RAHLFS, rdlfs, OTTO GUSTAV ALFRED: German Protestant; b. at Linden (now a part of Hanover) May 29, 1865. He was educated at the universities of Halle and Gdttingen (Ph.D., 1887), was inspector of the theological seminary at Göttingen (1888-90), became privat-docent at the university of the same city in 1891, titular professor in 1896, and associate professor of Old-Testament exegesis and Hebrew in 1901. He has written Des Gregorius Abulfarag Anmerkungen zu den salomonischen Schriften (Leipsic, 1887); Ani and Anaw in den Psalmen (Göttingen, 1891); Die Berliner-Handschrift des sahidischen Psalters (Berlin, 1901); and Septuaginta-Studien, vols. i.-ii. (Göttingen, 1904-07). He is also an editor of the Zeitschrift fur alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, and of the Theologische Litteratarwitung.

RAHTMANN, rat'man, HERMANN: German theologian; b. at Liibeck in 1585; d. at Danzig June 30, 1628. After a course in theology at Rostock, he went to Cologne to study the learning and dialectics of the Jesuits, then to Frankfort and Leipsic to continue his studies in philosophy and theology and to give instruction. In 1612 he received a call as deacon to St. John's Church in Danzig; in 1617 he became deacon at St. Mary's Church, and in 1626 pastor of St. Catherine's Church.

His idealism, in Scriptural dogmatic form, is comprised in Jesu Christi: dess Königs aller Könige and Herrn aller Herren Gnadenreich (Danzig, 1621), composed of collocated Bible sentences, with headings of the various chapters and a very few marginal notes. Rahtmann's theological and historical position finds its peculiar significance in answering the questions, "What Holy Scripture is; whence comes it; and what is its effect?" He derives the Scriptures from divine revelation, not from the inner light of reason. The direct recipients of Scripture were the apostles and prophets, among whom the Spirit also inwardly remained. Scripture, then, "is a divine outward word or witness of God's holy will and acts, as revealed by the Holy Ghost through


a supernal illumination within the hearts of the holy Prophets and Apostles" (Gnadeareich, a, iii. 2r). According to Rahtmann, whose affiliations in thought are with Schwenckfeld, a sharp distinction is to be drawn between the inward and the outward word in the way of "cause and effect," or " sign and thing signified." Moreover, the Scriptures can not yield more than essentially and potentially belongs to tbem; they are a beckoning or guiding "hand by the way, whose operation is just this, and no more, that one knows whither he is to go" (Gnadenreich, 6r). So Scripture is only an index and a witness of grace. It addresses itself .exclusively to the understanding, and creates in the same the conception of religious objects. If Scripture is to become the actual means of grace, another power, the Holy Ghost, must supervene; in fact, both Scripture and man are alike objects of the illumining operation of the Spirit. In Rahtmann's theology the testimony of the Holy Spirit becomes an independent, immediate act of the Spirit. This "preventive," or antecedent grace is "a voluntary gift which God accords to those whom he, like a loving father, has destined from eternity to dispose for conversion" (Gnadenreich, a, iii., v.). This is a contingent approach to the doctrine of predestination. In Rahtmann's later apologetic writings there are no advancements, but only attenuations and veilings of his fundamental thoughts. Among these, his valuation of Scripture as fountain of knowledge is orthodox, while his doctrine of inspiration reflects influences from Schwenckfeld and Arndt. His thought as to antecedent grace appears rooted in Augustine. In so far as he assigns the operation of grace to the Spirit, Rahtmann coincides with Schwenckfeld. By disavowing the permanent immanence of the Spirit in the word, Rahtmann was in accord with Luther and nearly all the Lutheran theology down to that time; but in that he could not apprehend Scripture to be an effectual vehicle of the divine grace, he fell away from the religious type of Lutheranism.

Because of the views above set forth, Rahtmann became the object of vehement attacks. His significance in the history of theology inheres in the fact that he, for the first time, made the divine Word, in its aspect of a means of grace, the main theme of theological discussion, and thus led the way toward creating a specific and formally elaborated doctrine of this matter within the pale of Lutheran orthodoxy.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. H. Grützmacher, Wore and Geist, pp. 220-261, Leipsic, 1902; G. Arnold, Fortsetzung . . . der Kirchen und Ketzer-Historie, Frankfort, 1729; J. G. Watch, Einleitung in die Religiansstreitigkeiten der evangelisch-lutheriachen Kirchen, parts i. and iv., Leipsic, 1733-1739; Engelhardt, in ZHT, 1854; E. Bch., Geschichte der evangelischen kirche Danzigs, Danzig, 1863. For an outline of Rahtmann's works and of those which were in criticism of them cf. J. Moller, Cimbria literata, vol. iii., Copenhagen, 1744; J. G. Watch, Bibliotheca theologia selecta, vol. ii., Jena, 1758.

RAIKES, ręks, ROBERT: Founder of Sundayschools; b. at Gloucester Sept. 14, 1735; d. there Apr- 5, 1811. His father was a printer and the publisher of the Gloucester Journal; at his death in 1757 the son Robert succeeded to the business. The latter manifested an interest in philanthropic movements, and in 1768 inserted in his paper an appeal in behalf of the prisoners at Gloucester. John Howard (q.v.) visited Gloucester in 1773 and spoke favorably of him. His attention was early drawn to neglect in the training of children. The suggestion upon which he started his movement is variously described. He himself mentions an interview with a woman who pointed out a crowd of idle ragamuffins, and he is said to have taken a hint from a dissenter, William King, who had set up a Sundayschool at Dursley. With Thomas Stock, a curate of a neighboring parish, who had started a Sundayschool at Ashbury, Berkshire, he engaged a woman as teacher of a school at a shilling and sixpence weekly. Raikes afterward established a school in his own parish, St. Mary le Crypt, July, 1780, a notice of the success of which he published in his paper, Nov., 1783, arousing many inquiries. This became the starting-point for a far-reaching movement. By 1786 it was said that 200,000 children were being taught in English Sunday-schools, and in Apr., 1785, a London society was organized for the establishment of these institutions, which ten years later had 65,000 scholars. The movement spread rapidly, gaining favor within and without the churches. At Christmas, 1787, Raikes was admitted to an interview with the queen, which resulted in the opening of schools which were graciously visited by George III., and copied by Hannah More (q.v.) in Somerset. Raikes owes his fame as the founder of Sunday-schools to the development of a sense of the need for instruction for children and to his use of his position as publicist in spreading a knowledge of his cheap and successful expedient.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Gregory, Robert Raikes, Journadist and Philanthropist. Hist. of the Origin of Sunday Schools, London, 1877; J. Ivmey, Memoir of William Foxs, London, 1831; G. Webster, Memoir of R. Raikes, Nottingham, 1873; P. M. Eastman, Robert Raikes and Northamptonshire Sunday Schools, London, 1880; Robert Raikes: the Man and his work. Biographical Notices collected by Josiah Harris, ed. J. H. Harris, London, 1899; J. H. Harris, Robert Raikes, London, 1900; DNB, xlvii. 168-170; and the literature under SUNDAY-SCHOOLS.


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