JEREMIAS, yê"re-mî'as, ALFRED: German Lutheran; b. at Markersdorf (a village near Chemnitz), Saxony, Feb. 21, 1864. He was educated at the University of Leipsic (Ph.D., 1886); was a teacher at a high school for girls in Dresden from 1887 to 1890, and deacon at the Lutherkirche, Leipsic, from 1890 to 1901. Since 1901 he has been pastor of the Lutherkirche, and since 1905 privat-docent for the history of religion and Old Testament in the University of Leipsic. In theology he is a believer in revealed religion. He has written Die Höllenfahrt der Istar, eine altbabylonische Beschwörungslegende (Munich, 1886); Babylonisch-assyrische Vorstellungen vom Leben nach dem Tode unter Berücksichtigung der alttestamentlichen Parallelen (Leipsic, 1886); Izdubar Nimrod, eine altbabylonische Heldensage nach den Keilschriftfragmenten dargestellt (1891); Im Kampfe um Babel und Bibel (1903); Monotheistische Strömungen innerhalb der babylonischen Religion (1904); Das Alte Testament im Lichte des alten Orients (1904); Babylonisches im Neuen Testament (1905); and Die Panbabylonisten. Der alte Orient und die ägyptische Religion (1907).

JERICHO. See JUDEA, II., 2, § 1.

JEROBOAM, jer"o-bo'am: The name of two kings of Israel.

1. Jeroboam I.: First king of Israel, son of Nebat and Zeruah, an Ephraimite of Zereda (Zaretan and Zartansh; Gk. Sareira or Sarida) north of Jericho and not far from Beth Shean (Josh. iii. 16; I Kings iv. 12). His dates, according to the old chronology, are 975-958 B.C.; according to Riehm, 938-917 B.C.; according to Cooke (DB, ii. 582) 937-915 B.C. According to the narrative in I Kings xi. 26 sqq., he was a servant of Solomon who, on account of his industry, was raised to a place of command in the region which he afterward ruled. On one occasion, when leaving Jerusalem, he was met by the prophet Ahijah from Shiloh, who rent his own (not Jeroboam's, as Ewald has it) mantle into twelve pieces and gave ten of them to Jeroboam as a sign that he was to rule over ten tribes, while one tribe was to remain under the Davidic dynasty. The Deuteronomic editor gives as the reason for this division of the kingdom the idolatry of Solomon; but there were probably also political and religious motives, among the former the old jealousy of the northern tribes and among the latter a prophetic interest (Ahijah was a Shilonite). Solomon heard of the incident and Jeroboam was forced to flee to Egypt, where he remained under Shishak till Solomon's death.

In I Kings xii. 3 (probably a later report) Jeroboam appears as spokesman for Israel at the gathering at Shechem to make Rehoboam king; but verse 20 makes it appear that Jeroboam was made king immediately on his return from Egypt. Rehoboam's intention to subject the revolted tribes by force of arms was overruled by the prophet Shemaiah on the ground that the division was of divine provision. Probabilities are against the representation of a long war between Jeroboam and Rehoboam (I Kings xiv. 30, xv. 6; II Chron. xiii. 2 sqq.); but it is not unlikely that an alliance was formed between Abijam and Damascus, renewing that which had been broken under Solomon (I Kings xi. 24).

Important measures of Jeroboam were the fortification of Shechem and the selection of it as his capital, and the fortification of Penuel to secure his eastern possessions. Tirzah, often a residence of the kings of Israel until the time of Omri, was also a place of note in his time (I Kings xiv. 17). Of supreme importance was Jeroboam's measure in sanctioning the cult of Bethel and of Dan to remove the necessity of going to Jerusalem to worship. This was probably only the legitimating of existing worship, and was not intended to be a rejection of the Yahweh cult (see CALF, THE GOLDEN, AND CALF WORSHIP). The later (Judaic) reports make Jeroboam create priests of the lower classes of the populace, the Levites being deposed. The festival established by Jeroboam is regarded by the narrator as intended to replace the Feast of Tabernacles (I Kings xii. 32). Of the narratives in I Kings xiii.-xiv, that in chap. xiii. is a midrash upon II Kings xxiii. 17 sqq.; that in chap. xiv. has made use of an earlier source, and is in Deuteronomistic spirit.

2. Jeroboam II.: Thirteenth king of Israel, son and successor of Joash. His dates according to the old chronology are 825-784 B.C.; according to Curtis (DB, i. 401) 782-741 B.C., according to Cooke (DB,


ii. 583) 790-749 B.C.; Jeroboam II. was one of the most important and powerful kings of the northern kingdom, his rule extending "from Hamath to the sea of the plain" (II Kings xiv. 23-29), probably including Moab under his power. According to Schrader (KAT, pp. 212 sqq.) his extraordinary success is to be explained from his relations with Assyria. Ramman-nirari III. of Assyria had overthrown Mari of Damascus, and in his inscription he claims to have laid the land of Omri (i.e., Israel) under tribute. It is not improbable that the conquered Damascus and its territory was turned over to Jeroboam in return for tribute. Commentators are at variance over the meaning of the reference in Hos. x. 14, "as Shalman spoiled Beth-arbel," whether it refers to a conquest of the Galilean city under Shalmaneser III. or IV., or to a calamity experienced by the Moabite King Salamanu mentioned by Tiglath-Pileser. II Kings xiv. 25 regards the success of Jeroboam as the fulfilment of the prophecy of Jonah the son of Amittai; but the prophecies of Hosea and Amos give a far different impression of the state of his kingdom, which under the external glory carried the seeds of decay, speedily to bear fruit.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. The sources are: I Kings xi. 28-40, xii. 1-xiv. 20; II Chron, x. 2-19, xi. 14-16, xii. 15, xiii. 2. Sources are: II Kings xiv. 23-29, xv. 1, 8; and especially the books of Amos and Hosea. For literature on both kings see the pertinent sections in the works cited under AHAB, ISRAEL, HISTORY OF.


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