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Eusebius seems to have had a MS. that presented the same problems as ours,666666Namely, that the Second Apology precedes the First, as if a preface to it. Eusebius knew that Justin wrote two Apologies, but seems to quote from both of the preserved ones as the First. It may be that our Second Apology is a mere supplement to the First, and that Justin's Second, if there was one, is now lost. I think, however, it is more likely that the Second, which begins very abruptly, lost its opening in an early MS. and then was copied in the wrong position—rather like what is often supposed to have happened with II Corinthians. and to have known only the titles of other lost works. In those Justin developed the Greek, as the Dialogue develops the Jewish, elements of the First Apology.667667To the Greeks, another called A Refutation, and On the Sovereignty of God, which used classical quotations (the Pseudo-Justinian work with this title seems to be a feebler exercise on the theme); also Psaltes, perhaps a collection of hymns, and On the Soul, which might be an expansion of Dial., chs. 4; 5. Justin would be known to us only by a few spasmodic quotations had not a Byzantine scribe copied an invaluable, if defective, MS., in the year 1364. This is now Codex Regius 150 at Paris, and is the almost exclusive source for editions of Justin, supplemented only by the quotations of Eusebius and John of Damascus and three chapters (65 to 67) in a manuscript at Rome (Codex Ottobonianus Graecus 274). Consequently the editing of Justin's text is almost entirely a matter of conjectural emendation, which is necessary in places but has certainly been employed too freely by some editors. The first printed edition was that of Stephanus at Paris in 1551, since which time Justin has come into his own among the students of Christian literature.



Background and General

Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. XII, The Imperial Crisis and Recovery (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1939), especially Ch. 13, F. C. Burkitt, "Pagan Philosophy and the Christian Church"; Ch. 14, F. C. Burkitt, "The Christian Church in the East"; Ch. 15, H. Lietzmann, "The Christian Church in the West"; and bibliographies.

Dill, S., Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, 2d ed. London, 1905.

Dix, G., The Shape of the Liturgy, 2d ed., London, 1905, especially Chs. 3 and 5, "The Classical Shape of the Liturgy"; Ch. 6, "The Pre-Nicene Background of the Liturgy."

Glover, T. R., The Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire. London, 1909.

Nock, A. D., Conversion. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1933.

Puech, A., Les Apologistes grecs. Paris, 1912.

All Church histories and histories of doctrine deal with the Apologists. See especially the histories of doctrine by Harnack, McGiffert, and Tixeront, and

Harnack, A., The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries, tr. J. Moffatt, 2 vols. 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1908 (from 2d German ed., Berlin, 1905).

Lietzmann, H., The Founding of the Church Universal (The Beginnings of the Christian Church, Vol. II), tr. B. L. Woolf. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1938 (from German, Berlin, 1932).

Lebreton, J., and Zeiller, J., The History of the Primitive Church, tr. E. C. Messenger. 2 vols. (from French, Paris, 1934–1935).


Editions of the Works of Justin Martyr

Critical Editions of the Text:

Thirlby, S., London, 1722.

Maran, P., Paris, 1742 (the Benedictine edition, reprinted in Migne, Patrologia Graeca, Vol. VI. Paris, 1857).

Otto, J. C., Jena, 1842 (3d ed., 1876–1881).

Krüger, G., Leipzig, 1896 (3d ed., Tübingen, 1915).

Goodspeed, E. J., Göttingen, 1914 (in Die ältesten Apologeten).

Editions with Commentary:

Blunt, A. W. F., The Apologies of Justin Martyr (in Cambridge Patristic Texts). Cambridge, 1911.

Pfättisch, J. M., Justinus des Philosophen und Märtyrers Apologien. Munich, 1912.

Gildersleeve, B. L., The Apologies of Justin Martyr. New York, 1877.

The present translation is based on Krüger's text in Blunt's edition.

Translations of the Works of Justin Martyr


Reeves, W., The Apologies of Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Minucius Felix. London, 1709.

Dods, M., and Others, The Writings of Justin Martyr and Athenagoras (in Ante-Nicene Christian Library) (genuine and spurious works, and Acts). Edinburgh, 1867.

Williams, A. L., The Dialogue with Trypho. S.P.C.K., London, 1930.

Falls, T. B., Saint Justin Martyr (in The Fathers of the Church). Fathers of the Church Press, New York, 1948.


Pautigny, L., Justin, Apologies (with Greek text). Paris, 1904.

Archambault, G., Austin, Dialogue avec Tryphon (with Greek text and commentary), 2 vols. Paris, 1909.


Veil, H., Justins des Philosophs und Märtyrers Rechtfertigung des Christentums. Strassburg, 1904.

Rauschen, G., Die beiden Apologien Justins des Märtyrers (in Bibliothek der Kirchenväter). Kempten, 1913.

Some Studies of Justin

Goodenough, E. R., The Theology of Justin Martyr (with an elaborate bibliography). Jena, 1923.


Kaye, John, Some Account of the Writings and Opinions of Justin Martyr, London, 1829 (reprinted under various titles; as The First Apology of Justin Martyr, with Reeves's translation, Edinburgh, 1912).

Martindale, C. C., St. Justin the Martyr. London and New York, 1921.

Pellegrino, M., Studi su l’antica Apologetica. Edizioni di "Storia e letteratura," Rome, 1947.

Lagrange, M. J., Saint Justin, 3d ed. Paris, 1914.

Seeberg, E., Die Geschichtstheologie Justins des Märtyrers. Ph. D. thesis, Kiel, 1939.

Hubik, K., Die Apologien des hl. Justinus des Philosophen und Märtyrers. Vienna, 1912.

Pfättisch, J. M., Der Einfluss Platos auf die Theologie Justins des Märtyrers (in Forschungen zur christl. Literatur- und Dogmengeschichte 10. 1). Paderborn, 1910.

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