QUEEN ANNE'S BOUNTY: A corporation for the purpose of improving small livings in the Church of England, initiated by Queen Anne in 1704. The original source of revenue so applied was the firstfruits and tithes of all benefices usurped by King John, made the property of the crown under Henry VIII., and yielded up for this purpose by Anne. She was enabled by acts of parliament to found the corporation and to make rules for its guidance by royal charter or letters patent. It also receives benefactions and administers them, and its activities have been enlarged so as to include repairs and the insuring of parsonages, as well as provision for erectting new buildings by long-term loans. Its capital is now nearly $25,000,000, with a yearly income of over $800,000, while its total benefactions exceed $30,000,000.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The one good account is by C. Hodgson, An Account of the Augmentation of Small Livings by ' The Governors of the Bounty of Queen Anne," with two supplements, London, 1828-85. A short summary is in W. F. Hook, Church Dictionary, pp. 634-835, London, 1887; cf. W. F. Hutton, The English Church (1686-1714), pp. 256-257, London, 1903.

QUENSTEDT, cven'stet, JOHANNES ANDREAS: Lutheran dogmatician; b. at Quedlinburg (31 m. s.w. of Magdeburg) Aug. 13, 1617; d. at Wittenberg May 22, 1688. He was educated at the University of Helmstildt, 1637-43; and of Wittenberg, 1644, where he also lectured on geography; was adjunct professor in the philosophical faculty, 1646-49; ordinary professor of logic and metaphysics and associate professor of theology, 1649-60; and ordinary professor of theology, 1660-88. Quenstedt represents the old orthodox reaction after the period of reconstruction had set in; the fruit of his thirty years of work in the university lectureship was published in the Theologia didactico-polemica sive systema theologicum (Wittenberg, 1685; Leipsic, 1715), a work according to the strictest standard of Lutheran orthodoxy based upon the Theologia, positiva acroamatica of J. F. König, and characterized by external dogmatization instead of a development of the subject from within, and abounding in artful scholastic refinements. He was noted among his contemporaries for his mild, irenic spirit and retiring, pious disposition, which is also shown by his Ethica pastorum et inatructio cathedralis (1678), in which he advises to temper severity with gentleness in resisting heretics, and to distinguish between the tempters and the tempted; warns against pedantry in the pulpit; and recommends the reading of Johann Arndt's Vom vahren Christenthum. Other works are the Dialogus de patriis illustrium doctrina et scriptis virorum (Wittenberg, 1654), and a collection of dissertations, Exercitationes de theologia in genere ejusque principio sancta scriptura (1677).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Sennert, in H. Pipping, Memoria theologorum, pp. 229 sqq., Leipsic, 1705; J. F. Niceron, Nachrichten von berühmten Gelehrten, xx. 130 sqq., Halle, 1760; J. C. Erdmann, Biographie sämtlicher Propste zu Wittenberg, pp. 25-26, Wittenberg, 1802; idem, Lebenebeschreibungen von den wittenbergischen Theologen, pp. 87-88, ib. 1804; A. Tholuck, Der Geist der lutherischen Theologen Wittenbergs, pp. 214 sqq., Gotha, 1852; W. Gass, Geschichte der protestantischen Dogmatik, i. 357 sqq., Berlin, 1854: G. Frank, Gesdhichte der protestantischen Theologie, ii. 30, 4 vols., Leipsic, 1862-1905.


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