PFEILSCHIFTER, pfail'shift-er, GEORG: German Roman Catholic; b. at Mering (7 m. s.e. of Augsburg), Upper Bavaria, May 13, 1870. He was educated at the universities of Munich (1889-93, 1894-99; D.D., 1897) and Vienna (1899), interrupting his studies to make a five months' tour of Italy in 1897. In 1900 he became privat-docent for church history at the University of Munich, but in the same year accepted a call to the Lyceum of Freising as associate professor of church history and patristics. Since 1903 he has been professor of church history in the University of Freiburg. He has written Der Ostgotenkönig Theoderich der Grosse und die katholische Kirche (Münster, 1896); Die authentiache Ausgabe der vierzig Evangelienhomilien Gregors des Grossen, ein erster Beitrag zur Geschichte der Ueberlieferung (Munich, 1900); and Zur Enlstehung der Allegorie room mystischen Gotteswagen bei Dante Purgatorio (Freiburg, 1904).

PFENDER, pfen'der or [F.] fan"dar', CHARLES LEBERECHT: French Lutheran; b. at Hatten in Alsace Oct. 26, 1834. He pursued his studies at Wittenberg, the College de Pont-a-Mousson (B.Litt., 1853), under the faculty of theology at Strasburg (B.Th., 1859), and at the universities of Heidelberg, Göttingen, and Berlin; he became vicar at Wittenberg in 1860; at Paris, 1865; pastor of the Église du Batignolles, Paris, 1868, and of the Église SaintPaul, same city, in 1874. He describes himself as theologically a confessional Lutheran. He is the author of La Confession d'Augabourg. Traduction revue d'après Ie texte le plus autorisé. Prècèe d'une introduction (Paris, 1872); L'Agneau de Dieu, Rècit de la passion et de la rèsurrection du Seigneur d'aprés les quatre èvangèlistes. Suivi de mèditations, de priéres, et de cantiques pour la semaine saints (1873); Vie de Martin Luther, publièe a l'occasion du quatriéme centenaire de sa naissance (1883). He is a contributor to the present work, and has written much for other standard publications.

PFLEIDERER, pflai'der-er, OTTO: German Protestant; b. at Stetten (a village near Cannstadt, 4 m. n.e. of Stuttgart), Württemberg, Sept. 1, 1839; d. at Grosslichterfelde, Berlin, July 19, 1908. He was educated at the University of Tübingen from 1857 to 1861, and after being for a short time vicar at Eningen, a village near Reutlingen, traveled extensively in North Germany, England, and Scotland until 1864. He was then lecturer and privat-


docent at Tübingen until 1868, after which he was a pastor at Heilbronn till 1870, when he went to Jena as chief pastor and university preacher. In 1870 he was appointed professor of theology at the University of Jena, and from 1875 till his death he was professor of practical theology at the University of Berlin. He was one of the most learned and vigorous defenders of the non-miraculous origin of Christianity. He lectured in England on both the Hibbert (1885) and the Gifford (1892-93) foundations. He wrote Die Religion, ihr Wesen and ihre Geschichte (2 vols., Leipsic, 1869); Moral and Religion (Haarlem, 1870); Der Paulinismus (Leipsic, 1873; Eng. transl. by E. Peters, Paulinism, 2 vols., London, 1877); F. G. Fichte, Lebensbiild eines deutschen Denkers and Patrioten (Stuttgart, 1877); Religi-philosophic auf geachichtlicher Grundlage (Berlin, 1878; 2d ed., 2 vols., 1883-84; Eng. tranal. by A. Stewart and A. Menzies, Philosophy of Religion, 4 vole., London, 1886-88); Zur religiösen Verstandigung (1879); Grundrisa der christlichen Glaubens and Sittenlehre (1880); The Influence of the Apostle Paul on the Development of Christianity (Hibbert lectures; London, 1885); Das Urchriatentum, seine Schriften and Lehren (Berlin, 1885; 2d ed., 1902; Eng. transl., Primitive Christianity. Its Writings and Teachings, 2 vole., New York, 1906-09); The Development of Theology in Germany since Kant, and its Progress in Great Britain since 1826 (London, 1890; German ed., Der Entwickelung der protestantischen Theologw in Deutschland seit Kant and in Grossbritannien seit 1825, Freiburg, 1891); Die Ritschlsche Theologie kritisch beleuchtet (Bnmswiek, 1891); The Philosophy and Development of Religion (Gifford lectures; 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1894); Evolution and Theology, and other Essays (New York, 1900); Das Christusbild dea urchri8tliehen Glaubens (Berlin, 1903; Eng. transl., The Early Christian Conception of Christ: Its Value and Significance in the History of Religion, London, 1905); Die Entstehung des Christentums (Munich, 1905; Eng. tranal., Christian Origins, London,1906); Religion und Religionen (1906; Eng. transl., Religion and Historic Faiths, London, 1907); and Die Enbrricklung des Chridentums (1907; Eng. transl., The Development of Christianity, London, 1910).


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