JUDAS, ju'das: One of the twelve Apostles. The name occurs in the New Testament only in the lists of the Apostles, yet, including the matter of the reading of the text, it raises several knotty problems. This Judas is to be distinguished from Judas Iscariot on the basis of John xiv. 22; and from Jude (Judas, Juda), the brother of our Lord (Matt. xiii. 55; Mark vi. 3Luke vi. 16 and Acts i. 13 ("the brother [better, the son] of James "). The chief difficulty is raised by the fact that in two of the lists of Apostles the name of this Judas is omitted and apparently in its place is found either "Lebbeus, whose surname was Thaddeus" (Matt. x. 3 A. V., a . confiate reading, cf. R. V., which, following the leading textual critics, omits "Lebbeus, whose surname was"), or "Thaddeus" (Mark iii. 18). Accordingly most scholars accept the identification of this Judas with Lebbeus and Thaddeus, though some have supposed that James had died and that his place was taken by Lebbeus-Thaddeus. Of the career of Judas nothing is known except that he asked the question recorded in John xiv. 22. Yet a considerable mass of legend grew up (cf. Acta Thaddaei; see APOCRYPHA, B, II., 12) in connection with his mission (as Thaddeus) to Abgar (q.v.), in which confusion is apparent as to his relation to Jesus or perhaps as to his identity. Eusebius (Hist. eccl., I., xii., NPNF, 1 ser., i. 99) makes him one of the Seventy (not of the Twelve), while Jerome (on Matt. x. 4, MPL, xxvi. 61) calls him an apostle. The later accounts professing to tell the story of his life and work have no historical value.


JUDAS: A chronographer mentioned by Eusebius (Hist. eccl., vi. 7, NPNF, 2 ser., i. 254). In this passage Eusebius speaks of a certain Judas, otherwise unknown, who, in a tract on the "Seventy Weeks of Daniel," put forth some chronological reckonings on the basis of Daniel's prophecies, coming down to the tenth year of Septimius Severus (202), and predicting the speedy return of the Lord. Closer identification of the author is impossible.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Schlatter in TU, xii. 1 (1894); K. Erbes, in TLZ, 1895, pp. 415-418.


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