While not a learned man, he was distinguished for devout works and for his extended fasts, whence his name Jejunator. On April 12, 582, he succeeded Eutychius (q.v.) as patriarch of Constantinople, and stood in high esteem with the Emperors Tiberius and Mauritius. He is commemorated as a saint by the Greek Church on September 2.

He is known in ecclesiastical history for his controversy with Popes Pelagius II. and Gregory I. In the proceedings of a synod held at Constantinople in 588, under his presidency, he is called archbishop and ecumenical patriarch. The first protest against this title was urged by Pelagius (cf. Gregory, Epist. v. 41 and v. 44). Some years later Gregory took occasion to rebuke the patriarch's insolence and haughtiness because, by usurping that title, which nobody, not even the Roman pontiff, had ever assumed, he exalted himself above the other bishops. The remonstrance passed unheeded, even when Gregory also addressed the Emperor Mauritius in the matter (Gregory, Epist., v. 37; cf. v. 39). At all events, Gregory's strict decision continued binding for the Church of Rome, which denied to the devout faster the veneration due to a saint.

Gregory was in error if he supposed that Johannes undertook an innovation, for the title was used in the time of Johannes II. the Cappadocian in 518. Still again, Gregory erred in the assumption that his own predecessors had refused the title of universal bishop or patriarch; for the contrary is true in respect to Leo I., Hormisdas, Boniface II., and Agapetus I. Gregory was also probably wrong in construing the title to mean an exaltation of the Byzantine patriarch over all other bishops, including the bishop of Rome, for there are still good reasons for the hypothesis that "ecumenical patriarch" meant "imperial patriarch."

The following writings are extant under the name of Johannes, although none of them date back to him: (1) "Rules and guide in the case of those who make confession" (MPG, lxxxviii., 1889-1918; cf. 1931-36); (2) "On repentance, self-control, and virginity" (MPG, Ixxxviii. 1937-78), also ascribed to Chrysostom; (3) "On false prophets," (among Chrysostom's works, MPG, liv., 553-568); (4) "Instruction for nuns and reproof of every kind of sin" (J. B. Pitra, Spicilegium Solesmense, 4 vols., iv., 416-435, Paris, 1858). According to K. Holl (Enthusiasmus und Bussgewalt beim griechischen Mönchtum, pp. 289 sqq., Leipsic, 1898) the first one was composed by a Cappadocian monk, Johannes, who lived in the Petra cloister at Constantinople about 1100.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: ASB, Aug. 1, *69-*74; Fabricius-Harles, Bibliotheca Graeca, xi. 108-112. Hamburg 1808; A. J. Binterim, Denkwürdigkeiten, v. 3, pp. 383-390, Mainz, 1829; A. Pichler, Geschichte der kirchlichen Trennung zwischen Orient und Occident, ii. 647-666. Munich, 1865;


J. Hergenrother, Photius, i. 178-190, Regensburg, 1867; J. Langan, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, ii. 446 sqq., Bonn, 1885; F. Kattenbusch, Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Konfessionekunde, i. 111-117, 262, Freiburg, 1892; K. Holl, Enthusiasmus and Bussgewalt beim griechischen Mönchtum, pp. 289-298, Leipsic, 1898; DCB, iii. 367-368; and literature under PELAGIUS II., and GREGORY I.


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