1. Topography.
    Water Supply.
    Soil and Formation.
    History of the City.

      Pre-Israelitic Jerusalem (§ 1).
      Davidic and Solomonic Jerusalem (§ 2).
      From Solomon to the Exile (§ 3).
      From the Exile to Herod (§ 4).
      From Herod to the Destruction, 70 A.D. (§ 5).
      Until Constantine the Great (§ 6).
      From Constantine to the Capture by the Arabs (§ 7).
      Under the Arabs to the Crusades (§ 8).
      During the Crusades (§ 9).
      From 1187 to the Present (§ 10).

I. Topography:

The ground upon which Jerusalem stands is formed by a plateau extending southward from the Palestinian mountain range, and cut by valleys into several heights. The culmination of the range or watershed runs west of the city, and the surface on which the city is built slopes to the east and south, and on the south and southeast sinks abruptly into deep valleys. The watershed northwest and north of the city rises to a height of 2,675 feet above the Mediterranean; the lowest place in modern Jerusalem is 2,360 feet in elevation; while the whole city is situated at a lower elevation than the country round about. The heights about the city are in part still known by their old names. That to the east is the Mount of Olives (Zech. xiv. 4; Matt. xxi. 1), in early times the site of a sanctuary (II Sam. xv. 32). Looking from the city, it is seen to have four summits, of which the second from the north (Karam al-Sayyad) is the highest (2,680 feet), while the third (Jabal-al-Tur), from twenty to forty feet lower, on which are several consecrated buildings, passes in common speech as the Mount of Olives. The most southern peak (Batn al-Hawa, 2,430 feet high) was known as the Mount of Corruption or Destruction (II Kings viii. 13; cf. I Kings xi. 7). The hill to the west corresponds probably to the hill Gareb of Jer. xxxi. 39 rising to the height of 2,555 feet; that to the south, called Goah in Jer, xxxi, 39 (2,545 feet high), is the modern Abu Tur, called by Europeans the Hill of Evil Counsel, on the basis of John xi. 47-53. The elevation north of the city is called Skopos by Josephus (Ant. XI., viii. 5).

The principal valley is that of the Kidron, rising north of the city, bending east and then south, and dividing the city from the Mount of Olives, all the time deepening rapidly. At present, parts of this valley bear different names. Of tributary valleys may be mentioned one which in early times emptied opposite the Garden of Gethsemane of the Latins immediately below the Golden Gate of the present east wall of the Harem al-Sharif; it is now practically filled up. Formerly it was formed of two branches which served to divide the city , as is shown by the researches of Warren and Wilson. Another tributary valley used to empty immediately north of the Virgin's Fount, opposite the upper part of the village of Silwan, but is now completely filled. A third empties below the Pool of Siloam, opposite the lower part of the village of Silwan, and rises in two hollows above the Damascus Gate. It runs first southeast, then south and then again southeast, being joined about the middle of its course by a valley coming from the west. Both


this and the valley which joins it are now filled up, but their importance for the old city must have been great. The name as given by Josephus (War, V., iv. 1) is the Tyropœon valley. A fourth tributary valley empties into the Kidron still farther south than the Tyropœon. It begins in the watershed west of the present Jaffa Gate, runs south and then east till it joins the Kidron opposite the southern end of Silwan, falling a distance of 650 feet in its course. It has different names for different parts, but is in general known as the valley of Hinnom (Josh. xv. 8 and often; cf. Gehenna). It is remarkable that Eusebius and Jerome place the valley of Hinnom to the east of Jerusalem, but they were probably influenced by Zech. xiv. 3-4. In the eighteenth century it became the erroneous fashion to call the upper and middle part of this valley the Gihon.

II. Water Supply:

The preceding description shows that the drainage of the region is from north to south or from northwest to southeast. While the watershed is at an elevation of 2,675 feet, the union of the Kidron and Hinnom valleys is only 2,065 feet above the Mediterranean; there is therefore no deadwater in the brooks which in the rainy season flow through these valleys. Part of the drainage is subterranean. The hill country of Palestine is poor in water, and such expressions as "the brook Kidron" may convey a false impression if it is not recalled that "brook" means no more than the Arabic "wadi," a natural channel of drainage for the flow of the rainy season, dry the rest of the year except near a spring. In the upper and lower parts the valleys are tilled; between the city and the Mount of Olives the floor of the valley is denuded of soil. In the Kidron water flows only during exceptional rainfall or when there is a quick melting of a heavy snowfall. A shallow brook runs even yet in the Tyropœon after long-continued rains, forming a pool called the Birkat al-Hamra. In the Hinnom valley a small ditch between the garden plats suffices to carry off the drainage. The region is poor in springs, the Old Testament naming only three, Gihon, En-rogel, and the Dragon's Well. The Gihon was in the Kidron valley (II Chron. xxxiii. 14), and its waters were led by Hezekiah into the City of David (II Chron. xxxii. 30). These data serve to identify it with the only spring which is found to-day in the Kidron valley near Jerusalem and feeds the pool of Siloam through the Siloam conduit. It is known now as the Virgin's Fount and the Fountain of Steps, the second name due to the fact that the water is reached by a stone stairway. The spring is covered by an arch to protect it from débris, and lies in a deep hollow some seventy-five feet lower than the heaps of débris round about. It is intermittent, but rather irregularly so; in winter it may flow three or four times a day, in summer once or twice, in autumn at most once. This peculiarity is probably to be explained by the fact that the spring has two sources in the hill, one constant and one variable, the latter intermittent and fed from below. Doubtless the action of this spring influenced the prophetic representations in Ezek. xlvii.1-12; Joel iv. (iii.) 18; Zech. xiv. 8, which went upon the supposition that there were great chambers of water in the interior of the mountain. Josephus calls the water of this spring sweet; at present it is brackish. The second spring, En-rogel (Josh. xv. 7, xviii. 16), was on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin, and at some distance from the city (II Sam. xvii. 17; I Kings i. 9, 41 sqq.), in the royal gardens south of the city (Josephus, Ant. VII., xiv. 4); therefore it is to be sought near the union of the valley of Hinnom with that of Kidron. There is now no spring in the region, but there is a well, called by the Arabs Job's Well, by Jews Joab's Well, and by Christians Nehemiah's Well, having a depth of 122 feet, partly walled and partly sunk in the rock. In very wet seasons it fills up and drains off a part of its water, a circumstance regarded by the inhabitants as presaging a fruitful season. From this overflow it probably got its name as a spring, though in earlier times, when the country was wooded, its overflow may have been constant and so justified the name of spring. About a third of a mile south and on the west side of the valley is a spring which flows during the rainy season, and in early times may have been constant. A third spring, the Dragon's Well, appears to be mentioned in Neh. ii. 13 (LXX, "Spring of Figs"), as approached from the valley gate, which was probably at the southwest corner of the old city. It should therefore lie in the lower Hinnom valley or in the Kidron valley; but no spring or well besides those already mentioned is now known.

III. Soil and Formation:

The old city was built upon the naked rock. The situation is altogether unfavorable to the formation of vegetable soil and to the retention of any which may be artificially created, since the heavy rainfall of winter washes it into the crevices of the rocks or sweeps it into the valleys. Disintegration of the rock produces a rich loamy soil which adheres well to the rocky substratum where the lie of the land permits it. The rock is a crystalline chalk of the middle cretaceous period, and of dark gray color. Varieties distinguished at the present are: a pure hippuritic chalkstone, granular, not hard, esteemed for building, not blemished by cracks, when quarried generally pure white, and hardening with exposure to the atmosphere; a second variety, of three kinds, either gray or marked with red and gray veins and not found in such large masses as the first variety; a variety which laminates and does not break in the fire; a fourth variety, so soft as to receive and retain the imprint of the fingers, sometimes, however, hard and worked with the saw, reddened often through infiltration of iron, and generally used for the little sarcophagi so numerous in the neighborhood.

IV. Climate:

The usual rainy season is from October to May, rarely September to June, while the average rainfall for the year is about twenty-three inches, and the southwest and west winds carry the rain clouds. Snow may fall from December to March, rarely in April, though it does not often lie long. The temperature ranges from 25° to 102° Fahrenheit, with high average for July of 77° and for January of 43°. Ice may form at night in January, but melts during the day except in shady


spots. The atmospheric humidity ranges widely. The prevailing winds are from the northwest, though the radiation of the land in summer often produces a sea breeze from the Mediterranean which lasts well through the night and brings much moisture. East winds blow in autumn, winter, and spring, rarely in summer. The sirocco blows from the southwest. The months in which sickness prevails are May to October. The preceding data are the result of observations taken during the second half of the nineteenth century, and the question has been raised whether the climate is the same as it was in early times (see PALESTINE). Here it need be said only that great changes are improbable; such changes as may have taken place are most likely in the direction of greater contrast of temperature and of reduced rainfall. But Jerusalem must always have been a city not abundantly supplied with water, as is proved by the many devices for conserving the rainfall.

V. History of the City:
1. Pre-Israelitic Jerusalem.

It is clear that the name Jerusalem was not given by the Israelites, since it appears c. 1400 B. C. in the Amarna Tablets (q.v.) in the form Urusalim, which corresponds consonantally with the Hebrew form of the name, though the vocalization of the last syllable is different in the Old Testament but not in the Aramaic or Septuagint. The form Yerushalayim is Massoretic. The legend of the founding of the city reported by Josephus (Apion, i. 14 sqq.) and Plutarch (Isis et Osiris, xxxi.) goes back to Manetho, who attributes the building of the city to the Hyksos when they left Egypt. But the legend unites the Hyksos and the Hebrews in a manner which prevents giving credit to the story. The earliest mention is that of the Amarna Tablets ut sup., in which Ebed-Hiba appears as tributary to the Pharaoh, while the correspondence suggests that the ruler of Jerusalem was charged with oversight of the princelings of southern Syria (cf. the representation in Judges i. 5-7 of Adoni-bezek with his seventy subject kings). The Israelitic accounts dealing with the time c. 1020 B.C. make the Jebusites masters of Jerusalem and the immediate surroundings, and Zion the stronghold (II Sam. v. 7). Until the second half of the nineteenth century Zion and the City of David were located between the valleys of Hinnom and the Tyropœon at the southwest corner of the city. At present scholars agree that Zion was applied to the eastern part of the city and that the southeastern hill corresponds to the fortress of Jebus. The "city of David" is not to be confused with "Jerusalem," since it formed only a part of the greater whole (cf. II Kings xiv. 20). The city of David was situated on lower ground than the temple and the palace of Solomon (II Sam. xxiv. 18; I Kings viii. 1-4), and Solomon's palace lay lower than the temple (II Kings xi. 19), from which it was separated only by a wall (Ezek. xliii. 8). The location of the temple, it is agreed, was on the site of the present Mosque of Omar whence the directions implied in the foregoing data can lead one only to the southeastern hill between the Kidron and the Tyropœon. This conclusion is fully corroborated by the indications in Neh. iii. 15-26, xii. 31-39 compared with ii. 13-14. According to II Sam. v. 6 the fortress of Zion was difficult of access, which corresponds with the situation to the east and the south of the southeastern corner of Jerusalem, and it must have been protected to the west by the Tyropœon before the latter was filled with débris. Similarly on the north a ravine extended, mentioned above as one of the tributary valleys of the Kidron. Consequently at that early time the fortress was entirely isolated by ravines, while the boundaries suggested probably marked out the city of the Jebusites, placed on the lowest of the eminences in the neighborhood. The Jerusalem of the Amarna Tablets has been placed westward of Jebus and on the southwest hill of the modern city.

2. Davidic and Solomonic Jerusalem.

With the capture of the Jebusite fortress Jerusalem fell into David's hands, and this may have been while he was still king of Hebron. He was thus placed in contact with the northern tribes and in command of the roads, while the stronghold became the capital of his kingdom, a place be longing neither to Judah nor to the northern tribes, and therefore neutral. But because of David's relationship to Judah, it is sometimes ascribed to Judah, while elsewhere it is called Benjamin's territory because of its situation. David did not exterminate the Jebusites, but left them life and property (II Sam. xxiv. 18); he forced them, however, to evacuate Zion, whence they went to the southwest elevation, while he and his following occupied "the city of David." The old fortress was completely transformed, being built up by David, and a palace erected there (II Sam. v. 9, 11; cf. Neh. xii. 37) upon one of the western levels of the hill, while the tombs were hewn out still lower; the fortification was completed by walls and towers, the remains of which have been traced. In this part of the city was the tabernacle-sanctuary (II Sam. vi. 17), and here were the residences for the people of the court, as well as a great number of cisterns for water supply. Solomon extended the building toward the north and built the Millo for protection, though as yet the exact location of this defensive work is not determined and the same is true as to its exact character--whether it was a wall or a tower. Solomon's palace and temple were to the north and on higher ground, the temple on Moriah and the palace on Ophell, the latter surrounded by defensive walls, probably pierced with great gates on the south, where were the principal approaches. The arrangement included three parts, a greater court with an inner court containing the temple, and a second or middle court (I Kings vii. 8, 12; II Kings xx. 4), the temple thus being the farthest north, while these separate parts were probably upon different levels. In the great court to the south were the house of Lebanon, the hall of pillars, and the throne hall. The middle court contained Solomon's palace and the palace of his Egyptian queen. To Solomon is ascribed the building of the wall which surrounded Jerusalem (I Kings iii. 1 ix. 15). The question of the extent of the city in those times and therefore of the extent and course of this wall is much debated. It must be borne in mind that a distinction was made between


the "city of David" and Jerusalem, and by the latter was meant the city on the southwest hill, which must have been the part so protected by Solomon's wall, the course of which Josephus claims to give (War, V., iv. 2). Remains of a wall which may have been. the northern part of Josephus's wall have been discovered south of David Street, viz., the so-called Wilson's arch; but the latter can hardly be ascribed to the time of Solomon. Investigations respecting the course of Solomon's wall have been carried on by the English engineer, H. Maudsley, and the American, F. J. Bliss, during which several gates have been discovered as well as the direction of the fortification, but whether these belonged to the erection of Solomon or to later times is not fully determined. The valley gate was probably at the southwest corner of the old city, the dung gate on the south, and the fountain gate to the east by the Tyropœon valley (formerly called the gate between the two walls, Jer. xxxix. 4).

3. From Solomon to the Exile.

The successors of Solomon, according to the Old Testament, often added to the fortifications of the city, and probably all the additions made are not mentioned in the records. Of special importance is the report that Hezekiah built "the other wall" (II Chron, xxxii. 5), i.e., one outside what had been till then the city limits, called by Josephus the second wall (War, V., iv. 2). A good basis for tracing this wall is found in Neh. iii. (cf. xii. 31, 37-40), and some remains have been discovered which are with good reason identified with the wall of Nehemiah. These remains are to the north of the so-called David's Tower, under the foundation of the German Evangelical Church, and still farther near the northwest corner of the Haram al-Sharif. This wall was pierced by two gates, called the old gate and the fish gate (Neh. iii. 6, xii. 39); the first was probably near the quarter of the Holy Sepulcher corner of the city, by the Prussian Hospice of St. John; the fish gate must have led to the Tyropœon. From Zeph. i. 10 it may be deduced that in this quarter or new city the Phenician traders had their shops. The towers of Hananeel and Hammeah (Jer. xxxi. 38; Neh. iii. 1) are usually located on the site of the later Antonia, and not far to the east must have been the sheep gate (Neh. iii. 1), perhaps identical with the gate of Benjamin (Jer. vii. 13). A short distance east of the sheep gate the wall bent southward to follow the bank of the Kidron; the complete course of the wall is not yet made out, but that it changed direction several times is clear from Neh. iii. 19-20, 24-25, while iii. 26 compared with xii. 37 leaves doubtful the location of the water gate giving toward the east. Other gates mentioned are the middle gate (Jer. xxxix. 3), the gate of potsherds (Jer. xix. 2), the first gate of Zech. xiv. 10 near the corner gate, the gate of the guard (II Kings xi. 19, belonging to Solomon's palace), and the horse gate (Neh. iii. 28), the locations of which have not been found. The residents continued to make provision for water supply by hewing or constructing cisterns in which to collect rain-water. Neh. iii. 16 mentions an artificial pool in the city of David, called "the pool that was made," probably to distinguish it from the natural pools theretofore used. It is difficult to locate all the cisterns or pools mentioned in the Old Testament. The upper pool of Isa. xxxvi. 2 seems to have been to the north or northwest of the old city, perhaps therefore the Mamilla pool west of the Gaza gate or the pool of Hezekiah; but many have distinguished the former as the upper pool and the latter as the lower pool (Isa. xxii. 9). The reservoir between the two walls of Isa. xxii. 11 is to be sought in the Tyropœon valley between the city of David and Jerusalem; the pool of Shelah of Neh. iii. 15 is identified by many with that of Siloam. The inhabitants sought in three ways to make available the waters of the Gihon spring; an approach through the rock of the hill, a channel from the foot of the hill southward in the neighborhood of the water gate, and a tunnel conducting the water into the city. The first was discovered by Charles Warren in 1867-68; the second, in part, by Conrad von Schick in 1886 and 1890, found to be partly a covered channel, partly a tunnel; the third is the famous Siloam tunnel (in which is the Siloam inscription, q.v.), hewn not in a straight line, but first leading west from the spring, then south, and finally west again into the king's pool of Neh. ii. 14. If it be right to attribute this tunnel to Hezekiah, the other means of leading the water into the city belong to an earlier age, the first perhaps going back to the time of David or of the Jebusites. Signs indicate that during the Davidic dynasty numerous attempts were made to supply the city with water from a distance. To the south of Bethlehem is a group of waterworks which divide into three parts. To the west of the little village of Artas, three hours south of Jerusalem, are three great pools called the pools of Solomon, fed partly by springs in the neighborhood, partly by two canals, the one leading from the Wadi al-Biyar emptying into the upper pool, the other from the Wadi al-'Arrub emptying into the middle pool. The connection with Jerusalem was by two channels, an upper and a lower, of which the upper has a remarkable peculiarity. At first an ordinary canal, at the grave of Rachel it becomes a line of piping, which sinks and then rises farther on, built of stones bored into hollow cylinders fitting closely together and laid in a bed of masonry. This breaks off north of the tomb of Rachel, and from there only indistinct traces are discoverable. This must be regarded as ancient, possibly Solomonic or Davidic; the date of the lower channel is about that of Herod the Great. Besides these two conduits, traces of a third have been found.

4. From the Exile to Herod.

The capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar, 587-586 B.C., resulted in the burning of the temple, the royal palace, and the larger dwellings of the city; the encircling wall was also thrown down. The remnant of inhabitants left by the conqueror in the city was too poor and dispirited to think of rebuilding. Gedaliah had his residence in Mizpah, which indicates the unfitness of Jerusalem as a capital. From Haggai (i. 4) is first heard the story of rebuilding in the year 519 B.C. and of the rebuilding of the temple 519-15 B.C., though the


stress of circumstances continued to be felt. In 445 B.C. Nehemiah came with full powers from Artaxerxes I., rebuilt the wall and erected its gates in fifty-two days (Neh. iii., xii. 27-43), finishing with a festival. The most of the repairs had to be made on the north, east, and south, while mention is made of the house of the mighty men, the great tower of the upper palace, and David's palace (Neh. iii. 16, 25, xii. 37) as though still standing. The priests were masters of the temple and its vicinity, while some dwelt in the neighborhood of the old Davidic residence (Neh. iii. 20 sqq.). From Neh. xi. 4-19 it may be gathered that the population when Nehemiah came was about 10,000, a small number for so large a space (Neh. vii. 4). But during the next two centuries the city must have grown greatly in spite of the damage it suffered from Persians and Egyptians. In 198 B.C. it came into the power of the Seleucidæ. It is after this that mention is made of a fortress inside the city held by a foreign force and called the Akra (or the acropolis). It is related in I Macc. i. 33-37 that the officers of Antiochus IV. fortified the city of David with a strong wall, and that this became a menace to the sanctuary. In thus distinguishing the city of David from the rest of the city, and both of these from the temple hill, the author of Maccabees follows Old-Testament usage. The supposition that the Akra hill overlooked the temple contradicts all testimony regarding the relative levels. The importance of David's city was gradually lessened by means of the temple hill. The high priest Simon (Ecclus. 1. 1) and later the Hasmonean Judas (I Macc. iv. 60) fortified the temple, and Jonathan renewed the protection after Antiochus Eupator had destroyed it. Thus Zion became a fortress inside the unwalled city. The encircling wall of the city was restored by the Hasmoneans several times, and they also cut off the Akra by a high wall to shut out the garrison from the market. Another work of this period was the palace of the Hasmoneans, west of the temple and on higher ground, probably on the edge of the southwest hill, the upper city of Josephus (Ant. XIV., i. 2). It came later into the possession of the Herods, and was occupied by Agrippa II. when he stayed in Jerusalem. Near it, but lower in the Tyropœon valley, was the Xystos, either a great hall or an open place, while across on the east side of the valley was the council-house of the Sanhedrin and near it the hall of records. Toward the end of this period belongs probably the description of Jerusalem found in the letter of Aristeas, in all likelihood based on Hecataios of Abdera.

5. From Herod to the Destruction, 70 A.D.

For the next period Josephus is the authority, and he distinguishes between the upper city, or the upper market, the lower city, the temple or the temple hill, the proasteion, and the new city or Bezetha, but never uses the name Zion. The upper city lay opposite the temple and the lower city; the latter was the Akra, south of the temple and situated on the lowest level within the walls; the proasteion coincided with the new city enclosed within the so-called second wall of the post-Solomonic kings; the new city of Josephus arose in the decade after Herod to the north of the temple and westward about the wall to the tower of Hippicus. Still farther, Josephus distinguishes between Bezetha, the new city, and the wood market; Bezetha lay north of the temple and Antonia and east of the street leading from the gate by the Women's Tower to Antonia. His account can not be followed without a knowledge of the earlier arrangement of the city. Through Herod's building operations the city took on something of the splendor of a Grecian city. Besides the temple he erected a stately tower, which he named Antonia in honor of the Roman triumvir, and the palace of Herod (located by its three great towers, Hippicus, Phasael, and Mariamne) which commanded the city as the Antonia commanded the temple hill. The three towers served as a protection for the city as well as for the palace (cf. for description of towers and palace Josephus, War, V., iv. 3-4). The palace was occupied later by Archelaus and Agrippa I.; when the Romans appointed a procurator over Judea, it was ceded to him and his guard. Gessius Florus and Pontius Pilate are said to have had their judgment seat in front of the structure, hence here must be sought the pretorium. In the upper city was the hippodrome, and Herod is said to have built a theater in Jerusalem and an amphitheater in the plain (the latter probably discovered in 1887 by Dr. Schick above Bir Eyyub). Finally, Herod took care for the water supply of the city. Schick has shown that the lower of the two conduits from the pools south of the city near Artas is of Herod's building. It begins immediately below the lowest of the three pools and is carried in a winding course past Bethlehem to Jerusalem as a masonry or hewn canal covered with flat stones, only twice taking the character of a tunnel. It has been repaired or improved several times-by Pontius Pilate, again in the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries and in 1865. The third wall to the north of Jerusalem protects the "new city" of Josephus. Agrippa I. began to build it, but ceased because of the distrust of the Romans. At the outbreak of the Jewish war it was again undertaken and speedily finished. It was pierced by many gates, the names of which are unknown; one, protected by the so-called Women's Tower, was probably where the Damascus date now is. Its course was approximately that of the present north wall. The inhabitants of Jerusalem at this time, including the guests at the Passover, are reckoned by Josephus at 2,700,000 (War, VI., ix. 3; cf. II., xiv. 3); Schick would place the normal population at the beginning of the Christian era at from 200,000 to 250,000. In the reign of the Emperor Claudius (41-54 A.D.), Queen Helena of Adiabene on the upper Tigris, her son Izates, and other members of her family became converts to Judaism and built residences for themselves in the lower city (Josephus, War, IV., ix. 11, V., vi. 1). Agrippa I. had the streets of the city paved to give occupation to the great number of laborers left without work (Josephus, Ant., XX., ix. 7), The Amygdalon pool mentioned in War, V., xi. 4 is doubtless the pool of Hezekiah; the name is a Greek form of the Hebrew mighdal, "tower," and the


pool was near the Mariamne tower of the palace. The Struthion pool of War, V., xi. 4 lay north of Antonia, but its site is not yet certainly recovered. The location of the pool of Bethesda is also uncertain; it seems to have been near the sheep gate and north of the temple. Dr. Schick has located the Bethesda of the Middle Ages to the west of the church of St. Anne north of the temple. Gethsemane lay at the foot of the Mount of Olives, certainly not far from the city, according to John xviii. 1 a garden, and the site of the betrayal of Jesus. The present garden in the possession of the Franciscans has been known since the tenth or eleventh century, but there are indications that the earlier site was farther to the north. The Herodian monument was located to the west of this, above the valley of Hinnom, and has been identified by Dr. Schick. The tomb of Queen Helena of Adiabene was about a third of a mile from the north wall of the city (Ant. XX., iv. 3); it is probably the crypt with court, portal, and numerous chambers known as the King's Tomb north of the Damascus Gate.

6. Until Constantine the Great.

The city suffered greatly during the siege and gradual capture under Titus. His express command to destroy the city received willing obedience from the embittered Roman soldiery. Titus regarded only the three towers of the palace as worth preserving, and he spared the western part of the city wall, as it guarded the camp of the garrison on the southwest hill in the upper city. The investment of the city began at the Passover, when there was present a vast number of visitors, so that the count of Josephus (War, VI., ix., x.) is not improbable. The place where the faith of the Jews had received so severe a blow was naturally avoided by them and Jabne (Jamnia) became the center of Jewish life in Palestine. The young Christian community, which before the investment by Titus withdrew to Pella, east of the Jordan, had as headquarters the house of John Mark and his mother Mary (Acts xii. 12-17 ). Probably there was the great upper chamber (Mark xiv. 15) in which Jesus celebrated the last supper and also the chamber mentioned in Acts i.13 and ii. Although the site of this place is pointed out by a tradition reaching to the fourth century, there is no doubt concerning its correctness. Epiphanius of Salamis (392 A.D.) reports (De mensuris, xiv.) that when Hadrian made his visit to Jerusalem in 130-131 he found city and temple destroyed except for a few dwellings and the little Christian church on what was then called Mount Zion. Since the time of Cyril of Jerusalem this church, or another built on its site, has been well known; it corresponds to the present Nebi Da'ud on the southwest hill south of the wall and above the tombs of the Davidic dynasty. The name Zion was probably attached to the church through an extension of usage out of the Old Testament, since the name is not found used of a part of the city by Josephus. According to this usage the place of assemblage of the early Christian community came to be called "the holy Zion"; out of this grew the identification of the southwest hill as Mount Zion, and so the topographic signification of the term was lost. Hadrian made an end of the desolation of the city and commanded that it be rebuilt as a Roman colony; during the rising of Bar Kokba it was for a few years a free city, after that again a Roman colony, but without the jus Italicum, and was called Ælia Capitolina, shortened in common speech to Ælia, in the Arabic to Iliya, till the late Middle Ages. The city deity was Jupiter Capitolinus, whose temple was on the site of the Jewish temple. Jews were excluded from the new city under pain of death. The area was diminished, and the old city of David was outside the city limits. In this period were fixed the form and topography of the city which have survived till the present.

7. From Constantine to the Capture by the Arabs.

The heathen character of the city did not prevent Christians from visiting or settling there; pilgrimages began in the third century and were numerous in the fourth. Helena, the mother of Constantine, came there in 326-327 and had churches built on the sites of the birth and ascension of Christ, in Bethlehem, and on the Mount of Olives (for Constantine's building see HOLY SEPULCHER). Constantine relaxed the harsh laws against the Jews, Julian gave them permission to restore their temple, but after Julian the earlier prohibitions against the Jews seem to have been renewed. In the second half of the fourth century eremites and monks from Egypt and Syria began to crowd into Palestine, in the 'fifth and sixth centuries causing bloody feuds through dogmatic strife. The first monastery in Jerusalem seems to have been built in the fifth century. The coming of the Empress Eudocia, consort of Theodosius II., in 438 had great consequences for the city. To her is ascribed the renewal of the old wall to the south, and various sacred sites were joined to the city. She built the Church of St. Stephen (possibly included in the present possessions of the Dominicans). The Emperor Justinian had the architect Georgios of Constantinople erect a great basilica (that of the Theotokos) in connection with a pilgrims' house and a hospital in the middle of the city, perhaps south of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The capture of the city by the Persians under Chosroes II. (614) resulted in the destruction of most of the ecclesiastical structures, in the restoration of which the abbot Modestus showed great zeal, though when the Emperor Heraclius marched in (638), much of the city was in ruins. In 638 the Caliph Omar took Jerusalem.

8. Under the Arabs to the Crusades.

The stipulations of the surrender to the effect that civic and ecclesiastical protection should be given and that the churches were not to be used as dwellings were observed with comparative good faith. The Arabs named the city Bait al-Mukaddas or al-Makdis, "Place of the Sanctuary," shortened to al-Kuds, but made Lydda their first military capital in Palestine. Only occasionally had the pilgrims cause to complain of hard usage, the relations between the East and the West being good under the friendship of Charlemagne and Harun al-Raschid. In the tenth century


began the strife between Islam and Christianity, furthered by the bad faith of the Egyptian Fatimides, who disregarded all treaties; the pilgrims were compelled to pay a fee for entrance into the city, and the Caliph al-Hakim in 1010 began a severe persecution of the Christians. Merchants from Amalfi, however, gained a footing in Jerusalem with permission to trade, and soon had a church (Sancta Maria Latina) and a monastery (Monsaterium de Latina) to the south of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.

9. During the Crusades.

When Godfrey of Bouillon captured the city, July 15, 1099, only two churches were found uninjured, that of the Holy Sepulcher and that of the Italian merchants, for the latter of which tribute was paid. During the continuance of the kingdom of Jerusalem great zeal was displayed in building. The principal gates of thin period were David's gate (Jaffa gate), Stephen's (Damascus), Jehoshaphat's, and Zion gate in the south. Near David's gate was David's tower (the present citadel, often repaired from the ruins of Herod's palace), hence the later location of the "city of David." Extensive building operations went on within the grounds of the Amalfi merchants; the Benedictines built a hospital in honor of Johannes Eleemon (q.v.) in connection with which a community dressed in black robes with a white cross came into being--the beginning of the Knights of St. John. The Hospitalers under the patronage of John the Baptist took over the woman's guest-house. Since the Latins located the pretorium north of the Zion Church, later northwest of the temple square, the direction of the Via Dolorosa was placed accordingly. The pool of Bethesda (John v. 2) was placed by them near the Church of St. Anna, discovered in 1888 northwest of this site; later it was located north of the Haram al-Sharif. The Church of St. Anne was known as early as the seventh century, was repaired by the Franks, and later was connected with a nunnery. The hills to the west and south of the Hinnom valley were called Gihon. In the valley of Jehoshaphat the Franks repaired the tomb of the Virgin Mary and its church; while on the third peak of Olivet stood, about 1130, a great Church of the Ascension, where Constantine had built a sanctuary.

10. From 1187 to the Present.

Jerusalem opened its gates to the victorious Saladin Oct. 2, 1187. Most of the Latin Christians departed; the Greeks remained. The Christian and Occidental character which the city had assumed during the crusades soon changed as Christian churches and cloisters became mosques or Mohammedan schools. Salaldin had the walls renewed when Richard the Lion-hearted threatened a siege in 1191-92, but the Sultan Malik al-Muazzam of Damascus ordered them destroyed that they might not become a protection to the Christians (1219-20). A treaty between the German Frederick II. and the Egyptian Sultan al-Kamil secured the city for the Christians (except the Harem al-Sharif) for about ten years and a half from Feb. 1, 1229, after which Nasir Daud, prince of Kerak, took the city and destroyed the walls. The Egyptian Sultan Eyyub took it in 1244, in 1517 it fell under the power of the Turks under Selim I., and his successor Solyman in 1542 gave to the walls of the pity their present form. Syria was in the possession of Mehemet Ali of Egypt 1831-40. In 1219 the Franciscans gained a footing in the city, in the thirteenth century held firmans under the Egyptian sultans, in 1333 came into possession of the Zion Church and perhaps of other sacred places, some of which they had to yield to Solyman in 1523 and 1551; their present location, northwest of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, was obtained in 1559. Since the conquest of Jerusalem by the Turks the Christian powers, with France in the lead, have protected the Roman Catholic Christians in Palestine, Russia has cared for the Greek Christians. A revolution in the situation at Jerusalem was brought about by the English (1826) and American (1821) missionaries; an English consulate was established there in 1839, a Prussian in 1842. England and Prussia had the Evangelical bishopric of St. James created (see JERUSALEM, ANGLICAN-GERMAN BISHOPRIC IN). Other Christian powers thus had their attention drawn to the situation. The Greek patriarch Cyril transferred his seat from Constantinople to Jerusalem in 1845, and Rome reestablished the Latin patriarchate in 1847. Pilgrim-houses, hospitals, churches, schools and monasteries have been erected, and these mark the character of the peaceful crusade of the nineteenth century, with the result that Jerusalem is no more an Oriental city. Of its 60,000 inhabitants, 41,000 are Jews, 12,800 are Christians, 7,000 are Mohammedans. Of the Christians, 6,000 are Greeks, 4,000 Latins, 1,400 Protestants, 800 Armenians, 200 Uniate Greeks, 150 Copts, 100 Abyssinians, 100 Syrians, and 50 Uniate Armenians. The Jews are poverty-stricken and do not exert an influence corresponding to their numbers.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lists of literature are the Bibliotheca geographica Palentinae, by R. Röhricht, Berlin, 1890, and by T. Tobler, Leipsic, 1867. Indispensable for following recent investigations are the Quarterly Statements of the PEF, also the files of ZDPV, the Mitteilungen und Nachrichten of the Deutscher Palästina-Verein, the files of ZDMG, Recueil d'archéologie orientale, and JBL. Valuable as summaries are the articles in DB, ii. 584-601; EB, ii. 2407-2432; JE, vii. 118-157; DCG, i. 849-859.

For excavations and topographical details consult: C. Warren, C. R. Conder, Survey of Western Palestine, Jerusalem, London, 1884: E. G. Schultz, Jerusalem, Berlin, 1845; W. Krafft, Die Topographie Jerusalems, Bonn, 1846; T. Tobler, Die Siloahquelle und der Oelberg, St. Gall, 1852; idem, Zwei Bücher Topographie von Jerusalem, ib. 1853-54; E. Pierotti, Jerusalem Explored, 2 vols., London, 1864; C. J. M. de Vogüé, Le Temple de Jerusalem, Paris, 1864; C. W. Wilson, Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem, 2 vols., Southampton, 1867-70; C. Wilson and C. Warren, Recovery of Jerusalem, London, 1871; P. Wolff, Jerusalem, Leipsic, 1872; C. Warren, Underground Jerusalem, London, 1876; H. Guthe, Ausgrabungen bei Jerusalem, Leipsic, 1883; C. Wilson, Jerusalem the Holy City, London, 1888; F. J. Bliss, Excavations at Jerusalem, 1894-97, London, 1898: C. Mommert, Topographie des alten Jerusalem, 4 vols., Leipsic, 1902-08; S. Merrill, Ancient Jerusalem, New York, 1908; G. A. Smith, The Topography, Economics and History of Jerusalem to 70 A.D., 2 vols., London, 1908; Robinson, Researches, and Later Researches. On the question of the Akra consult C. E. Caspari in TSK, 1864, pp. 309-328; G. Gatt, in TQ, lxvi (1884), 34-84 lxxi (1889), 77-125; idem, Die Hügel von Jerusalem, Freiburg, 1897.

For descriptions of the city consult: J. F. Thrupp, Ancient Jerusalem, London 1855; A. B: MacGrigor, Index of Passages . . . upon the Topography of Jerusalem. Glasgow


1876; C. Zimmermann, Karten und Pläns zur Topographic des alten Jerusalem, Basel, 1876; G. Williams, The Holy City, 2 vols., London, 1849; C. Ritter, Comparative Geography of Palestine, iv. 1-212, Edinburgh, 1866; W. M. Thomson, The Land and the Book, vol. i., New York, 1880; F. Spiees, Das Jerusalem des Josephus, Berlin. 1881; H. Nicole, Plan topographique de Jerusalem et ses environs, Paris, 1886-87; J. H. Lewis, The Holy Places of Jerusalem, London, 1888; G. R. Lees, Jerusalem Illustrated, ib. 1894; G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land, passim, ib. 1897; F. Diekamp, Hippolytus von Theben, pp. 96 sqq., Münster, 1898; W. Sanday, Sacred Sites of the Gospels, Oxford, 1903; Miss A. Goodrich Freer, Inner Jerusalem, London, 1904 (an excellent description of the present city); Baedeker's Handbook on Syria and Palestine, 6th Germ. ed., Leipsic, 1904, 4th Eng. ed., 1906. Pictorial productions are G. Ebers and H. Guthe, Palästina in Bild und Wort, vol, i., Stuttgart, 1883; Hartmann-Bensinger, Palästina, Hamburg, 1889; and the views published by the PEF.

On the history of the city in the Biblical period consult: L. B. Paton, Jerusalem in Bible Times, Chicago, 1908; E. Bevan, Jerusalem under the High Priests, London, 1904; and the works on the history of Israel cited under AHAB. For later periods consult: C. J. M. de Vogüé, Les Énglises de la terre sainte, Paris, 1860; T. Levin, Siege of Jerusalem by Titus, London, 1863; V. Guérin, La Terre sainte, 2 parts, Paris, 1884; J. Guy le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, London, 1890; G. Dodu, Hist. des institutions monarchiques dans le royaume latin de Jerusalem, Paris, 1894; Jerusalem et ses principaux sanctuaires, ib. 1895; C. A. Couret, La Priss de Jerusalem . . . en 614; trois documents, ib. 1896; C. R. Conder, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291, London, 1897; S. Lane Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, New York, 1898; R. Röhricht, Geschichte des Königreichs Jerusalem, Berlin, 1898; W. Besant and E. H. Palmer, Jerusalem, the City of Herod and Saladin, London, 1899; A. Achleitner, Jerusalem, Mainz, 1905; W. S. Caldecott, The Second Temple in Jerusalem, London, 1908; and the publications of the Palestine Pilgrim Text Society.

Maps of value are the Plan of Jerusalem prepared by the PEF, and Karte der Materialen zur Topographie des Alten Jerusalem, accompanied by Materialen zur Topographie des Alten Jerusalem, both by A. Kümmel, Halle, 1904-06.


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