JEFFERS, ELIAKIM TUPPER: Presbyterian; b. at Stewiacke, Nova Scotia, Apr. 6, 1841. He studied at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa. (B.A., 1862), and Princeton Theological Seminary (1862-1865), and at the United Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa (1865-66). He was pastor of the United Presbyterian Church at Oxford, Pa. (1865-72), after which he was president of Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pa., until 1890, and professor of theology in Lincoln University, Oxford, Pa (1883-90). He was pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Oil City, Pa. (1890-93) and since 1893 has been president of the York Collegiate Institute, York, Pa. He has written Shortest Road to Csar (New York, 1896).

JEFFERS, WILLIAM HAMILTON: Presbyterian; b. at Cadiz, O., May 1, 1838. He was graduated from Geneva College, Northwood, Pa. (now Beaver Falls, O.; A.B., 1855), and at the United Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Xenia, O. (1859). He was pastor of the combined United Presbyterian churches of Bellefontaine and Northwood, O. (1862-1866); was professor of Latin and Hebrew in Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pa. (1866-69); professor of Greek in the University of Wooster, Wooster, O. (1869-75); pastor of the Euclid Avenue Presbyterian Church, Cleveland, O. (1875-77); and professor of historical theology in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa. (1877-1903). He has since resided at Los Angeles, Cal., and lectures on church history. While at Bellefontaine he was a member of the committee to revise the United Presbyterian metrical version of the Psalms.

JEFFERSON, CHARLES EDWARD: Congregationalist; b. at Cambridge, O., Aug. 29, 1860. He was educated at Ohio Wesleyan University (A.B., 1882); was superintendent of public schools in Worthington, O. (1882-84); studied at the School of Theology attached to Boston University (1884-1887). He was pastor of the Central Congregational Church, Chelsea, Mass., from 1887 to 1898. Since 1898 he has been pastor of the Broadway Tabernacle, New York City. He has written: Quiet Talks with Earnest People in My Study (New York, 1898); Quiet Hints to Growing Preachers in My Study (1901); Doctrine and Deed (1901); Things Fundamental (1903); Faith arid Life (1905); The Minister as Prophet (1905); The New Crusade (1907); The Old Year and the New (1907); Character of Jesus (1908); and My Father's Business: Series of Sermons to Children (1909).

JEHOAHAZ, je-ho'a-haz: 1. Eleventh king of Israel, son and successor of Jehu. His dates, according to the old chronology, are 856-840 B.C.; according to Kautzsch, 814-798 B.C. Under him the oppression of the northern kingdom by the Arameans reached its height, the army being reduced to fifty horsemen, ten chariots, and 10,000 foot soldiers. An addition to II Kings xiii. 22 in the Septuagint shows that the Arameans operated from the southwest as well as from the north against Jehoahaz. Under him the Asherah worship seems to have revived (II Kings xiii. 6).

2. Sixteenth king of Judah, third son and successor of Josiah (called Shallum, Jer. xxii. 11). He reigned only three months, according to the old chronology, in 610 B.C.; according to Kautzsch, 609 B.C.; according to Peake, 608 B.C. He was evidently regarded as more energetic than his elder brother (see JEHOIAKIM), since the people elevated him to the throne; but both the Book of Kings and Joaephus give him a bad character (II Kings xxiii. 30 sqq; Ant. X., v. 2). Pharaoh Necho, on his return from his campaign to the Euphrates, summoned Jehoahaz to Riblah and threw him into chains to be carried to Egypt, whence he never returned, and put his brother Jehoiakim (Eliakim) in his place as king. Whether the name Shallum (="retribution"?) was symbolically applied or was his original name, discarded when he became king, is a subject of debate. [The list of Josiah's sons in I Chron. iii. 17-18 erroneously makes Shallum to be a different person from Jehoahaz.]

The name appears also in II Chron. xxi. 17 as that of King Ahaziah of Judah, and also, II Chron. xxxiv. 8, of a recorder under Josiah of Judah.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: II Kings xiii. 1-9, xxiii. 30-35; II Chron, iii. 19-18, xxxvi. 1-3; Jer. xxii. 10-12. Consult the pertinent sections of the histories mentioned under AHAB; and ISRAEL, HISTORY OF; and the articles in DB, EB, and JE.


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