especially in consideration of his lack of independence as a dogmatic teacher and his submission to orthodox tradition. He approaches his papal patron Damasus with the most utter submissiveness, making no attempt at an independent decision of his own. The Church founded upon the rock of Peter is to decide whether he is to recognize, with the Meletians, three hypostases in the divine ousia, or, with the Paulinians, one hypostasis with three prosopa or persons. "Decide, I pray thee, and I shall not fear to speak of three hypostases" He may be called not only the forerunner of modern ultra-montanism, but even of the Jesuit unreasoning obedience. The tendency to recognize a superior comes out scarcely less significantly in his correspondence with Augustine (cf. the letters numbered lvi., lxvii., cii-cv., cx.-cxii., cxv.-cxvi. in his own, and xxviii., xxxix., xl., lxvii.-lxviii., lxxi.-lxxv., lxxxi.-lxxxii. in Augustine's).

Yet in spite of the defects and weaknesses already mentioned, Jerome has retained a rank among the western Fathers. This would be his due, if for nothing else, on account of the incalculable influence exercised by his Latin version of the Bible upon the subsequent ecclesiastical and theological development. But that he won his way to the title of a saint and doctor of the catholic Church was possible only because he broke away entirely from the theological school in which he was brought up, that of the Origenists. In the artistic tradition of the Roman Catholic Church it has been usual to represent him, the patron of theological learning, as a cardinal, by the side of the Bishop Augustine, the Archbishop Ambrose, and the Pope Gregory. Even when he is depicted as a half-clad anchorite, with cross, skull, and Bible for the only furniture of his cell, the red hat or some other indication of his rank is as a rule introduced somewhere in the picture.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The article in W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, ii. 459 sqq., London, 1890, is valuable as a bird's-eye view of Jerome's works, particularly in giving a table showing the numbers of the letters as they appear in the three principal arrangements A valuable bibliography is given in Potthast, Wegweiser, pp. 595-596, 1370-71; another is in the British Museum Catalogue and Supplement; still another in U. Chevalier, Répertoire des sources historiques du moyen âge, pp. 1263-1265, Paris. 1894 sqq.

The edition of the "Works" by Erasmus, including all then known, appeared, 9 vols., Basel, 1516-20, followed by that of Marianus Victorinus, 9 vols., Rome, 1565-72; then came editions by U. Calixtus and A. Tribbechovius 12 vols., Frankfort, 1684-90, the Benedictine by J. Mertianay, 5 vols., Paris, 1693-1706; the edition of Vallarsi, 11 vols., Verona, 1734-42, reproduced in most subsequent editions including that of MPL, xxii.-xxx. NPNF, 2d ser., vol. v, contains Eng. transl. of many of the 150 Letters, the Prefaces to his works, and a number of treatises, including his "Life of Hilarion," "Dialogue against Jovinianus" and "Dialogue against the Pelagians," with a valuable Introduction and Life.

The best sources for a life are his own writings, particularly his Letters and Prefaces, the latter of which often give a clear insight into his mental states as well as a knowledge of external events in his life. Augustine refers to him in Epist. 261, Ad Oceanum, Contra Julianum l., and "City of God," xviii. 42; Sulpicius Severus records his impression, received during a stay with Jerome at Bethlehem lasting six months, in his Dialogi, i. 7-9. Elaborate modern treatments of the life are O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, sein Leben und Wirken, Gotha, 1865, and A. Thierry, S. Jérôme, la société chrétienne à Rome et l'émigration romaine en terre sainte, 2 vols., Paris, 1875. Consult farther: F. C. Collombet, Hist. de S. Jérôme: sa vie, ses écrits, et sa doctrine, 2 vols., Paris, 1844; W. S. Gilly, Vigilantius and his Times, pp. 91-124, London, 1844; C. F. de T. Montalembert, Les Moines d'occident, i. 144-187, Paris, 1861; E. Bernard, Les Voyages de S. Jérôme, ib. 1864; E. L. Cutts, St. Jerome, in Fathers for English Readers, London, 1878; A. P. F. de Lambel, S. Jérôme, Tours, 1880; C. Martin, Life of St. Jerome, London, 1888; F. W. Farrar, Lives of the Fathers, ii. 150-297, New York, 1889; P. Largent, S. Jérôme, Paris, 1898. Eng. transl., London, 1900; G. Grützmacher, Hieronymus, 3 vols., Leipsic, 1901-08; J. Brochet, S. Jérôme et ses ennemis, Paris, 1906; J. Turmel, Saint Jérôme, ib. 1906; Jose de Seguënza (Father Fray), Life of St. Jerome, London, 1907; Tillemont, Mémoires, vol, xii.; Ceillier, Auteurs sacrés, vii. 545-711 et passim (other volumes contain much useful matter, consult Index); Schaff, Christian Church, iii. 205-214, 967-988, and in general, the church histories dealing with the period; DB, iv. 873-874; DCB, iii. 29-50.

Volumes dealing with special phases of Jerome's activity are: M. Rahmer, Die hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, Breslau, 1861; Aemil. Lübeck, Hieronymus quos noverit scriptores et ex quibus hauserit, Leipsic, 1872; A. Ebert, AIlgemeine Geschichte der Litteratur des Mittelalters, i. 176-203, ib. 1874; W. Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die alttestamentliche Textkritik, Göttingen, 1875; H Goelzer, Étude lexicographique et grammaticale de la latinité de S. Jérôme,, Paris, 1884; A. Röhricht, Essai sur S. Jérôme, exégète, ib. 1891.


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