JERUSALEM CHAMBER: A large hall in the deanery of Westminster, London, adjacent to the abbey. The origin of the name is obscure; possibly it is derived from the tapestries with which it is hung, representing in part scenes from Jerusalem or vicinity, including the adoration of the magi, the circumcision, and also the wanderings in the wilderness. The hall was built by Abbot Littlington between 1376 and 1386, and served as the guest-room or parlor of the abbot. In it Henry IV. died (Mar. 20, 1413) when about to set out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and the prophecy that he was to die in Jerusalem was supposed thus to be fulfilled (cf. Shakespeare, Henry IV., part II., act iv., scene 4). It became the meeting-place of the Westminster Assembly (q.v.) when cold weather came on in September, 1643, the hall being heated from its huge fireplace. There Addison (1719) and Congreve (1728) lay in state previous to burial in the abbey. It was the place of session of the company of revisers of the New Testament, and from it the Revised Version of the New Testament is dated: "Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster Abbey, 11th November, 1880." The revisers of the Old Testament also met there when the New-Testament company was not in session. It is the place of meeting of the lower house of convocation of the province of Canterbury.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. P. Stanley, Memorials of Westminster Abbey, reissued in Everyman's Library, 1906; W. J. Loftie, Westminster Abbey, London, 1889.


Early Bishops.

A see of the Eastern Church (q.v.), supposed to have been founded by James, the brother of the Lord. Though Jerusalem has remained for Christianity the "holy city," it has never occupied an authoritative position. Nevertheless it produced some noteworthy men, and several synods of importance have been held there. During the crusades it was the center of interest as the object, not as the subject, of action. The patriarchate, that was established there in 451, could never be compared to other patriarchates, not even to that of Antioch. The city lost its importance after its capture by Titus and especially after Hadrian had made it, in 136, the Ælia Capitolina in which Jews were no longer tolerated, but the old name of the city never entirely vanished, although it was officially recognized again only in the fourth century. Eusebius states that until the time of Hadrian there were only Jewish Christian bishops in Jerusalem, and afterward only Christians converted from paganism. The list of bishops until c. 300 is contained in the church history of Eusebius and in his Chronicon, also in Epiphanius, but it is not wholly trustworthy. Among the Christian bishops of Jerusalem before Juvenal, under whom the patriarchate was founded, may be mentioned especially Narcissus, Alexander, Macarius, Maximus, a supporter of Athanasius, Cyril (q.v.), and John (see ORIGENISTIC CONTROVERSIES). The Council of Nicæa decreed that according to ancient usage the bishop of Ælia should be honored, but the first rank should be given to the bishop of the "metropolis," by which undoubtedly Cæsarea was understood. The relation of Jerusalem to Cæsarea was naturally disturbed from that time. Ambitious and energetic bishops such as Maximus and especially Cyril did not recognize the bishop of Cæsarea as metropolitan. Cyril was opposed successfully by Acacius of Cæsarea, a not less vigorous personality. But Juvenal especially won for Jerusalem an important position. At the Council of Nicæa, however, the questions as to the rank of the bishops were still comparatively simple and only slightly developed from a legal standpoint. Only under the political organization of the empire undertaken by Diocletian did the church constitution provide rigidly circumscribed eparchies and dioceses, and only then did the capital of the political eparchy or metropolis have also ecclesiastical precedence. Jerusalem, however, obtained no political supremacy. Even when Palestine was divided into several distinct provinces by Valens, and afterward, it did not become a metropolis. In Palestina Prima, to which it belonged, Cæsarea remained the chief seat of the episcopacy, in Palestina Secunda it was Scythopolis, in Palestina Tertia Petra. Jerusalem was only fourth in rank.

During the Crusades.

Juvenal (q.v.) induced Emperor Theodosius II. to make him patriarch, and at the council of Chalcedon succeeded in obtaining the three Palestines as patriarchate. At the fifth ecumenical council of Constantinople in 553, it was ordered definitely that Jerusalem should possess the fifth see in the church. There are only a few prominent names in the long series of patriarchs. The history of the patriarchate is intimately connected with the vicissitudes of political history. In 637 the:Mohammedans under Caliph Omar conquered Jerusalem, Patriarch Sophronius mediating the surrender on conditions regarding the toleration of Christian faith. Nevertheless there followed a time of great oppression, no patriarch being elected for more than sixty years (644-705), but even after the restoration of the patriarchate the church was almost always in a destitute condition. The crusades (conquest of Jerusalem 1099) caused a new interruption of the succession of patriarchs. The first patriarch elected after this period (in 1142?) resided at first in Constantinople; only after Saladin in 1187 had taken Jerusalem from the Franks did the patriarchs return to Palestine, although not immediately to the holy city. The chief importance of Palestine, especially of the neighborhood of Jerusalem, from early times lay in the fact that it had become the country of monks and hermits. In the sixth century Palestine took the leadership in Greek monasticism; through men like Euthymios (d. 473), Sabas (d. 532), and especially Theodosius (d. 529), Palestine became a shining example for the whole East, but after the tenth century its importance began to decrease.

In Middle Ages and Modern Times.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Jerusalem became so desolate that the patriarchs, owing


to the failure of their revenues, traveled to collect funds. Tamerlane conquered Syria in 1400, and afterward Palestine was ruled by the Mamelukes from Egypt. In 1517 the Ottoman sultan conquered Syria, and consequently the patriarchate of Jerusalem became dependent upon the ecumenical patriarchate in Constantinople. While in the time of the Arabs only natives of Palestine were patriarchs, now Greeks stepped into the foreground. Many patriarchs of the city fixed their residence at Constantinople; only since 1845 have the patriarchs permanently resided there. At the time of the foundation of the patriarchate the three Palestines comprised not less than fifty-nine bishoprics, at present there are only a few. There is still a metropolitan of Cæsarea, but in 1880 he ruled Haifa only, a place of a thousand inhabitants. Beside the metropolitan of Cæsarea there is still a metropolitan of Scythopolis and Petra, also one of Ptolemais, Bethlehem and Nazareth; beside them, six archbishops and one bishop. According to Baedeker (Palestine and Syria, pp, lix.-lxii., 4th ed., Leipsic, 1906), Syria and Palestine with 3,526,160 inhabitants has 978,068 Christians. The mutessarifat of Jerusalem is estimated to have 341,638 inhabitants (p. lx.), while the number of Christians in Jerusalem amounts to about 13,000 among 60,000 inhabitants (p. 24). There are 6,000 members of the orthodox Greek church in Jerusalem.

Latin Patriarchate and Other Bishoprics.

After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 Godfrey of Bouillon as king of the city established a Latin patriarchate which assumed the whole organization of the Palestinian church. The orthodox patriarchate was ignored. There were Latin patriarchs until 1291, nominally even until 1374. They resided in Ptolemais (Accon) until 1291, then in Cyprus. In 1847 Picas IX. named J. Valerga as patriarch (d. 1872), and at present there are in Jerusalem 4,000 Latin Catholics, besides several hundred "United" Catholics of different rites. There are also the patriarchates of the Melchites (united Greeks) and that of the Armenians. The Gregorian Armenians possess a patriarchate of Jerusalem, organized in the seventeenth century.

The Jacobites have a bishop and a small church in Jerusalem, and the Abyssinians also have a church.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The fundamental work is in Greek by Dositheus, a patriarch of Jerusalem (d. 1707), "On the Patriarchs in Jerusalem," ed. by his successor Chrysanthos, Bucharest, 1715. Consult further: M. Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, iii. 101 sqq., Paris, 1740 (important); H. Guthe, in ZDPV, xii (1899), 81 sqq.; O. Werner, Orbis terrarum Catholicus, chap. xvii., Freiburg, 1890; Schlatter, in Beiträge zur Förderung christlicher Theologie, ii. 3 (1898); E. Hempel, Untersuchungen über das lateinische Patriarchat von Jerusalem, Erlangen, 1899; Vailhé, in Revue de l'orient, 1899, pp. 44 sqq., 512 sqq., 1900, pp. 19 sqq.; A. Zagarelli, in ZDPV, xii (1899), 35 sqq.; T. Zahn, Forschungen zur Geschichte des Kanons, vi. 281 sqq., Leipsic, 1900.


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