RAWNSLEY, rons'li, HARDWICKE DRUMMOND: Church of England; b. at Henley-on-Thames (23 m. s.e. of Oxford) Sept. 28, 1850. He was educated at Balliol College, Oxford (B.A., 1875), and was ordered deacon in 1875 and ordained priest two years later. He was curate of St. Barnabas, Bristol (1875-78); vicar of Low Wray, Lancastershire (1878-83); vicar of Crosthwaite, Keswick, Cumberland (since 1883); and has also been rural dean of Keswick and honorary canon of Carlisle since 1893. He has written Book of Bristol Sonnets (London, 1877); Sonnets at the English Lakes (1881); Sonnets round the Coast (1887); Edward Thring, Teacher and Poet (1889); Poems, Ballads, and Bucolics (1890); St. Kentigern of Crosthwaite and St. Herbert of Derwentwater (3d ed., Keswick, 1892); Notes for the Nile: Hymns of Ancient Egypt (1892); Valete Tennyson, and other Poems (1893); Idylls and Lyrics of the Nile (1894); Literary Associations the English Lakes (2 vols., 1894) ; Ballads of Brave Deeds (1896); Harvey Goodwin, Bishop of Carlisle: A Biographical Memoir (1896); Henry Whitehead, 1826-96: Memorial Sketch (Glasgow, 1897); Sayings of Jesus: Six Village Sermons on the Papyrus Fragment (1897); Life and Nature at the English Lakes (1899); Sonnets in Switzerland and Italy (London, 1899); Ballads of the War (1900); Memories of the Tennysons (Glasgow, 1900); Buskin and the English Lakes (1901); A Rambler's Note-Book at the English Lakes (1902); Lake Country Sketches (1903); Flower-Time in the Oberland (1904); Venerable Bede, his Life and Work (London, 1904); Sermons on the Logia (2 series, 1905); Months at the Lakes (1906); A Sonnet Chronicle, 1900-05 (1906); Round the Lake Country (1909); and Poems at Home and Abroad (1909). He also edited a collection of sermons under the title of Christ for To-Day (London, 1885).

RAYMOND, MARTINI: Spanish Dominican and rabbinical scholar of the thirteenth century. He was a native of Catalonia, and was in 1250 one of eight monks appointed to make a study of oriental languages with the purpose of carrying on a mission to Jews and Moors. In 1264 he was one of the company appointed by the king of Aragon to examine Jewish manuscripts in order to strike out from them any matter assailing Christianity. He worked in Spain as a missionary, and also for a short time in Tunis. A document bearing his signature and dated July, 1284, shows that he was at that time still living.

Raymond's refutation of the Koran is lost. There is at Bologna a manuscript of his Capistrum Judaeorum, aimed at the errors of the Jews; and at Tortosa a manuscript containing, Explanatio simboli apostolorum ad institutionem fidelium has a marginal note that it was edited by " a fratre Ro Martini de ordine predicatorum." The great work with which Raymond's name is associated is his Pugio fidei, on which he was still at work in 1278. This work was used by Hieronymus de Sancta Fide in his Hebraeomastix and elsewhere, was plagiarized by Petrus Galatinus, and was one of the credited sources of Victor Porchet's Victoria adversus impios Ebreos (Paris, 1520). About 1620 Bishop Bosquet discovered in the Collegium Fuxense a manuscript of the Pugio, and from this and three other manuscripts Joseph de Voisin edited the work with numerous learned annotations (Paris, 1651; edited again with introduction by J. B. Carpzov, Leipsic, 1687). The first part treats of God and divine omniscience, creation, immortality, and resurrection from the dead; the second and third parts are devoted to refutation of the Jews. The second and third parts are still of value for missions, and also for science since there are numerous correctly cited quotations from the Talmud, Midrashic works, and other early Jewish literature. Among these cited works is the Bereshith Rabba major or magna, a work in part derived from the Yesodh of Moses ha-Darshan. In his use of this work the only charge that can be


brought against Raymond is that he disconnected sentences from their context and assembled them in accordance with his subjective interpretation and his purpose in writing.

The question, who is meant by the "Rachmon" often adduced by Raymond, is not definitely an swered, some scholars considering that it is a He braizing of his own name, and not a character intro duced as speaking in the Talmud and Midrash.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Touron, Hist. des hommes illuseres de d'ordre de St. Dominique, i. 489-504, Paris, 1743; Ambrose of Altramum, Bibliotheca Dominicana, ed. Rocaberti, pp. 58, 449-456, Rome, 1677; J. C. Wolf, Bibliotheca Hebræa, i. 1016-18, iii. 989-991, iv. 988, Hamburg, 1715-33; J. Quétif and J. Echard, Scriptorm ordinis prædicatorum, i. 396-398, Paris, 1719; and literature named in J. G. Walch, Bibliotheca theologica selecta, i. 609, Jena, 1757. The charge that Raymond falsified his citations from Jewish writings was renewed by S. M. Schiller-Szinessy in Journal of Philology, xvi (1887), 131-152; refutation of the charge is offered by L. Zunz, Die pottesdienstlichen Vorträge der Juden, pp. 287-293, Berlin, 1832; E. B. Pussy, Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah, vol. ii., Oxford, 1877; A. Neubauer, Book of Tobit, pp. vii.-ix., xx.-xxv., ib. 1878; A. Epstein, in Magazin für die Wissenachaft des Juden thums, 1888, pp. 65-99, cf. I. Levi, in Revue des Etudes juives, xvii (1888), 313-317.


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