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TO THE GENTILL READAR, GRACE AND PEACE FROME GOD THE FATHER OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, WITH THE PERPETUALL ENCREASE OF THE HOLY SPREIT.1010This Preface is not contained in either of the editions by David Buchanan of the History printed in 1644.

It is not unknowen, Christeane Reader, that the same clud1111In MS. G, "cloude." of ignorance, that long hath darkened many realmes under this accurssed kingdome of that Romane Antichrist, hath also owercovered this poore Realme; that idolatrie1212In MS. I, "whairby idolatrie." hath bein manteined, the bloode of innocentis hath bene sched, and Christ Jesus his eternall treuth hath bene abhorred, detested, and blasphemed. But that same God that caused light to schyne out of darknes, in the multitud of his mercyes, hath of long tyme opened the eis1313In MS. G, "eyis." of some evin within this Realme, to see the vanitie of that which then was universally embrased for trew religioun; and hes gevin unto them strenth to oppone thame selfis unto the same: and now, into these our last and moist corrupt dayis, hath maid his treuth so to triumphe amonges us, that, in despyte of Sathan, hipochrisye is disclosed, and the trew wyrschipping of God is manifested to all the inhabitantis of this realme whose eis1414Ib. Sathan blyndis not, eyther by thair fylthy lustes, or ellis by ambitioun, and insatiable covetousnes, which maek them repung to the power of God working by his worde.

And becaus we ar not ignorant what diverse bruittis war dispersed of us, the professoures of Jesus Christ within this4 realme, in the begynnyng of our interprise, ordour was lackin, that all our proceidingis should be committed to register; as that thei war, by such as then paynfullie travailled1515In the MS. "trawalled." boith by toung and pen; and so was collected a just volume, (as after will appeir,) conteanyng thingis done frome the fyftie-awght1616That is, the year 1558. year of God, till the arrivall of the Quenis Majestie furth of France,1717Mary Queen of Scots arrived from France on the 19th of August 1561. with the which the Collectour and Writtar for that tyme was content, and never mynded further to have travailled in that kynd of writting.1818The author's original intention, as here stated, was, that the History should merely embrace the limited period from 1558 to 1561. That portion was probably revised and enlarged, to form Books Second and Third, when this introductory Book was added in 1566. But, after invocatioun of the name of God, and after consultatioun with some faythfull,1919This phrase was not uncommon: see page 10. But MS. I. makes it, "some faythfull brethrene, concerning that which was thought." what was thought by thame expedient to advance Goddis glorie, and to edifie this present generatioun, and the posteritie to come, it was concluded, that faythfull rehersall should be maid of such personages as God had maid instrumentis of his glorie, by opponyng of thame selfis to manifest abuses, superstitioun, and idolatrie; and, albeit thare be no great nomber, yet ar thei mo then the Collectour wold have looked for at the begynnyng, and thairfoir is the volume some what enlarged abuif his expectatioun: And yit, in the begynnyng, mon we crave of all the gentill Readaris, not to look of us such ane History as shall expresse all thingis that have occurred within this Realme, during the tyme of this terrible conflict that hes bene betuix the sanctes of God and these bloody wolves who clame to thame selves the titill of clargie, and to have authoritie ower the saules of men; for, with the Pollicey,2020That is, the Civil Policy. mynd we to meddill no further then it hath Religioun mixed with it. And thairfoir albeit that many thingis which wer don be omitted, yit, yf we invent no leys, we5 think our selves blamless in that behalf. Of one other [thing] we mon foirwarne the discreat Readaris, which is, that thei be not offended that the sempill treuth be spokin without partialitie; for seing that of men we neyther hunt for reward, nor yitt for vane2121In the MS. "wane." glorie, we litill pass by the approbatioun of such as seldome judge weill of God and of his workis. Lett not thairfoir the Readar wonder, albeit that our style vary and speik diverslie of men, according as thei have declared thame selves sometymes ennemyes and sometymes freindis, sometymes fervent, sometymes cold, sometymes constant, and sometymes changeable in the cause of God and of his holy religioun: for, in this our simplicitie, we suppoise that the Godlie shall espy our purpose, which is, that God may be praised for his mercy schawin, this present age may be admonished to be thankfull for Goddis benefittis offerred, and the posteritie to cum may be instructed how wonderouslie hath the light of Christ Jesus prevailled against darkness in this last and most corrupted age.

HISTORIÆ INITIUM.2222This title occurs as a marginal note in the MS.

In the Scrollis of Glasgw is found mentioun of one whais name is not expressed,2323In the MS. it was originally written "mentioun of one N.," the words, "whais name is not expressed," being afterwards added on the margin. The letter N., it may be observed, was an abbreviation of Non nemo, i.e. aliquis, or Somebody, a mode adopted from the Canon Law, when the name of a person was not ascertained. that, in the year of God 1422, was burnt for heresye;2424From the collation of David Buchanan's text, it will be seen that he has here inserted the words "One whose name was James Resby, an Englishman by birth, schollar to Wickliff: he was accused as a hereticke, by one Laurence Lindores," &c. Buchanan overlooks the circumstance that Resby suffered martyrdom at Perth, fifteen years before the person referred to by Knox. See Appendix, No. I., "Interpolations in Knox's History by David Buchanan."—In the Appendix, No. II., some notices will be given of Resby and other Lollards in Scotland, during the 15th century. bot what war his opinionis, or by what ordour he6 was condempned, it appearis not evidentlie. But our Cronikilles mack mentioun, that in the dayis of King James the First, about the year of God 1431, was deprehended in the Universitie of Sanctandrose, one named Paull Craw,2525Bower, the continuator of Fordun, calls him Paul Crawar, and fixes the date of his execution on the 23d of July 1433. (See Appendix No. II.) a Bohame,2626In MSS. G, A, &c., "a Bohemian." who was accused of heresye befoir such as then war called Doctouris of Theologie. His accusatioun consisted principallye, that he followed Johnne Husse and Wyckleif, in the opinioun of the sacrament, who denyed that the substance of braid and wyn war changed be vertew of any wourdis; or that confessioun should be maid to preastis; or yitt prayeris to sanctes departed. Whill that God geve unto him grace to resist thame, and not to consent to thair impietie, he was committed to the secular judge, (for our bischoppis follow Pilat, who boith did condempne, and also wesche2727In the MS. "wach." his handis,) who condempned him to the fyre; in the quhilk he was consumed in the said citie of Sanctandrose, about the time afoir writtin. And to declair thame selvis to be the generatioun of Sathan, who, from the begynnyng, hath bein ennemy to the treuth, and he that desyrith the same to be hyd frome the knowledge of men, thei putt a ball of brass in his mouth, to the end that he should nott geve confessioun of his fayth to the people, neyther yit that thei should understand the defence which he had against thair injust accusatioun and condemnatioun.

Bot that thair fatheris practise did nott greatlie advance thair kingdome of darknes, nether yit was it able utterlie to extingueise the trewth: For albeit, that in the dayis of Kingis7 James the Secund and Thrid, we fynd small questioun of religioun moved within this Realme, yit in the tyme of King James the Fourt, in the saxt year of his reigne, and in the twenty-twa yeir of his age, which was in the year of God 1494, war summoned befoir the King and his Great Counsell, by Robert Blackedar called Archebischope of Glasgw,2828Robert Blackader, on the 5th of June 1480, was styled Prebendary of Cardross, in the Cathedral Church of Glasgow, (Registrum Episcopatus Glasguenis, p. 443.) On the 23d of that month, he sat among the Lords of Council, as Bishop elect of Aberdeen, which seems to discredit the statement of Keith and other writers, of his having been consecrated at Rome by Pope Sixtus IV., upon the death of Bishop Spens. (Registrum Episcopatus Aberdonensis, Mr. Innes's Preface, page xlii. note.) Blackader, however, was much employed in public negotiations with England and other countries. He was translated to the See of Glasgow, previously to February 1484; and during his Episcopate, that See was erected into an Archbishopric. As stated in a following page, Blackader died on the 28th of July 1508. See page 12. the nomber of thretty personis, remanyng some in Kyle-Stewart, some in Kingis-Kyile, and some in Cunyghame;2929The shire of Ayr in former times was locally divided into the three districts of Carrick, Kyle, and Cunningham; and those districts are still retained, but without any political or judicial distinction. Kyle was the central district, between the rivers Doon and Irvine; and was subdivided into two sections, by the river Ayr, King's-Kyle lying on the south, and Kyle-Stewart on the north of the river.—(Chalmers's Caledonia, vol. iii. p. 446.) amonges whome,3030In the MS., a blank space had been left for these names, which were apparently added at a somewhat later period.—The escape of John Campbell of Cesnock at this time is taken notice of by Alexander Alesius in his Letter to James Fifth, see Appendix No. II. George Campbell of Sesnok, Adame Reid of Barskymming, Johne Campbell of New Mylnes, Andro Shaw of Polkemmate, Helen Chalmour Lady Pokillie,3131Mure of Polkellie, the title of Lady being given by courtesy.—From a detailed genealogical account of the family of Chalmers of Gadgirth in Ayrshire, inserted in the Appendix to Nisbet's Heraldry, vol. i., we find that John Chalmers, in a charter dated 1491, was styled son and heir of Sir John Chalmers of Galdgirth; and that one of his daughters, Margaret, was married to George Campbell of Cesnock; and another, Helen, to Robert Mure of Polkellie. A third daughter is mentioned in the following note. [Marion]3232The baptismal name of Lady Stair is left blank in the MS., and Calderwood, who copied from Knox, inserted the letter N., to indicate this; while David Buchanan supplied the name of Isabella. On the supposition that Knox himself had so written it, Professor Forbes, in noticing the Lord President Stair's descent from one of the Lollards of Kyle, says, "The Historian hath mistaken the Lady's name; for, by writings in the Earl of Stair's hand, it appears she was called Marion Chalmers, daughter to Mr. John Chalmers of Gadgirth, whose good family was very steady in the matters of religion."—(Journal of Decisions, &c., p. 29, Edinb. 1714, folio.)—On the other hand, in the pedigree of the Gadgirth family, in Nisbet, William Dalrymple of Stair is said to have married Isabella Chalmers. Chalmours Lady8 Stairs: These war called the Lolardis of Kyle. Thei war accused of the Articles following, as we have receaved thame furth of the Register3333This "Register," and "the Scrollis" referred to in the former page, were probably the Court-books of the Official of Glasgow, an office usually held by one of the Canons of the diocese. But no registers of the kind are known to be preserved. Glasgw.

i. First, That Images ar not to be had, nor yitt to be wirschepped.

ii. That the Reliques of Sanctes are not to be wirschepped.

iii. That Lawis and Ordinances of men vary frome tyme to tyme, and that by the Pape.

iv. That it is not lauchfull to feght, or to defend the fayth. (We translait according to the barbarousnes of thair Latine and dictament.3434The additions to Articles 4, 8, 9, 19, and 31, included within a parenthesis, are evidently comments by Knox.)

v. That Christ gave power to Petir onlie, and not to his successouris, to bynd and lowse within the Kyrk.

vi. That Christ ordeyned no Preastis to consecrat.

vii. That after the consecratioun in the Messe, thare remanes braid;3535In MSS. G, A, &c., "bread." and that thair is nott the naturall body of Christ.

viii. That teythes aught not to be given to Ecclesiasticall men, (as thei war then called.)

ix. That Christ at his cuming has tackin away power from Kingis to judge.3636That is, to judge in matters of divine worship. (This article we dowbt not to be the vennemouse accusatioun of the ennemyes, whose practise has ever bene to mack the doctrin of Jesus Christ suspect to Kingis9 and rewllaris, as that God thairby wold depose thame of thair royall seattis, whare by the contrair, nothing confermes the power of magistrates more then dois Goddis wourd.—But to the Articles.)

x. That everie faythfull man or woman is a preast.

xi. That the unctioun of Kingis ceassed at the cuming of Christ.

xii. That the Pape is not the successour of Petir, but whare he said, "Go behynd me, Sathan."

xiii. That the Pape deceavis the people by his Bulles and his Indulgenses.

xiv. That the Messe profiteth not the soules that ar in purgatorye.

xv. That the Pape and the bischoppis deceave the people by thare pardonis.

xvi. That Indulgenses aught not to be granted to feght against the Saracenes.

xvii. That the Pape exaltis him self against God, and abuf God.

xviii. That the Pape can nott remitt the panes of purgatorye.

xix. That the blessingis of the Bischoppis (of dum doggis thei should have bein stilled) ar of non valew.

xx. That the excommunicatioun of the Kirk is not to be feared.

xxi. That in to no case is it lauchfull to swear.

xxii. That Preastis mycht have wieffis, according to the constitutioun of the law.

xxiii. That trew Christianes receave the body of Jesus Christ everie day.

xxiv. That after matrimonye be contracted, the Kyrk may mack no divorcement.

xxv. That excommunicatioun byndis nott.

xxvi. That the Pape forgevis not synnes, bot only God.10

xxvii. That fayth should not be gevin to miracules.

xxviii. That we should not pray to the glorious Virgyn Marie, butt to God only.

xxix. That we ar na mair bound to pray in the Kirk then in other plaices.

xxx. That we ar nott bound to beleve all that the Doctouris of the Kyrk have writtin.

xxxi. That such as wirschep the Sacrament of the Kyrk (We suppoise thei ment the Sacrament of the altar) committis idolatrie.

xxxii. That the Pape is the head of the Kyrk of Antichrist.

xxxiii. That the Pape and his ministeris ar murtheraris.

xxxiv. That thei which ar called principallis in the Church, ar thevis and robbaris.

By these Articles,3737Vautroullier's suppressed edition of the History commences, on sign. B., page 17, with those three words. The previous sheet, or 16 pages, containing the title and preface, had no doubt been set up, but the sheet may have been either delayed at press till the volume was completed, or all the copies carried off and destroyed when the book was prohibited. which God of his mercyfull providence caused the ennemies of his trewth to keip in thare Registeris, may appeir how mercyfullie God hath looked upoun this Realme, reteanyng within it some sponk of his light, evin in the tyme of grettast darkness. Nether yit awght any man to wonder, albeit that some thingis be obscurly, and some thingis scabruslie spokin;3838In Vautr. edit., and MSS. G, A, &c., "doubtfully spoken." but rather awght all faythfull to magnifye Goddis mercy, who without publict doctrin gave so great light. And farther, we awght to considder, that seing that the ennemies of Jesus Christ gathered the foirsaid Articles, thairupoun to accuse the personis foirsaid, that thei wold deprave the meanyng of Goddis servandis so far as thei could; as we dowbt not bot thei have done, in the headis of Excommunicatioun, Swearing, and of Matrimonye. In the which it is no dowbt11 but the servandis of God did dampne the abuse only, and not the rycht ordinance of God; for who knowes not, that Excommunicatioun in these dayis was altogether abused! That Swearing abounded without punishment, or remorse of conscience! And that Divorsementis war maid for such causes as worldly men had invented!—But to our History.

Albeit that the accusatioun of the Bischop and his complices was verray grevouse, yitt God so assisted his servandis, partly be inclineing the Kingis hart to gentilness, (for diverse of thame war his great familiaris,) and partly by geving bold and godly answeris to thair accusatouris, that the ennemies in the end war frustrat of thair purpoise. For whill the Bischop, in mocking, said to Adam Reid of Barskemyng,3939In this place, the MS. has "Basqueming," and Vautroullier's edition makes it "Adam reade of blaspheming."—Adam Reid of Stair-White, or Barskyming, the representative of an ancient family in Ayrshire, probably accompanied James the Fourth, in his first voyage to the Western Isles, in July 1494. He obtained two charters, under the Great Seal, of the King's fortress of Ardcardane, and some lands near Tarbert, in North Kintyre, dated 15th September 1498, and 27th August 1499, in which he is designated "Adam Rede de Sterquhite." The service annexed to the first grant included the maintenance of six archers sufficiently provided with bows and arrows, upon occasion of the King's curbing the inhabitants of the Isles, who had long set the royal authority at defiance: "Neenon sustentando sex homines defensivos architenentes, cum arcubus et sagittis bene suffultos, ad serviendum Regi, et successoribus suis, in guerris si quas Reges in Insulis contra inhabitantes carundem habere contigerit, cum dictus Adam vel hæredes sui ad hoc requisitus fuerit." "Reid, Beleve ye that God is in heavin?" He answered, "Not as I do the Sacramentis sevin." Whairat the Bischop thinking to have triumphed, said, "Sir, Lo, he denyes that God is in heavin." Whairat the King wondering, said, "Adam Reid, what say ye?" The other answered, "Please your Grace to heir the end betuix the churle and me." And thairwith he turned to the Bischope, and said, "I nether think nor beleve, as thou thinkis, that God is in heavin; but I am most assured, that he is not only in the heavin, bot also in the earth. Bott thou12 and thy factioun declayre by your workis, that eyther ye think thair is no God at all, or ellis that he is so shett up4040For "shut up;" in Vautr. edit., and MSS. G, A, &c., "set up." in the heavin, that he regardis not what is done into the earth; for yf thou fermelie beleved that God war in the heavin, thou should not mack thy self chek-meat to the King, and altogether forgett the charge that Jesus Christ the Sone of God gave to his apostles, which was, to preach his Evangell, and not to play the proud prelatts, as all the rabill of yow do this day. And now, Sir, (said he to the King,) judge ye whither the Bischop or I beleve best that God is in heavin." Whill the Bischope and his band could not weill revenge thame selfis, and whill many tantis war gevin thame in thair teith, the King, willing to putt ane end to farther reassonyng, said to the said Adam Reid, "Will thou burne thy bill?" He answered, "Sir, the Bischope and ye will." With those and the lyik scoffis the Bischop and his band war so dashed out of countenance, that the greattest part of the accusatioun was turned to lawchter.

After that dyet, we fynd almoist no questioun for materis of religioun, the space ney of thretty yearis. For not long after, to witt in the year of God 1508,4141The erroneous date of 1500 occurs in the MS. and in all the subsequent copies; it is also repeated by Spotiswood. The actual time of his decease is thus recorded,—"Obitus Roberti Blacader primi Archiepiscopi Glasguensis, vigesimo octavo die Julij a.d. 1508."—(Regist. Episcop. Glasg., vol. ii. p. 616.) The place where Blackader died is not ascertained; but Bishop Lesley confirms Knox's statement, that he had set out on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. "Scotia discedit, paucis post diebus, Episcopus Glasgoensis, Robertus Blacaderus pio studio illa loca (quæ Christi vestigiis trita, aliisque humilitatis, virtutisque monumentis illustrata erant) invisendi flagrans Hierosolymitana profectione suscepta; sed mortis impetu præclusa, ad coelites in itinere migravit."—(De Rebus Gestis, &c., p. 349, Romæ, 1578, 4to.) In his English History, Lesley mentions this more briefly, "About this time, [5th of July 1508,] the Bishop of Glasgow, quha wes passit to Jerusalem, or he com to the end of his journay, deceissit the xxix [28th] day of July. He was ane noble, wyse, and godlie man."—(Hist. p. 78, Edinb. 1830, 4to.) the said Bischop Blackcater departed this lief, going in his superstitious devotioun to13 Hierusalem; unto whome succeided Mr. James Beatoun, sone to the Lard of Balfour, in Fyfe, who was moir cairfull for the world then he was to preach Christ, or yitt to advance any religioun, but for the fassioun only; and as he soght the warld, it fled him nott,4242The truth of this remark is very evident, as Beaton, along with his high civil and ecclesiastical appointments, held several great Church benefices. He was the youngest son of John Beaton of Balfour, and was educated at St. Andrew's. In 1487, the name "Ja. Betone" occurs among the Intrantes; in 1491, among the Determinantes; and in 1493, as a Licentiate, he took the degree of Master of Arts. In October 1497, Maister James Betoun was presented to the Chantry of Cathness, vacant by the decease of Mr. James Auchinleck.—(Bannatyne Miscellany, vol. ii. p. 162.) In 1503, he was Provost of the collegiate church of Bothwell, and Prior of Whithorn. In 1504, he was Abbot of Dunfermline, and a Lord of the Session. In the following year he succeeded his brother as Lord Treasurer. In 1508, he was raised to the See of Galloway; and within twelve months having been translated to Glasgow, as successor to Blackader, he resigned the office of Treasurer. In the Rolls of Parliament, 26th November 1513, the Archbishop of Glasgow appears as Chancellor of the kingdom; and he secured to himself the rich Abbacies of Arbroath and Kilwinning. On succeeding to the Primacy of S. Andrew's, in 1522, he resigned the commendatory of Arbroath in favour of his nephew David Beaton, with the reservation to himself of half its revenues during his life. In a letter to Cardinal Wolsey, Dr. Magnus the English Ambassador, on the 9th of January 1524-5, after referring to the Archbishop of St. Andrews, as "the gretteste man booth of landes and experience withyne this realme," speaks of Beaton as "nooted to be veraye subtill and dissymuling."—(State Papers, vol. iv. p. 286.) But with all his dignities and wealth, he experienced occasional reverses of fortune; and in 1526, upon a change in public affairs, he was deprived of the office of Lord Chancellor. He died in 1539. it was weill knowin that at onis he was Archbischop of Sanctandrosse, Abbot of Dumfermeling, Abirbroth, Kylwynnyng, and Chancellare of Scotland: for after the unhappy feild of Flowdoun,4343On the 9th of September 1513. the which perrished King James the Fourt, with the grettast parte of the nobilitie of the realme, the said Beatoun, with the rest of the Prelattis, had the haill regiment of the realme; and by reassone thairof, held and travailled to hold the treuth of God in thraldome and bondage, till that it pleased God of his great mercy, in the year of God 1527, to raise up his servand, Maister Patrik Hammyltoun, at whome our Hystorie doith begyn. Of whose14 progenye, lyif, and eruditioun, becaus men of fame and renune have in diverse workis writtin, we omitt all curiouse repetitioun, sending such as wald knaw farther of him then we write to Franciss Lambert,4444In the preface to Lambert's "Exegeseos in sanctam diui Ioannis Apocalypsim, Libri vii." The passage will be given in the Appendix, No. III. Johne Firth, and to that notable wark,4545This reference to the well known "Actes and Monumentes" of John Foxe, the English Martyrologist, has more than once been pointed out as an anachronism. Thus, Spottiswood asserts, that Foxe's work "came not to light [till] some ten or twelve years after Mr. Knox his death," (p. 267,) and concludes, that "the History given forth in his name was not of his inditing." But Knox's phrase, "laitlie sett furth," is quite applicable to the first publication of Foxe's Martyrology; as there is no reason to doubt that Knox wrote this portion of his History in 1566, and it is certain that Foxe's "Actes and Monumentes," &c., printed at London by John Daye, was completed in the beginning of 1564, in large folio. In this edition there is an account of Patrick Hamilton, which (with some other notices) will be given verbatim in the Appendix, No. III. Foxe's Martyrology was again printed by Daye, "newly recognized by the author," in 1570, 2 vols. folio; a third time in 1576; and a fourth (being probably the earliest edition of which Spottiswood had any knowledge) in 1583. laitlie sette furth be Johne Fox, Englisman, of the Lyvis and Deathis of Martyrs within this yle, in this our aige.

This servand of God, the said Maister Patrik, being in his youth providit to reassonable honouris and leving, (he was intitulat Abbot of Fern,4646Hamilton was merely titular Abbot of Ferne, and was not in holy orders. His predecessor, Andrew Stewart, was Bishop of Caithness, and Commendator of the two Abbeys of Kelso and Ferne. He died 17th June 1517; and the latter benefice was probably then conferred on Hamilton. Ferne is a parish in the eastern part of the shire of Ross. The Abbey was founded by Farquhard first Earl of Ross, in the reign of Alexander the Third. The Church, built or completed by William Earl of Ross, who died in 1371, was a handsome structure of about 120 feet in length, with chapels on the north and on the south sides. It continued to be used as the parish Church till Sunday the 10th of October 1742, when, during public service, the flagstone roof, and part of the side walls fell in, and killed 40 persons, besides others who died in consequence of the injuries they sustained.—(Scots Magazine, 1742, p. 485.) At a later period (1772), the centre part of the Church of Ferne, but reduced in its length, was repaired, with a new roof, and still serves as the parish Church. Unless for some ruined portions of the side chapels attached to the eastern end of the Church, which were suffered to remain, all marks of its venerable antiquity have now disappeared.) as one haiting the world and the15 vanitie thairof, left Scotland, and passed to the schoollis in Germany; for then the fame of the Universitie of Whittinberge was greatlie divulgat in all countreis, whare, by Goddis providence, he became familiare with these lyghtis and notable servandis of Christ Jesus of that tyme, Martyne Luther, Philipp Melanthon, and the said Franciss Lambert,4747It was at Marburg, the capital of Upper Hesse, and not at Wittemberg, where Lambert was professor. and did so grow and advance in godly knowledge, joyned with fervencie and integretie of lyiff, that he was in admiratioun with many. The zeall of Goddis glorie did so eat him up, that he could of no long continuance remane thair, bot returned to his countrie, whair the brycht beames of the trew light which by Goddis grace was planted in his harte, began most aboundantlie to burst furth, also weall in publict as in secreat: For he was, besydis his godlie knowledge, weill learned in philosophie: he abhorred sophistrye, and wold that the text of Aristotelis should have bene better understand and more used in the schoolles then than it was; for sophistrie had corrupted all asweil in divinitie as in humanitie. In schort proces of tyme, the fame of his reasonis and doctrin trubled the Clargye, and came to the earis of Bischope James Beatoun, of whome befoir we have maid mentioun, who being ane conjured ennemye to Christ Jesus, and one that long had had the whole regiment of this realme, bare impatientlie that any truble should be maid to that kingdome of darknes, whairof within this realme he was the head. And, thairfoir, he so travailled4848In the MS. "trawailled." The letters w and v are used indiscriminately by Knox's amanuensis. with the said Maister Patrik, that he gat him to Sanctandrosse, whair, eftir the conference of diverse dayis, he had his freedome and libertie. The said Bischop and his blooddy bucheouris, called Doctouris, seamed to approve his doctryne, and to grant that many thingis craved reformatioun in the Ecclesiastical regiment. And amanges the rest, thair was ane that secreatlie16 consented with him almest in all thingis, named Frear Alexander Campbell, a man of good wytt and learnyng, butt yitt corrupt by the warld, as aftir we will hear. When the bischoppis and the clergye had fully understand the mynd and judgement of the said Maistir Patrik, and fearing that by him thair kingdome should be endomaged, thei travailled with the King, who then was young, and altogitther addict to thair commandiment, that he should pass in pilgramaige to Sanct Dothess in Rosse,4949This statement, we presume, is incorrect, as there is no evidence to show that James the Fifth visited the Shrine of St. Duthac at this time. Lesley speaks of the King dealing with Hamilton, which implies at least a knowledge of his accusation, "adhortante Rege ipso."—(De Rebus Gestis, &c., p. 427.) The chapel of St. Duthac, Bishop of Ross, now in ruins, is situated about half a mile to the north-east of the town of Tain. In the Appendix No. IV. will be given various extracts from the Treasurer's Accounts relating to the frequent pilgrimages which James the Fourth made to this Shrine, as illustrative of a superstitious custom of that period. to the end that no intercessioun should be maid for the life5050In the MS. "lief." of the innocent servant of God, who suspecting no such crueltie as in thair hartes was concluded, remaned still, (a lambe amonges the wolfis,) till that upoun a nycht hie was intercepted in his chalmer, and by the bischoppes band was caryed to the Castell, whare that nycht he was keapt; and upoun the morne, produccid in judgement, he was condampned to dye by fyre for the testimonye of Goddis trewth. The Articles for the which he suffered war bot of Pilgramage, Purgatorye, Prayer to Sanctes, and for the Dead, and such trifilles; albeit that materis of grettar importance had bein in questioun, as his Treatise,5151See page 19. which in the end we have added, may witness. Now that the condempnatioun of the said Mr. Patrik should have greattar authoritie, thei caused the same to be subscrived by all those of any estimatioun that with tham war present, and to mack thair nomber great, thei tuck the subscriptionis of childrin, yf thei war of the nobilitie; for the Erle of Cassilles, which last decessed in France,5252Gilbert Kennedy third Earl of Cassilis. He was probably only at St. Andrews for one session; as his name does not occur in the Registers of the University. In 1532, he was at Paris, pursuing his studies under George Buchanan, who dedicated to him his first edition of Linacre's Latin Grammar. Lord Cassilis was one of the prisoners taken at Solway Moss in 1542. As Knox afterwards mentions, he died at Dieppe in 1558. then being bot twelf or thret17tein yearis of age, was compelled to subscrive his death, as him self did confesse. Immediatlie after dennar, the fyre was prepaired befoir the Ald Colledge,5353The University of St. Andrews, founded by Bishop Wardlaw in the year 1410, was confirmed by Papal authority in 1413. Its endowments, however, continued to be very limited, until St. Salvator's College was erected and endowed in 1456 by James Kennedy, his successor in the See. At this time it received the name of the Old College, to distinguish it from that of St. Leonard's College, created in 1512, and St. Mary's, in 1537. and he led to the place of executioun. And yitt men suppoised that all was done but to geve unto him ane terrour, and to have caused him to have recanted, and have become recreant to those bloody beastis. But God, for his awin glorie, for the comforte of his servand, and for manifestatioun of thare beastly tyranny, had otherwiese decreed; for he so strenthened his faythfull witnes, that nether the luif of lyif, nor yitt the fear of that cruell death, could move him a joit to swarve from the trewth ones professed. At the plaice of executioun he gave to his servand, who had bene chalmer-child to him of a long tyme, his gown, his coit, bonet, and such lych garments, saying, "These will nott proffeit in the fyre; thei will proffeit thee: Aftir this, of me thow cane receave no commoditie, except the example of my death, which, I pray thee, bear in mynd; for albeit it be bitter to the flesche, and feirfull befoir men, yet is it the entress unto eternall lyif, quhilk non shall possesse that denyis Christ Jesus befoir this wicked generatioun."

The innocent servand of God being bound to the staik in the myddest of some coallis, some tymmer, and other mater appointed for the fyre, a trane of powder was maid and sett a fyre, quhilk gave to the blessed martyre of God a glaise, skrimpled5454In Vautr. edit., and MSS. G, A, &c., "scorched." his left hand, and that syd of his face, but nether18 kendilled the wood, nor yett the coallis.5555Lindesay of Pitscottie, (circa 1575,) in his detailed account of Hamilton's condemnation, after narrating the Martyr's last speeches, and his solemn appeal to Campbell, proceeds,—"Then they laid to the fire to him; but it would no ways burn nor kindle a long while. Then a baxtar, called Myrtoun, ran and brought his arms full of straw, and cast it in to kindle the fire: but there came such a blast of wind from the East forth of the sea, and raised the fire so vehemently, that it blew upon the Frier that accused him, that it dang him to the earth, and brunt all the fore part of his coul; and put him in such a fray, that he never came to his right spirits again, but wandered about the space of forty days, and then departed."—(Edit. 1728, p. 134; edit. 1776, p. 209.) Pitscottie gives the false date of September 1525. This writer indeed is often very inaccurate in names and dates; but his details were evidently derived from some contemporary authority. And so remaned the appointed to death in torment, till that men rane to the Castell agane for moir poulder, and for wood more able to tack fyre; which at last being kendilled, with lowd voce he cryed, "Lord Jesus, receave my spreit! How long shall darknes owerquhelme this realme? And how long will thow suffer this tyranny of men?"—The fyre was slow, and thairfoir was his torment the more. Bott moist of all was he greved by certane wicked men, amongis whome Campbell the Blak Freir (of whome we spak befoir5656Foxe, and other authorities, state that Campbell was Prior of the Dominican or Blackfriars Monastery, St. Andrews.) was principall, who continuallie cryed, "Convert, heretick: call upoun our Lady: say Salve Regina," etc. To whome he answered, "Departe, and truble me not, ye messingeris of Sathan." Bott whill that the foirsaid Freir still roared one thing in great vehemency, he said unto him, "Wicked man, thou knawis the contrair, and the contrair to me thou hast confessed: I appeall thee befoir the tribunall seatt of Jesus Christ!" After which and other wordis, which weall could nott be understand nor marked, bayth for the tumult, and vehemencye of the fyre, the witness of Jesus Christ gat victorie, after long sufferance, the last of Februar, in the zeir of God Jm. Ve. twenty and sevin zearis.5757According to modern computation, the year 1528. The said Freir departed this lyif within few dayis after, in what estait19 we referr to the manifestatioun of the generall day. But it was plainlie knawin that he dyed, in Glaskow, in a phrenesye, and as one dispared.5858Foxe, in republishing his "Actes and Monumentes," among other additions, has the following paragraph:—"But to return to the matter of Master Hamelton; here is, moreover, to be observed, as a note worthy of memory, that in the year of our Lord 1564, in which year this present History was collected in Scotland, there were certain faithful men of credit then alive, who being present the same time when Master Patrick Hamelton was in the fire, heard him to cite and appeal the Black Friar called Campbell, that accused him, to appear before the high God, as general Judge of all men, to answer to the innocency of his death, and whether his accusation was just or not, between that and a certain day of the next month, which he then named. Moreover, by the same witness it is testified, that the said Friar had immediately before the said day come, without remorse of conscience, that he had persecuted the innocent; by the example whereof divers of the people, the same time much mused, and firmly believed the doctrine of the aforesaid Master Hamelton to be good and just."—(Third edit. p. 650, Lond. 1576, folio.)

Now that all men may understand what was the singular eruditioun and godly knowledge of the said Mr. Patrik, we have inserted this his litill pithie werk, conteanyng his Assertionis and Determinationis concernyng the Law, the Office of the same, concernyng Fayth, and the fruittis5959In Vautr. edit. "true fruites;" in MSS. G, &c., "trow fruittis." thairof; first, be the foirsaid Maister Patrik collected in Latine, and after translated in Inglisch.

[A Brief Treatise of Mr. Patrike Hamelton, called Patrike's Places, translated into English by John Frith; with whe Epistle of the sayd Frith prefixed before the same, as followeth.6060The above title, and Fryth's preface are not contained in Knox's MS., but are inserted from Foxe's Martyrology, p. 949, 3d edit., Lond. 1576.

John Frith unto the Christian Reader.

Blessed be God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which in these last dayes and perillous tymes, hath styrred up in all countreys, witnesses unto his Sonne, to testifye the truth unto the unfaythfull, to save at the least some from the snares of20 Antichrist, which leade to perdition, as ye may here perceave by that excellent and well learned young man Patrike Hamelton, borne in Scotland of a noble progeny; who to testifie the truth, sought all meanes, and tooke upon him Priesthode, (even as Paule circumcised Timothy, to wynne the weake Jewes,) that he might be admitted to preache the pure word of God. Notwithstandyng, as soone as the Chamberleyne [Chancellor 6161This evidently refers to Archbishop Beaton; but he had previously been deprived of the Chancellorship: See note 42] and other Byshops of Scotland had perceaved that the light began to shyne, which disclosed their falsehode that they conveyed in darkenes, they layde handes on hym, and because he wold not deny his Saviour Christ at their instance, they burnt him to ashes. Nevertheles, God of his bounteous mercy (to publishe to the whole world what a man these monsters have murthered) hath reserved a little Treatise, made by this Patrike,6262Hamilton's treatise was probably printed as an academical dissertation, whilst he was at Marburg, in 1526. It in uncertain whether Fryth's translation was published during his own life. There are at least three early editions, with this title, "Dyvers frutefull gatherynges of Scripture: And declaryng of fayth and workes." One was printed at London by Thomas Godfray, and two others by William Copland, each of them without a date, but probably before 1540.—(Dibdin's Typogr. Antiq., vol. iii. pp. 71, 161, 162.) In 1562-3, Michael Lobley, a printer in St. Paul's Churchyard, had license to print "The Sermonde in the Wall, thereunto annexed, The Common Place of Patryk Hamylton."—(ib., p. 540.) Foxe's copy of this Treatise differs from the present in a number of minute particulars, which would occupy too much space to point out. which, if ye lyst, ye may call Patrik's Places: For it treateth exactly of certaine Common Places, which knowen, ye have the pith of all Divinitie. This Treatise have I turned into the English toung, to the profite of my natioun; to whom I besech God to geve lyght, that they may espye the deceitfull pathes of perdition, and returne to the right way which leadeth to lyfe everlastyng.6363John Fryth, as the reward of his zeal in the cause of religion, was confined to the Tower, in 1532, and was brought to the stake, at Smithfield, on the 4th of July 1533.—(See the Rev. Chr. Anderson's Annals of the English Bible, vol. i. pp. 339-377.) Amen.]

[The Doctrine] of the Law.


The Law is a doctrine that biddeth good, and forbiddeth evill, as the Commandimentis heir contenit do specifie:

The Ten Commandimentis.

1. Thow shalt worschepp but one God. 2. Thow shalt maik thee nane image to worschipp it. 3. Thow shalt not sweare be his name in vane. 4. Hold the Sabbath day holy. 5. Honour thie father and mother. 6. Thow shalt not kill. 7. Thow shalt not committ adulterie. 8. Thow shalt nott steall. 9. Thow shalt bear no fals witness. 10. Thow shalt not desyre owght that belongeth unto thie nychtboure.

[All these Commandments are briefly comprised in these two here under ensuing]:—"Love the Lord thy God with all thyne harte, wyth all thy saule, and with all thy mynd." (Deut. 6.)—"This is the first and great commandiment. The secund is lyik unto this, Love thy nychtbour as thy selve. On these two commandimentis hang all the Law and the Propheittis." (Matth. 12.)

[CERTAINE GENERALL PROPOSITIONS PROVED BY THE SCRIPTURE.]6464This title, with the numbers of the Propositions, and the words included within brackets, are supplied from Foxe. Also a few trifling corrections in the orthography.

I. He that loveth God, loveth his nychtbour.6565These Propositions are put in a syllogistic form; but the terms Major, Minor, and Conclusion, marked on the margin of Foxe's copy, except in one or two instances at the beginning, are not contained in Knox's MS. Such as are marked, being incorrectly given by his transcriber, as well as in Vautr. edit., are here omitted.—"If anie man say, I love God, and yit hattith his nychtbour, he is a lyer: He that lovith not his brother whome he hath sene, how can he love God whome he hath nott sein." (1 Joan. 4.)

II. He that lovith his nychtbour as him self, keapeth the whole commandimentis of God.—"Quhatsoever ye wald that men should do unto yow, evin so do unto thame: for this is22 the law and the propheittis." (Matth. 7.)—He that loveth his nychtbour fulfilleth the law. "Thow shalt not committ adulterie: Thow shalt not kyll: Thow shalt not steall: Thow shalt not bear fals witnesse against thy nychtbour: Thow shalt not desyre; and so furth: And yf thair be any uther commandiment, all ar comprehendit under this saying, Love thy nychtbour as thy self." (Rom. 13; Gallat. 5.)

"He that loveth his nychtbour, kepith all the commandimentis of God." "He that loveth God, loveth his nychtboure." (Roma. 13; 1 Joan. 4.)—Ergo, he that loveth God, kepith all his commandimentis.

III. He that hath the faith, loveth God.—"My father loveth yow, becaus ye luif me, and beleve that I came of God." (Joan. 19.)—He that hath the faith, keapith all the commandimentis of God. He that hath the faith, loveth God; and he that loveth God, keapith all the commandimentis of God.—Ergo, he that hath faith, keapith all the commandimentis of God.

IV. He that keapeth one commandiment, keapeth thame all.—"For without fayth it is impossible to keap any of the commandimentis of God."—And he that hath the fayth, keapeth all the commandimentis of God.—Ergo, he that keapith one commandiment of God, keapith thame all.

V. He that keapith nott all the commandimentis of God, he keapith nane of thame.—He that keapith one of the commandimentis, he keapith all.—Ergo, he that keapith not all the commandimentis, he keapith nane of thame.

VI. It is not in our power, without grace, to keap anie of Goddis commandimentis.—Without grace it is impossible to keap ane of Goddis commandimentis; and grace is not in our power.—Ergo, it is not in our power to keap any of the commandimentis of God.

Evin so may ye reassone concerning the Holy Ghost, and fayth.23

VII. The law was gevin to schaw us our synne.—"Be the law cumith the knowledge of the synne. I knew not what synne meant, bot throw the law. I knew not what lust had ment, except the law had said, Thow shalt not lust. Without the law, synne was dead:" that is, It moved me nott, nether wist I that it was synne, which notwithstanding was synne, and forbidden be the law.

VIII. The law biddith us do that which is impossible for us.—For it biddith us keape all the commandimentis of God: yitt it is not in oure power to keape any of thame.—Ergo, it biddeth us doo that which is impossible for us.

Thow wilt say, "Whairfoir doith God command us that which is impossible for us." I ansuere, "To mack thee know that thow arte bot evill, and that thair is no remeady to save thee in thine awin hand, and that thow mayest seak reamedy at some uther; for the law doith nothing butt command thee."

[The Doctrine] of the Gospell.

The Gospell, is as moche to say, in oure tong, as Good
Tydingis: lyk as everie one of these sentences be—

Christ is the Saviour of the world.

Christ is our Saviour.

Christ deid for us.

Christ deid for our synnes.

Christ offerred him selve for us.

Christ bare our synnes upoun his back.

Christ bought us with his blood.

Christ woushe us with his blood.

Christ came in the warld to save synnaris.

Christ came in the warld to tak away our synnes.

Christ was the price that was gevin for us and for our synnes.

Christ was maid dettour for our synnes.

Christ hath payed our debt, for he deid for us.

24Christ hath maid satisfactioun for us and for our synne.

Christ is our rychteousness.

Christ is oure wisdome.

Christ is our sanctifcatioun.

Christ is our redemptioun.

Christ is our satisfactioun.

Christ is our goodness.

Christ hath pacifeid the Father of Heavin.

Christ is ouris, and all his.

Christ hath delivered us frome the law, frome the devill, and hell.

The Father of Heavin hath forgevin us for Christis saik.
Or anie such other, as declair unto us the mercyes of God.

the nature [and office] of the law, and of the gospell.

The Law schawith us,
Our synne.
Our condemnatioun,
Is the word of ire.
Is the word of dispair.
Is the word of displeasure.

The Gospell schawith us,
A reamedy for it.
Oure redemptioun,
Is the word of grace.
Is the word of conforte.
Is the word of peace.

a disputatioun betuix the law and the gospell.

The Law sayith,
Paye thy debt,
Thow art a synnar desparat.
And thow shalt die.
The Gospell sayith,
Christ hath payed it.
Thy synnes ar forgevin thee.
Be of good conforte, thow shalt be saved.

The Law sayith,
Mack a mendis for thy synne.
The Father of Heaven is wraith wyth thee.
Quhair is thy rychteousnes, goodnes, and satisfactioun?
Thou art bound and obligat unto me, [to] the devill, and [to] hell.

The Gospell sayith,
Christ hath maid it for thee.
Christ hath pacefeid him with his blood.
Christ is thy rychteousnes, thy goodnes, and satisfactioun
Christ hath delivered thee from thame all.

[The Doctrine] off Faith.

Faith is to beleve God; "lyck as Abraham beleved God, and it was compted unto him for rychteousnes." (Gen. 15.)—"He that beleved God, beleved his word." (Joan. 5.)—To beleve in him, is to beleve his word, and accompt it trew that he speikith. He that belevith not Goddis word, beleveth not him self. He that belevith nott Goddis word, he compteth him fals, and ane lyar, and beleveth not that he may and will fulfill his word; and so he denyeth both the myght of God and him self.

IX. Faith is the gift of God.—"Everie good thing is the gift of God." (Jacob. 1.)—Fayth is good.—Ergo, faith is the gift of God.

X. [Faith is not in our power.]—The gift of God is not in oure power.—"Faith is the gift of God."—Ergo, fayth is not in oure power.

XI. [He that lacketh faith cannot please God.]—"Without26 faith it is impossible to please God." (Hebr. 11.)—All that cummith nott of fayth, is synne; for without faith can no man please God.—Besydis, that he that lacketh faith, he trusteth nott God. He that trusteth not God, trusteth nott in his wourd. He that trusteth not in his wourd, hauldeth him self fals, and a liear. He that haldeth him self false and a lyer, he belevith not that he may doo that he promeseth, and so denyeth he that he is God. And how can a man, being of this fassioun, please him? No maner of way. Yea, suppoise he did all the werkis of man and angell.

XII. All that is done in fayth, pleaseth God.—"Richt is the wourde of God, and all his werkis in faith." "Lord, thine eis look to faith." That is asmuch to saye as, Lord, thow delitest in fayth. God loveth him that belevith in him. How cane thei then displease him?

XIII. He that hath the faith, is just and good.—And a good trie bringeth furth good fruite.—Ergo, all that is in faith done pleaseth God.

XIV. [He that hath faith, and believeth God, cannot displease him.]—Moreovir, he that hath the faith belevith God.—He that belevith God, belevith his worde. He that belevith his word, woteth weall that he is trew and faithfull, and may nott lie: But knowith weall that he may and will boith fulfill his word. How can he then displease him? For thow canst not do ane greattar honor unto God, then to count him trew. Thow wilt then say, that thift, murther, adulterie, and all vices, please God? Nane, verrelie; for thei can not be done in faith: "for a good tree beareth good frute." He that hath the faith, woteth weall that he pleaseth God; for all that is done in fayth pleaseth God. (Hebr. 11.)

XV. Faith is a suirness.—"Faith is a suir confidence of thingis quhilk ar hoped for, and a certantie of thinges which ar not sene." (Hebr. 11.)—"The same spreit certifieth our spreit that we are the children of God." (Rom. 8.)—Moirovir,27 he that hath the faith, woteth weill that God will fulfill his word.—Ergo, fayth is a suirness.

a man is justifeid be faith.

"Abraham beleveth God, and it was impueted unto him for ryghteousnes." "We suppose thirfoir that a man is justified (saith the Apostill) without the workis of law." (Rom. 4.)—"He that workith not, but belevith in him that justifieth the ungodlie, his faith is compted unto him for ryghteousnes." "The just man levith by faith." (Abac. 2; Rom. 1.)—"We wote, that a man that is justifeid, is not justifeid be the workis of the law, but be the faith of Jesus Christ, and not by the deadis of the law."

of the faith of christ

The faith of Christ is, to beleve in him; that is, to beleve his wourd, and to beleve that he will helpe thee in all thy neid, and deliver thee frome evill. Thow wilt ask me, What word? I answer, The Gospell. "He that beleveth on Christ shalbe saved." "He that belevith the Sone hath eternall lyif." "Verrelie, verrelie, I say unto yow, he that belevith on me hath everlasting lyif." (Joan. 6.)—"This I wret unto yow, that beleving in the name of the Sone of God, ye may know that ye have eternall lyif." (1 Joan. 5.)—"Thomas, becaus thow hast sein me thow belevest; but happie ar thei that have nott sein, and yit beleve in me." "All the Propheittis to him bare witness, that whosoevir belevith in him shall have remissioun of thair synnes." (Act. 10.)—"What must I do that I may be saved?" The Apostill answerid, "Beleve in the Lord Jesus Christ, and thow shalt be saved." "Yf thow acknowledge wyth the mouth, that Jesus is the Lord, and beleve in thyn harte that God raissed him up from the death, thow shalt be save." (Rom. 10.)—"He that beleveth not in Christ shalbe condemned." "He that beleveth nott the Sone28 shall never see lyif; but the ire of God abydith upoun him." (Joan. 3.)—"The Holy Ghost shall reprove the world of synne, becaus thei beleve not in me." "Thei that beleve in Jesus Christ ar the sones of God." Ye ar all the sones of God, because ye beleve in Jesus Christ.

He that belevith in Christ the Sone of God is save. (Galat. 3.)—"Petir said, Thow art Christ, the Sone of the leving God. Jesus ansuered and said unto him, Happie arte thow, Symon, the sone of Jonas; for flesch and blood hath nott oppened unto thee that, bot my Father which is in heavin." (Matth. 16.)—"We have beloved and knowin that thow arte Christ the Sone of the leving God." "I beleve that thow arte Christ the Sone of the leving God, which should come into the warld." "These thingis ar written that ye mycht beleve that Jesus Christ is the Sone of God, and that in beleving ye mycht have lyef. I beleve that Jesus is the Sone of the leving God." (Joan. 9.)

XVI. He that belevith God, belevith the Gospell.—He that belevith God, belevith his Word:—And the Gospell is his Word. Thairfoir he that belevith God, belevith his Gospell. As Christ is the Saviour of the world, Christ is our Saviour. Christ bought us with his bloode. Christ woushe us with his blood. Christ offerred him self for us. Christ baire oure synnes upoun his back.

XVII. He that belevith nott the Gospell, belevith not God.—He that belevith not Goddis Word belevith nott him self:—And the Gospell is Goddis Word.—Ergo, he that belevith nott the Gospell belevith nott God him self; and consequentlie thei that beleve nott as is above written, and such other, beleve not God.

XVIII. He that belevith the Gospell, shalbe saved.—"Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospell unto everie creature: he that belevith and is baptised shalbe saved; bot he that belevith not shalbe condemned."29

a comparison betuix faith and indredulitie.

Faith is the root of all good:—
Makith God and man freindis.
Bringith God and man to gither.

Incredulitie is the root of all evill:—
Makith thame deidlie foes.
Bringith thame syndrie.

All that proceidis frome Faith pleaseth God.
All that proceidith from Incredulitie displeaseth God.

Faith only maketh a man good and rychteouse.
Incredulitie maketh him injust and evill.

Faith only maketh a man,
The member of Christ;
The inheritour of heavin;
The servand of God.
Faith schewith God to be a sweit Father.
Fayth hauldith styff be the Word of God: Countith God to be trew.
Faith knowith God: Lovith God and his nychtboure.
Faith only savith: Extolleth God and his werkis.

Incredulitie maketh him,
The member of the devill;
The inheritour of hell;
The servand of the devill.
Incredulitie maketh God a terrible Judge: It causeth man wandir heir and
thair: Maketh him fals and a liear.
Incredulitie knoweth him nott.
Incredulitie lovith nether God nor nychtbour: Onlie condemneth:
Extolleth flesche and hir awin deidis.30

off hope.

Hope is a trustie looking for of thingis that ar promesed to come unto us: as we hope the everlasting joy which Christ hath promesed unto all that beleve on him. We should putt our hoipe and trust in God onlie, and no other thing. "It is good to trust in God, and nott in man." "He that trustith in his awin harte, he is a fuill." "It is good to trust in God, and not in princes." (Psal. 117.)—"Thei shal be lyik unto images that mack thame, and all that trust in thame." He that trusteth in his awin thoughts doeth ungodlie. "Curssed be he that trustith in man." "Bidd the rich men of this warld, that thei trust nott in thair unstable riches, but that thei trust in the leving God." "It is hard for them that trust in money to enter in the kingdome of God." Moirovir, we should trust in him onelie, that may help us [God onlie can help us.]—Ergo, we should trust in him onelie. Weill is thame that trust in God: and wo to thame that trust him nott. "Weill is the man that trustis in God; for God shalbe his trust." He that trusteth in him shall understand the trewth. "Thei shall all rejoyse that trust in thee: thei shall all evir be glaid; and thow wilt defend thame."

off charitie.

Charitie is the love of thy nychtboure. The rewll of charitie is to doo as thow woldest wer done unto thee: for charitie esteameth all alyke;6666In Vautr. edit. and MSS. E, A, and I, is this marginal note—"This is to be understood of circumstance of worldlie men, and not of them of God; for the neirer that men draw to God, we ar bound the more to love them." Also a similar note to page 24, Prop. IV., "Christ is the ende and fulfillinge of the lawe to everie one that beleveth." the riche and the poore; the friend and the foe; the thankfull and the unthankfull; the kynnesman and stranger.

a comparison betuix faith, hope, and charitie.


Faith commeth of the wourd of God: Hope commeth of
faith; and Charitie springis of thame boith.

Faith belevis the word: Hope trustith eftir that which is
promessed be the wourd: and Charitie doith good unto hir
nychtbour, throw the love that sche hath to God, and glaidnes
that is within hir selve.

Faith looketh to God and his worde: Hope lookith unto
his gift and reward: Charitie lookith unto hir nychtbouris

Faith receavith God: Hoipe receaveth his reward: Charitie
lookith to hir nychtbour wyth a glaid hart, and that without
any respect of reward.

Faith perteaneth to God onelie: Hope to his reward, and
Charitie to hir nychtbour.

[The Doctrine] of Good Workis.

No maner of werkis mack us rychteouse.—"We beleve that a man shalbe justifeid without werkis." (Galat. 3.)—"No man is justifeid be the deidis of the law; but be the faith of Jesus Christ. And we beleve in Jesus Christ, that we may be justifeid be the faith of Christ, and nott be the deidis of the law. Yf rychteousnes came be the law, then Christ deid in vane." That no man is justifeid be the law, it is manifest: for a rychteouse man levith by his faith; but the law is nott of faith. Moirovir, since Christ, the makar of heavin and earth, and all that thair in is, behoved to die for us; we ar compelled to grant, that we wer so far drowned in synne, that nether our deidis, nor all the treasouris that ever God maid, or might maik, might have help us out of thame: Ergo, no deidis nor werkis maie mack us rychteouse.

No werkis mak us unrychteouse.—For yf any werke maid us unrychteouse, then the contrarie werkis wold maik us32 rychteouse. Butt it is provin, that no werkis can maik us righteouse: Ergo, no werkis maik us unrychteouse.

werkis maik us nether good nor evill.

It is proven, that werkis nether maik us rychteouse nor unrychteouse: Ergo, no werkis nether maik us good nor evill. For rychteouse and good ar one thing, and unrighteouse and evill, one. Good werkis maik not ane good man, nor evill werkis ane evill man: But a good man makith good werkis, and ane evill man evill werkis. Good fruct makith not the tree good, nor evill fruict the tree evill: But a good tree bearith good fruict, and ane evill tree evill fruict. A good man can not do evill werkis, nor ane evill man good werkis; for ane evill tree can not beare good fruct, nor ane good tree evill fruct. A man is good befoir he do good werkis, and ane evill man is evill before he do evill werkis; for the tree is good befoir it bear good fruict, and evill befoir it beir evill fruct. Everie man is either good or evill. Either maik the tree good, and the fruct good also, or ellis maik the tree evill, and the fruct lyikwyise evill. Everie manes werkis ar eyther good or evill: for all fructis ar either good or evill. "Either maik the tree good and the fruct also, or ellis maik the tree evill and the fruct of it lyikwyise evill." (Matth. 13.)—A good man is knowin be his werkis; for a good man doith good werkis, and ane evill, evill werkis. "Ye shall knaw thame be thair fruct; for ane good tree bringeth furth good fruct, and ane evill tree evill fruict." (Matth. 7.)—A man is likened to the tree, and his werkis to the fruct of the trie. "Bewar of the fals propheittis, which come unto yow in scheippis clothing; but inwardlie thei ar raveening wolves. Ye shall knaw thame be thair fructis."

none of oure werkis nether save us, nor condempne us.

It is provin, that no werkis maik us either righteouse or33 unryghteouse, good nor evill: but first we are good befoir that we do good werkis, and evill befoir we do evill warkis: Ergo, no werk neither save us nor condempne us. Thow wilt say then, Makith it no mater what we do? I answer thee, Yes; for yf thow dost evill, it is a suir argument that thow art evill, and wantest faith. Yf thow do good, it is ane argument that thow art good and hast faith; for a good tree bearith good fruct, and an evill tree evill fruct. Yit good fruct maketh nott the tree good, nor evill fruct the tree evill. So that man is good befoir he do good werkis, and evill befoir he do evill werkis.

The man is the tree: the werkis ar the fruct. Faith maekith the good tree: Incredulitie the evill tree. Such a tree, such a fruct: such man, such warkis. For all that is done in faith pleasith God, and ar gud werkis; and all that is done without faith displeaseth God, and ar evill workis. Quhosoevir thinketh to be saved by his werkis, denyeth Christ is oure Saviour, that Christ deid for him, and, fynallie, all thing that belongeth to Christ. For how is he thy Saviour, yf thow mychtest save thy self by thy werkis? Or to what end should he have deid for thee, yf any werkis of thine might have saved thee? What is this to say, Christ deid for thee? It is nott that thow shouldest have deid perpetuallie, and that Christ, to deliver thee frome death, deid for thee, and changed thy perpetuall death in his awin death. For thow madest the falt, and he suffered the pane, and that for the luif he had to thee, befoir ever thow wast borne, when thow haddest done neither good nor evill. Now, since he hath payed thy debt, thow deist nott: no, thow canst nott, bot shouldest have bene damned, yf his death war not.6767Foxe has given this sentence more correctly:—"Now, seying he hath payed thy dette, thou needest, neither canst thou pay it, but shouldest bee damned, if hys bloud were not." Bot since he was punished for thee, thow shalt not be punished. Fynallie, he hath delivered34 thee from thye condemnatioun, and desyrith nought of thee, but that thow shouldest acknowledge what he hath done for thee, and bear it in mynd; and that thow woldest helpe other for his saik, boith in worde and deid, evin as he hath helped thee for nought, and without reward. O how ready would we be to help otheris, yf we knew his goodnes and gentilnes towardis us! He is a good and a gentill Lord, and he doith all thingis for nought. Let us, I beseich yow, follow his footsteps, whome all the world ought to prayse and wirschep. Amen.

he that thinkith to be savid be his werkis, calleth him selve christ:—

For he callith him self a Saviour, which aparteaneth to Christ onlie. What is a Saviour, butt he that savith? And thow sayist, I save my self; which is asmuch to say as, I am Christ; for Christ is onlie the Saviour of the world.

We should do no good werkis, for that intent to get the inheritance of heavin, or remissioun of synnes throw thame. For whosoevir belevith to gett the inheritance of heavin or remissioun of synnes, throw werkis, he belevith nott to gett that for Christis saik. And thei that beleve not, that thair synnes ar forgeivin thame, and that thei sal be saved for Christis saik, thei beleve not the Gospell; for the Gospell sayith, Yow sal be saved for Christis saik: synnes ar forgevin yow, for Christis saik.

He that belevith not the Gospell, belevith not God. And consequentlie, thei which beleve to be saved be thair werkis, or to gett remissioun of synnes be thair awin deidis, beleve not God, bot raccompt him a liear, and so utterlie denye him to be God. Thow wilt say, Shall we then do no good werkis? I say not so, but I say, We should do no good werkis for that intent to gett the kingdome of heavin, or remissioun of synnes. For yf we beleve to gett the inheritance35 of heavin throw good werkis, then we beleve nott to gett it throw the promesse of God. Or, yf we think to gett remissioun of our synnes, as said is, we beleve nott that thei ar forgevin us by Christ, and so we compt God a liear. For God sayith, Thow shalt have the inheritance of heavin for my Sonnes saik. Yow say, It is nott so; but I will wynne it throw my awin werkis. So, I condempne not good werkis; but I condempne the fals trust in any werkis; for all the werkis that a man putteth confidence in, are thairwyth intoxicat or empoisoned, and become evill. Quhairfoir, do good werkis; but be war thow do thame to gett any good throw thame; for yf thow do, thow receavest the good, not as the gift of God, bott as debte unto thee, and maikest thy self fellow with God, becaus thow wilt tack no thing from him for nought. What nedith he any thing of thyne, who gevith all thing, and is not the poorare? Thairfoir do nothing to him, but tack of him; for he is ane gentill Lord, and with, a glaidar harte will geve us all thingis that we neid, than we taik it of him. So that yf we want any thing, lett us witt our selfis. Prease not then to the inheritance of heavin, throwght presumptioun of thy good werkis; for yf thow do, thow comptest thy selve holy and equall unto him, becaus thow wilt tack nothing of him for nowght; and so salt thow fall as Lucifer fell from heavin for his pride.

Thus endis the said Maistir Patrikis Articles.6868In republishing his "Actes and Monumentes," Foxe, along with Fryth's translation of "Patrick Hamilton's Places," has subjoined "Certaine brief Notes or Declarations upon the foresayd Places of M. Patrike." He says, "This little treatise of M. Patrike's Places, albeit in quantitie it be but short, yet in effect it comprehendeth matter able to fill large volumes, declaryng to us the true doctrine of the Law, of the Gospell, of Fayth, and of Workes, with the nature and properties, and also the difference of the same." But Foxe's Notes are too long to be here inserted, and they have several times been reprinted. And so we returne to oure Hystory.


When those cruell wolves had, as thei supposed, cleane devored the pray, thei fynd thame selfis in warse caise then thei war befoir; for then within Sanctandrose, yea, almost within the hole realme, (who heard of that fact,) thair was none found who begane not to inquyre, Whairfoir was Maistir Patrik Hammyltoun brunt? And when his Articles war rehersed, questioun was holden, yf such Articles war necessarie to be beleved under the pane of damnatioun. And so within schort space many begane to call in dowbt that which befoir thei held for a certane veritie, in so much that the Universitie of Sanctandrose, and Sanct Leonardis Colledge principallie, by the labouris of Maistir Gawin Logy,6969Gawin Logye, under whom so many of the early Reformers had prosecuted their studies, was educated at St. Andrews, and took his degree of Master of Arts in 1512. In 1518, "Gavinus Logye" was "Regens Coll. Sancti Leonardi de novo fundati." In the "Acta Fac. Art.," his name occurs as Principal of that College in 1523. Calderwood says, that in the year 1533, Logye "was forced to flee out of the countrie," (vol. i. p. 104.) This date is certainly erroneous. At the election of Martin Balfour, as Dean of Faculty, "Magr. Gavinus Logye," Principal of St. Leonard's College, was appointed one of his assessors, on the 3d of November 1534. He probably fled before the close of the year 1535; but of his subsequent history no particulars have been discovered. Logye's immediate successor was "Dominus Thomas Cunnynghame," whose name first occurs as Principal Regent, on the 3d of November 1537. and the novises7070In MS. G, "novittis;" in other MSS., and in Vautr. edit., "novices." of the Abbay, by the Suppriour,7171Probably John Wynrame, see note 395 begane to smell somwhat of the veritie, and to espy the vanitie of the receaved superstitioun. Yea, within few yearis eftir, begane baith Black and Gray Frearis publictlie to preache against the pride and idile lief of Bischoppis, and against the abuses of the whole ecclesiasticall estaite. Amongis whome was one called Frear Williame Arth,7272In Vautr. edit., "William Archbishop," and also in MSS. A, I, and W. In MS. E, "William Arth." In MS. G, "William Arithe." who, in a sermone preached in Dundye, spak somwhat moir liberallie against the licentious lyifes of the Bischoppis nor thei could weall beair. He spaik farther against the abuse of37 curssing and of miracles. The Bischop of Brechin,7373John Hepburn, Bishop of Brechin, was descended of the Hepburns of Bothwell. He held this See from 1517, for upwards of forty years, till his death in August 1558.—(Keith's Catal.) having his placeboes and jackmen in the toun, buffatted the Freir, and called him Heretick. The Freir, impatient of the injury receaved, past to Sanctandrose, and did communicat the headis of his sermone with Maister Johnne Mair,7474Best known by his Latin name Major. He was a native of Haddington, and spent many years on the Continent, where he acquired great reputation by his numerous works, and became a Doctor of the Sorbonne. After his return to Scotland, he was for a short time (1518-1522) Principal Regent in the College of Glasgow, where Knox himself was his pupil. He was at this time Vicar of Dunlop; and Treasurer of the Chapel Royal at Stirling. In 1533, he was incorporated in the University of St. Andrews; and became Provost of St. Salvator's College; an office which he held till his death in 1550. See MʻCrie's Life of Knox, vol. i. pp. 7, 339; and Irving's Life of Buchanan, pp. 8, 373. whose wourd then was holden as ane oracle, in materis of religioun; and being assured of him, that such doctrin mycht weall be defendid, and that he wald defend it, for it conteaned no heresye; thair was ane day appointed to the said Frear, to maik repetitioun of the sam sermon; and advertisment was gevin to all such as war offended att the formar to be present. And so, in the parishe kirk of Sanctandrose, upoun the day appointed, appeared the said Frear, and had amonges his auditouris Maistir Johnne Mair, Maistir George Lockart,7575George Lockhart, Provost of the Collegiate Church of Crichton, in Mid-Lothian, was Rector of the University of St. Andrews, from 1521 to 1525. He was the author of more than one work, printed at Paris, on Dialectic Philosophy. He afterwards was Dean of Glasgow, where he died on the 22d of June 1547.—(Obituary in the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, vol. ii. p. 614.) the Abbot of Cambuskynneth,7676The Abbot of Cambuskenneth, Alexander Myln, was appointed first President of the College of Justice in 1532. In 1494, Alexander Myl, was a Determinant at St. Andrews. In 1515, he was Official of Dunkeld, and in that year he wrote a Latin work, Lives of the Bishops of Dunkeld, first printed in 1823, for the Bannatyne Club. In Brunton and Haig's Historical Account of the Senators, a very accurate notice is given of his several preferments in the Church. Myln, who died about the close of the year 1548, is acknowledged to have been a man of great accomplishments, and to have displayed a most commendable zeal for religion and learning. Maistir Patrik Hepburne the38 Priour of Sanctandrose,7777In the year 1522, on the death of his Uncle, John Hepburn, Prior of the Metropolitan Church of St. Andrews, Patrick Hepburn succeeded; and held the Priorate till 1535, when advanced to the See of Moray. See note 82 with all the Doctouris and Maistires of the Universities. The theame of his sermone was, "Veritie is the strongest of all thingis." His discourse of Curssing was, "That yf it war rychtlie used, it was the moist fearfull thing upoun the face of the earth; for it was the verray separatioun of man frome God: but that it should nott be used rashlie, and for everie light cause, but onlie against open and incorrigible synnaris. But now, (said he,) the avarice of preastis, and the ignorance of thair office, has caused it altogitther to be vilipended;7878   The Scotish Parliament passed an Act on the subject, on the 12th of June 1535, in which the cause of this disregard of the censures of the Church is mainly attributed to "the dampnable persuasions of heretikis, and thair perversit doctrine," which, it is added, "gevis occasioun to lichtly (or despise) the process of cursing, and uther censures of Haly Kirk."—(Acta Parl. vol. ii. p. 342; Keith's Hist., vol. i. p. 28.) There is a singular production by one of the early Scotish Poets, a priest named Sir John Rowll, called his Cursing, which exemplifies the abuses to which this process was perverted. It was written between 1492 and 1502, and is directed chiefly against the stealers, among other articles,
    Of fyve fat geiss of Sir Johne Rowllis, With caponis, hennis, and uther fowlis;

    but it also contains a general invective against persons who defraud the clergy of their tythes or dues. The following entries in the Treasurer's Books, shew that ecclesiastical persons were not exempted from such censures:—

    "Item, the thrid day of November [1533], to Sir Johne Smyth, notare, to pass to execut the Process upon the Abbot of Melross, and Prioress of Eccles, for non payment of thair taxt,. xl. s.

    "Item, the first day of Junij [1534], to ane cheplane to pass to Curss the Prioress of North Berwick and Eccles, for non payment of thair taxtis,. xx. s."
for the preast, (said he,) whose dewitie and office is to pray for the people, standis up on Sounday, and cryes, 'Ane hes tynt a spurtill. Thair is ane flaill stollin from thame beyound the burne. The goodwyiff of the other syd of the gait hes tynt a horne spune. Goddis maleson and myne I geve to thame that knowis of this geyre, and restoris it not.'"—How the people mocked thair curssing, he ferther told a meary tale; how, after a sermoun that he had maid at Dumfermling, he came to a house whair gossoppis was drynking39 thair Soundayis penny, and he, being dry, asked drynk. "Yis, Father, (said ane of the gossoppes,) ye shall haif drynk; bot ye mon first resolve ane doubt which is rissen amongis us, to witt, What servand will serve a man beast on least expenssis." "The good Angell, (said I,) who is manis keapar, who maikis great service without expenssis." "Tush, (said the gossope,) we meane no so heigh materis: we meane, What honest man will do greatest service for least expensses?" And whill I was musing, (said the Frear,) what that should meane, he said, "I see, Father, that the greatest clerkis ar nott the wysest men. Know ye not how the Bischoppis and thair officiallis servis us husband men? Will thei not give to us a lettir of Curssing for a plack, to laste for a year, to curse all that looke ower our dick [dyke]? and that keapis our corne better nor the sleaping boy, that will have three schillingis of fye, a sark, and payre of schone in the year. And thairfoir, yf thair curssing dow any thing, we held the Bischoppis beast chaip servandis, in that behalf, that ar within the realme." As concernyng miracles, he declaired, what diligence the ancientis took to try trew miracles frome false. "But now, (said he,) the greadynes of preastis not onlie receave false miracles, bot also thei cherise and feis knaiffis for that purpoise, that thair chapellis may be the better renouned, and thair offerand may be augmented. And thairupoun ar many chapelles founded, as that our Lady war mychttiar, and that sche took more pleasour in one plaice then in ane uther; as of laite dayis our Lady of Karsgreng hes hopped fra ane grene hillock to ane uther. But honest men of Sanctandrose, (said he,) yf ye luif your wyffis and your doughtaris, hald thame at hame, or ellis send thame in honest companye; for yf ye knew what miracles war kithed thaire, ye wold neyther thank God nor our Lady." And thus he mearelie tanted thare trystis of hurdome and adulterye used at such devotioun.

Ane uther article was judged more hard; for he alledged40 the commoun law,7979In MS. A, &c., "canon law." That the Civyle Magistrate mycht correct the Churchmen,8080In MS. G, "Kirkmen."—The Church of Rome, however, always performed the ceremony of depriving a Priest of his holy orders, before being handed over to the secular authorities for punishment; "because (in the words of a modern writer) she was too watchful over the immunities of the privileged order of Priests, to deliver them up to temporal jurisdiction, till stripped of the sacerdotal character, and degraded to the situation of laymen." (Dowling's History of Romanism, p. 551, New York, 1845, 8vo.) and deprive thame of thaire benefices, for oppin vices.

Ane uther day, the same Frear maid ane uther sermoun of the Abbote [of] Unreassone,8181The Abbot of Unreason in Scotland, was a similar character to the Lord of Misrule in England. "This pageant potentate," as Stowe calls him, "was annually elected, and his rule extended through the greater part of the holydays conected with the festival days of Christmas." But these "fine and subtle disguisings, masks, and mummeries," too often degenerated into abuse, as indeed was to be expected, when such pastimes had for their object to turn all lawful authority into ridicule, and more particularly to burlesque the services of the Church. On such occasions, "the rude vulgar occupied the Churches, profaned the holy places by a mock imitation of the sacred rites, and sung indecent parodies of the hymns of the Church;" and the lively representation of a scene of this kind is familiar to most readers, in a well known work of fiction, "The Abbot." Part of Sir Walter Scott's comment on his own description may be here quoted:—"The indifference of the clergy, even when their power was greatest, to the indecent exhibitions, which they always tolerated, and sometimes encouraged, forms a strong contrast to the sensitiveness with which they regarded any serious attempt, by preaching or writing, to impeach any of the doctrines of the Church."—(Waverley Novels.) unto whome and whose lawis he compared the prelattis of that age; for thei war subdewid to no lawis, no moir then was the Abbote [of] Unreassoun. And amonges uther thingis he told such a meary bourd. "Thare was (said he) a Prelatt, or at least a Prelattis peir, a trew servand to the King of luif, who, upoun a nycht after suppar, asked at his gentillmen, be the fayth that thei awght to the king of luif, that thei should trewlie declare how many syndrie wemen everie ane of thame had haid, and how many of thame war menis wyffis. Ane answered, He had lyne with fyve, and two of thame war maryed. The other answered, I have haid sevin, and three of thame ar maryed. It came at last to my41 Lord him self, who macking it veray nyce for a lytill space, gave in the end ane plain confessioun, and said, 'I am the yongest man, and yitt have I haid the round desone; and sevin of thame ar menis wyffis.' Now, (said the Frear,) this god and king of luif, to whome our Prelaittis maikis homage, is the maistir devill of hell, from whome such werkis and fruitis doo procead." This Prelatt was knowin by his proper tockenes to have bene Priour Patrik Hepburne,8282Patrick Hepburn, son to Patrick first Earl of Bothwell, was educated at St. Andrews, under his uncle, John Hepburn, Prior of St. Andrews, whom he succeeded in 1522. He was Secretary from 1524 to 1527. In 1535, he was advanced to the See of Moray, and was likewise Commendator of Scone. He retained his bishopric after the Reformation; and died at his Palace and Castle of Spynic on the 20th of June 1573. now Bischop of Murray, who to this day hes continewed in the professioun that he anes maid to his god and king of luif.8383Knox has been blamed for recording this "merry bourd" or jest; but Bishop Hepburn had rendered himself notorious by his profligacy. This indeed appears on the face of the public records. Under the Great Seal there passed the following letters of Legitimation;—(1.) "Johanni et Patricio Hepburn, bastardis filiis naturalibus Patricii Prioris Sancti Andreæ." 18 Dec. 1533.—Also, (2.) "Legitimatio Adami, Patricii, Georgii, Johannis, et Patricii Hepburn, bastardorum filiorum naturalium Patricii Episcopi Moraviensis." 4 Oct. 1545. And, (3.) "Legitimatio Jonetæ et Agnetis Hepburn, bastardarum filiorum naturalium Patricii Moraviensis Episcopi." 14 Maij 1550. Here are no less than nine illegitimate children, evidently by different mothers. (4.) Agnes Hepburn, another daughter of the late Patrick Bishop of Murray, was also legitimated on 8th Feb. 1587.

It was supposed, notwithstanding this kynd of preaching, that this Frear remaned papist in his heart; for the rest of the Frearis, fearing to losse the benedictioun of the Bischoppes, to witt, thair malt and thair maill, and thair other appoineted pensioun, cawsed the said Frear to flye to England, whair, for defence of the Paipe and Paipistrie, his was cast in preasone8484In MS. G, "he was imprisonit." at King Hary his commandiment. But so it pleasith God to open up the mouth of Baalames awin asse, to cry out againest the vitious lyves of the clergie of that aige. Schorte after this, new consultatioun was tackin, that some should be brunt;42 for men began verray liberallie to speak. A meary gentillman, named Johnne Lyndesay, famylliar to Bisehope James Betoun, standing by when consultatioun was had, said, "My Lord, yf ye burne any mo, except ye follow my counsall, ye will utterlye destroy your selves. Yf ye will burne thame, lett thame be brunt in how sellarris; for the reik of Maister Patrik Hammyltoun hes infected as many as it blew upoun."8585According to Spotiswood, (Hist. p. 65,) these words were spoken at the time when Henry Forrest was to be burnt for heresy. See note 113. Thus it pleased God, that thei should be tanted in thair awin face. But hear followis the moist meary of all. Sandie Furrour, who had bene empreasoned sevin yearis in the Toure of Londone, Sir Johnne Dignwaill,8686In Vautr. edit., "Dungwaill." In MS. G, "Dungwell."—Sir John Dingwall was a priest, and evidently a person of some note. On the 18th of August 1516, his name occurs in the Treasurer's Accounts, when 3s. 8d. was paid to "ane child to bring the auld (Service?) bookis out of Edinburgh fra Sir Johne Dingwall to Dundie." John Dingwall, Archdeacon of Caithness, was one of the Auditors who signs the Treasurer's Accounts, in October 1516. In two charters under the Great Seal, 15th September, and 19th November 1524, he is designed Archdeacon of Caithness, and Rector of Strabrok, in Linlithgowshire. In another charter, 7th April 1529, he is styled "Dominus Johannes Dingwall Præpositus Ecclesim Collegiatæ Sanctre Trinitatis prope Burgum de Edinburgh." Having been nominated one of the Spiritual Lords at the Institution of the College of Justice, on the 27th of May 1532, at the first meeting of the Court, he took his seat under the title of Provost of Trinity College. But he did not long enjoy his judicial office, as he died before the 9th of July 1533.—(Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice, p. 11.) Buchanan wrote an epigram on Dingwall, founded upon some verses of Sir Adam Otterburn of Redhall, King's Advocate, ("argumento sumpto ex Adami Otterburni Equitis clarissimi hexametris,") from which it may be inferred that Dingwall's father had been a priest, and left him no patrimony; that he himself had acquired great wealth, accompanied with pride and luxury, whilst employed at the Court of Rome; and that a monument had been erected to his memory, containing his titles in high sounding terms. according to the cheritie of Churche men,8787In MS. G, "Kirkmen." See some notes on the use of the title "Sir," as applied to priests, in Appendix, No. IV. enterteneid his wyiff, and waisted the poore manes substance. For the which caus, at his returnyng, he spaik more liberallie of preastis then thei could bear, and so was he declaired8888In MS. G, "delaittit." to43 be accused of heresye, and called to his ansuer to Sanctandrose. He lapp up mearely upoun the scaffold, and, casting a gawmound, said, "Whair ar the rest of the playaris?" Maistir Audro Olephant,8989Some notice of Oliphant will be given in a subsequent page. offended thairwyth, said, "It shalbe no play to yow, Sir, befoir that ye depart." And so began to read his accusatioun. The first article whareof was, That he dispyssed the Messe. His ansuer was, "I hear mo Messis in awght dayis, then thre Bischoppis thair sitting sayis in a year." Accused secoundarly, Of contemptioun of the sacramentis. "The preastis, (said he,) war the maist commoun contempnaris of sacramentis, and especiallie of matrimonye," and that he witnessed by any of the preastis thare present, and named the menis wyffis with whome thei had medled, and especiallie Sir Johnne Dignwaill, who had sevin yearis togitther abused his awin wyff and consumed his substance; and said, "Becaus I complayne of such injuries, I am hear summoned, and accused, as one that is worthy to be brunt. For Goddis saik, (said he,) wil ye taick wyeffis of your awin, that I and utheris, whose wyiffis ye have abused, may be revenged upoun yow." Then Bisehope Gawin Dumbar,9090Gawin Dunbar was the son of Sir Alexander Dunbar of Westfield, and Dame Elizabeth Sutherland; (see note to Poems of William Dunbar, vol. ii. p. 433, Edinb. 1832, 2 vols. 8vo.) and not son of Sir James Dunbar of Cumnock, as Keith states. He had been a student at St. Audrews, where he took his Master's degree in 1475. On the 7th of October 1488, his name occurs as Dean of his native diocese of Moray. He also held the office of Clerk-Register from 1500 to 1513. In 1503, Dunbar received a presentation to the Archdeaconry of St. Andrews. (Regist. Secr. Sigil.) On the death of Bishop Gordon, 30th June 1518, being promoted to the See of Aberdeen, he resigned his Archdeaconry. He died at a very advanced age on the 9th or 10th of March 1531-2.—(Preface by the Editor, Mr. Cosmo Innes, to the Registrum Episcopatus Aberdonensis, p. lv.) named the Old Bischop of Abirdein, thinking to justifye him self befoir the people, said, "Carll, thow shalt not know my wyff." The said Alexander ansuered, "My Lord, ye ar too old; bot, with the grace of God, I shall drynk with your dochtter or I44 departe." And thareat was smylling of the best, and lowd laughtter of some; for the Bisehop had a dowghter maryed with Andro Balfour9191In Vautr. edit. and MS. A, &c., "Andro Balsone." He was probably related to Martin Balfour, "Official Principal" of St. Andrews, Rector of Dunyno, and a Canon of St. Salvator's Church, St. Andrews. The name of Andrew Balfour occurs among the licentiates of St. Leonard's College in 1524; but we cannot say whether or not he was the person who is here mentioned. in that same toune. Then the Bischoppis bad, "Away with the earll." But he ansured, "Nay; I will not departe this houre; for I have more to speak against the vices of preastis, then I cane expresse this haill9292In MS. "hell." day." And so, after diverse purposes, thei commanded him to burne his bill. And he demanding the caus, thei said, "Becaus ye have spoken these articles whairof ye ar accused." His ansuer was, "The mekill devill bear thame away, that first and last said thame." And so he tack the bill, and chowing it, hee after spatt it in Mr. Andro Oliphantis face, saying, "Now burne it or drune it, whitther ye will: ye heir na mair of me. Butt I man have somewhat of everie ane of yow to begyn my pack agane, which a preast and my wyif, a preastis hoore, hes spentt." And so everie prelate and riche preast, glaid to be qwyte of his evill, gave him somwhat; and so departed hie, for he understood nothing of religioun.

But so fearfull it was then to speak any thing against preastis, that the least word spokin against thame, yea, albeit it was spokin in a manes sleip, was judged heresye; and that was practised upoun Richart Carmichaell, yet leving in Fyfe,9393Richard Carmichael, yet living in Fife; that is, in the year 1566; but these words are literally copied by Dr. Patrick Anderson in his MS. History of Scotland, (vol. i. p. 187.) This seems sufficiently absurd in a work which was written as late as 1636, or nearly 100 years subsequent to Carmichael's accusation. "Ane letter maid to Richard Carmichaell, remittand to him his eschete gudis pertenying to our Soverane, throw being of the said Richard abjurit of heresy," &c., was passed under the Privy Seal, on the 25th of March 1539. who being young, and ane singar in the Chapell Royal of Striveling, happened in his sleepe to say, "The devill tak45 away the preastis, for thei ar a gready pack." Hie, thairfor, accused be Sir George Clappertoun, Deane9494Clapperton was only Sub-Dean of the Chapel Royal of Stirling. The Deanery, which was first conjoined with the Provostry of Kirkheugh, St. Andrews, was afterwards annexed to the Bishopric of Galloway. Henry Weemys, Bishop of Galloway, was accordingly Dean of the Chapel Royal, during his incumbency, from 1526 to 1541.—In MS. G, Clapperton is erroneonsly called Sir John.—From the Treasurer's Accounts we learn, that Schir George Clappertoun was "Maister Elimosinar to the Kingis Grace," during the latter years of James the Fifth (1538 to 1542.) "Dominus Georgius Clappertoun," on the 28th of July 1540, obtained a presentation to the Provostship of Trinity College near Edinburgh.—(Reg. Mag. Sig., vol. xiv.) He sat in the Provincial Council at Edinburgh in 1549 under this title.—(Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iv. p. 46, where his name is erroneously given as George Cryghton.) He probably resigned this office on being appointed Sub-Dean of the Chapel Royal. After the Reformation, he still retained the designation of Sub-Dean, and received his two-thirds of the benefice, although John Duncanson was Minister. Sir George Clapperton, Sub-Dean of the Chapel Royal of Stirling, and Vicar of Kirkinner, granted a life-rent of the teinds of Kirkinner, 14th September 1562. (Analecta Scotica, vol. i. p. 2.) "Sir George Clappertoun, Sub Dene of the Kingis Majesties Chapell Royall of Striveling, deceissit in the moneth of Apryle 1574." In his testament, written at Striviling in his "awin dwelling house," on the 5th of that month, as he nominates Mr. Robert Pont, Provost of Trinity College, to act as oversman, and one of his assignees, we may infer, that Clapperton had embraced the reformed doctrines.—(Reg. of Confirmed Testaments, 21st Sept. 1574.) of the said Chapell, was compelled tharefore to burne his bill.

But God schort after raised up against thame strongar campionis. For Alexander Setoun,9595In MS. G, "Seytoun." a Blak Frear, of good learning and estimatioun, began to tax the corrupt doctrin of the Papistrye. For the space of a hole Lentran,9696In Vautr. edit. and MSS. G, A, &c., "a whole Lent." he tawght the commandimentis of God onlye, ever beatting in the earis of his auditouris, That the law of God had of many yearis not bein trewlie tawght; for menis traditionis had obscured the puritie of it. These war his accustomed propositionis: First, Christ Jesus is the end and perfectioun of the law. 2. Thair is no syne quhair Goddis law is not violated. 3. To satisfie for syne lyes not in manis power, but the remissioun thairof cumis by unfeaned reapentance, and by faith apprehending46 God the Father mercifull in Christ Jesus, his sone. Whill often tymes he puttis his auditouris in mynd of thir and the lyik headis, and maikis no mentioun of purgatorye, pardones, pilgramage, prayer to sanctes, nor such trifillis, the dum Doctouris, and the rest of that forsworne rable, begane to suspect him; and yitt said thei nothing publictlie, till Lentrain9797In MS. G, "Lent." was ended, and he passed to Dundie. And then, in his absence, ane hired for that purpose openlie damned the hole doctrin9898In Vautr. edit. and MS. G, "condemned the holie doctrine." that befoir he had tawght. Which cuming to the earis of the said Frear Alexander, then being in Dundye, without delay he returned to Sanctandrose, caused immediatlie to jow the bell, and to give significatioun that he wald preach; as that he did in deid. In the which sermon he affirmed, (and that more plainlie then at any uther tyme,) whatsoever in all his hole sermones hie had tawght befoir the haill Lentrantyde preceding;9999In Vautr. edit. and MS. A, &c., "the whole Lent past." In MS. G, "whatsoever he had taught in all his sermons before, the hole Lent-tyde preceiding." adding, that within Scotland thair was no trew Bischoppe, yf that Bischoppes should be knawin by such notes and vertewis, as Sanct Paule requyres in Bischoppis. This delatioun flew with wyngis to the Bischoppis earis, who, butt farther delay, send for the said Frear Alexander, who began greveouslie to complayne, and sharplye to accuse, that he had so sclanderouslie spokin of the dignitie of the Bischoppes, as to say, "That it behoved a Bischope to be a preachear, or ellis he was but a dume dogg, and fed not the flock, but fed his awin bellye." The man being witty, and mynded of that which was his most assured defence, said, "My Lord, the reaportaris of such thingis ar manifest lyearis." Whareat the Bischope100100James Beaton, Archbishop of St. Andrews. rejosed, and said, "Your ansour pleasses me weall: I never could think of yow,47 that ye wold be so foolische as to affirme such thingis. Whare ar thei knaiffis that have brought me this tale?" Who compearing, and affirmyng the same that thei did befoir, hie still replyed, That thei ware leyaris. But whill the witnesses war multiplyed, and men war browght to attentioun, he turned him to the Bischope, and said, "My Lord, ye may see101101In Vautr. edit. and MSS. G, A, &c., "ye may heir." and considder what caris these asses have, who cane nott discerne betuix Paull, Isai, Zacharie, and Malachie and Frear Alexander Setoun. In verray deid, My Lord, I said that Paule sayis, 'It behoveth a Bischop to be ane teichear.' Isai sayith, 'That thei that feid nott the flock ar dum doggis.' And Zacharie sayeth, 'Thei ar idoll pastouris.' I of my awin head affirmed nothing, butt declared what the Spreitt of God had befoir pronunced; at whome, my Lord, yf ye be nott offended, justly ye cane nott be offended at me. And so yit agane, my Lord, I say, that thei ar manifest leyaris that reported unto yow, that I said, That ye and utheris that preach nott ar no Bischoppis, but belly Goddis."

Albeit after that, the Bischope was heightly offended, asweill at the skwff102102In Vautr. edit. "skoffe." and bitter mock, as at the bold libertie of that learned man; yitt durst he nott hasard for that present to execute his malice conceaved; for nott onlye feared he the learnyng and bold spreit of the man, bot also the favour that he had, alsweall of the people, as of the Prince, King James the Fyft, of whome he had good credite; for he was at that tyme his Confessour, and had exhorted him to the feare of God, to the meditatioun of Goddis law, and unto puritie of lyiff. Butt the said Bischope, with his complices, foirseing what danger mycht cume to thair Estaite, yf such familiaritie should continew betuix the Prince and a man so learned, and so repugnyng to thair affectionis, laubored by all meanes to mack the said Frear Alexander odiouse unto the Kingis Grace, and48 easely fand the meanes by the Gray Frearis, (who by thare hypochrisye deceaved many,) to traduce the innocent as ane heretyk. This accusatioun was easely receaved and more easelye beleved103103In MS. G, the words "and more easely beleved," are omitted. In Vautr. edit. and MS. A, &c., the passage reads, "This accusation was easely beleeved of," &c. of the carnall Prince, who altogitther was gevin to the filthy loostis of the fleshe, abhorred all counsall that repugned thairto. And becaus he did remember what a terrour the admonitionis of the said Alexander was unto his corrupted conscience, without resistance he subscrived to thair accusatioun, affirmyng that he knew mair then thei did in that mater; for he understood weall ynewcht, that he smelled of the new doctrin, by such thingis as he had schawin to him under confessioun. And tharefoir he promessed, that he should follow the counsall of the Bischoppes in punishing of him and of all utheris of that sect. These thingis understand by the said Alexander, alsweall by informatioun of his freindis and familliaris, as by the strange contenance of the King unto him, provydit the nixt way to avoid the fury of a blynded Prince: and so, in his habite,104104In the habit of the Dominican Order to which he belonged. hie departed the realme,105105The exact time of Seaton's flight from Scotland, and the date of his Letter to the King, have not been ascertained. The probable date is 1535 or 1536. Some particulars of his history will be given in the Appendix, No. VII. and cuming to Berwik, wraitt back agane to the Kingis grace his complaint and admonitioun, the verray tennour and copy whareof followis, and is this:—

Maist Gratious and Sovering Lord under the Lord and King of all, of whome only thy Hienes and Majestie has power and authoritie to exercise justice within this thy Realme, under God, who is King and Lorde of all realmes, and thy Grace and all mortale Kingis ar bott onlye servandis unto that onlie immortall Prince Christ Jesus, etc. It is nott (I49 wate) unknawin to thy gratious106106In MS. G, "thy Grace's." Hieness, how that thy Grace's umquhill servand and Oratour, (and ever shalbe to my lyves end,) is departed out of thy Realme unto the nixt adjacent of Ingland. Nochtheless I beleve the causse of my departing is unknawin to thy gratious107107In MS. G, "thy Grace's." Majestie: quhilk only is, becaus the Bischoppis and Kirkmen of thy Realme hes had heirtofoir sick authoritie upoun thy subjectis, that appearandly thei war rather King, and thow the subject, (quhilk injust regiment is of the selfe false, and contrair to holy Scripture and law of God,) than thow thair King and maistir, and thei thy subjectis, (quhilk is verray trew, and testifiet expreasslie be the Word of God.) And also, becaus thei will give no man of onye degree or staite (whome thei oft falslie call Heretykis) audience, tyme, nor place to speak and have defence; quhilk is aganist all law, boith the Ald law, called the Law of Moses, and the New law of the Evangell. So that, gif I mycht have had audience and place to speak, and have schawin my just defence, conforme to the law of God, I should never have fled to any uther realme, suppose it should haif cost me my lyiff. Bot becaus I beleved that I should haif haid no audience nor place to answer, (thei ar so great with thy Grace,) I departed, not dowttand, bott moved of God, unto ane bettire tyme that God illuminate thy Grace's eyn, to give everie man audience (as thow should and may, and is bound of the law of God,) who ar accused to the death. And to certifie thy Hienes that thir ar no vane wordis, bot of dead and effect, heir I offer me to thy Grace to come in thy realme agane, so that thy Grace will give me audience, and hear what I have for me of the law of God: and caus ony Bischope or Abbot, Frear or Secular, quhilk is maist cuning, (some of thame cane not read thair matynes who ar maid judgeis in heresye!) to impugne me be the law of God; and give my parte be found wrang, thy50 Grace being present and judge, I refuse no pane worthie or condigne for my falt. And give that I convict thame by the lawe of God, and that thei have nothing to lay to my charge, bot the law of man, and thair awin inventionis to uphald thair vane glorie and prydfull lyif, and dalye scorgeing of thy poore liegis; I reporte me to thy Grace, as judge, Whither he hes the victorye that haldis him at the law of God, quhilk cane not faill nor be false, or thei that haldis thame at the law of man, quhilk is rycht oft plane contrarie and aganis the law of God, and thairfoir of necessitie fals, and full of lesingis? for all thing that is contrarie to the veritie, (quhilk is Christ and his law,) is of necessitie ane lesing.

And to witnes that this cumis of all my harte, I shall remane in Berwik whill I gett thy Grace's answer, and shall without faill returne, haveing thy hand wreitt that I may haif audience, and place to speak. No more I desyre of thee; whaireof gif I had bene suire, I should never have departed. And that thow may know the treuth thairof, gif feare of the justness of my cause, or dredour of persequutioun for the same, had moved me to departe, I wold not so pleasandlie reverte: only distrust thairfoir was the caus of my departing. Pardone me to say that quhilk lyes to thy Grace's charge. Thow arte bound by the law of God, (suppoise thei falslie lye, saying it perteanes nott to thy Grace till intromett wyth sic materis,) to caus everie man, in any case, accused of his lyef, to have his just defence, and his accusaris produceit conforme to thair awin law. Thei blynd thy Grace's eyn, that knawis nothing of thair law: bot gif I prove nocht this out of thair awin law, I offer me to the death. Thy Grace, thairfoir, by experience may daly learne, (seing thei nether fear the King of Heavin, as thair lyves testiffis, neyther thee thair naturall Prince, as thare usurped power in thy actionis schawis,) why thy Hienes should lye no langar blindit. Thow may considder, that thei pretend51 nothing ellis bot only the mantenance and uphald of thair bardit mullis,108108In MS. G, "bairdit mulls;" in Vautr. edit, and MS. L 2, "barbed mules;" MS. I, has "barbed mooles;" MSS. A, W, and E, "bardit" or "barded mules"—the meaning of the phrase is, mules with trappings, or richly caparisoned. augmenting of thare insatiable avarice, and continewall doune thringing and swallowing up thy poore lieges; nether preaching nor teaching out of the law of God, (as thei should,) to the rude, ignorant people, bot ay contending wha may be maist hie, maist riche, and nerrest thy Grace, to putt the temporall Lordis and liegis out of thy counsall109109In MS. G, "conceat." and favour, who should be, and ar, maist tendir servandis to thy Grace in all tyme of neid, to the defence of thee and thy croune.

And whare thei desyre thy Grace to putt at thy temporale Lordis and liegis, because thei dispise thair vitiouse lyif, what ellis intend thei bot only thy death and destructioun? as thow may easilie perceave, suppoise thei cullour thair false intent and mynd, with the persute of heresye. For when thy baronis ar putt doun, what arte thow bot the King of Bane?110110The custom of choosing the King of the Bean on the Vigil of the Epiphany (5th of January), was not peculiar to this country. The payments in the Treasurer's Accounts show, that a "Queen of the Bene" was frequently chosen. For the custom itself, see Strutt's Sports and Pastimes; Brand's Popular Antiquities, by Sir Henry Ellis; and Jamieson's Dictionary, v. Bane. Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty, amongst other remarks, says, the Presbyterians made use of Kings "as we do of card-kings, in playing at the hundred," &c., "or, as the French on the Epiphany-day use their Roy de la febre, or King of the Bean; whom, after they have, honoured with drinking of his health, and shouting aloud Le Roy boit, le Roy boit, they make pay for all the reckoning; not leaving him sometimes one peny, rather then that the exorbitancie of their debosh should not be satisfied to the full."—(Most Exquisite Jewell, Lond. 1652, p. 238.) and then of necessitie man be guydit be thame: and thare, (no doubt,) whare ane blynd man is guyd, mon be ane fall in the myre. Thairfoir lett thy Grace tack hardiment and authoritie, quhilk thow hes of God, and suffer nott thair crewell persecutioun to procead, without audience geving52 to him that is accused, and just place of defence. And then, (no dowbt,) thow shall haif thy liegis hartis, and all that thei cane or may doo in tyme of neid; tranquillitie, justice, and policie in thy realme, and finallie, the kingdom of the heavins. Please to gar have this, or the copy, to the clergy and kirkmen, and keap the principale, and thy Grace shall have experience gif I go aganis ane worde that I haif hecht. I shall daylie maik my hartlie devotioun for thy Grace, and for the prosperitie and wealfair of thy body and saule. I doubt nott bott thy gratiouse Hienes will gif answere to thir presentis unto the presentar of this to thy Hienes. Of Berwik, by thy Hienes servand and Oratour.

(Sic subscribitur,) Alexander Setoun

This letter was delivered to the Kingis awin handis, and of many redd.111111In MS. L 2, after the words, "of many read," there is added, "for every gentleman at Court was curious to gett the coppie of the same, as was thocht weill of by the most part; but what," &c. On the other hand, the transcriber of that MS., in the next paragraph, omits two or three passages, concerning "the bloodie beasts," and "bands," in referring to the persecutions at this time, by "Beaton and his Doctors." But what could greatlie112112In MS. G, "greitlie." admonitionis availl, whare the pryde and corruptioun of prelattis commanded what thei pleased, and the flatterie of courteouris fostered the insolent Prince in all impietie.

Frome the death of that constant witness of Jesus Christ, Maistir Patrik Hammyltoun, God disclosing the wickednes of the wicked, as befoir we have hearde, thare was one Forress of Lynlythqw113113The time of Forresse, or Forrest's imprisonment and martyrdom has not been well ascertained; and Knox's subsequent remark, "after whose death, the flame of persecution ceased, till the death of Norman Gourlay, the space of ten years or neirby," is not intelligible, according to the dates usually assigned. Foxe gives no precise date, but says, that within few years after Hamilton's martyrdom, "ane Henry Forrest, a young man born in Linlithgow, who a little before had received the orders of Benet and Collet, &c., suffered death at the North Church stile of the Abbey Church of St. Andrews," (edit. 1576, p. 955.)—Caldorwood has copied from Foxe, and supposes it might have been in 1529, or the year following. (Hist, vol. i. p. 97.) Keith conjectures it was about 1533. (Hist, vol. i. p. 15;) and MʻCrie, in 1530. (Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 354.)—As Knox speaks of Forresse's "long imprisonment," we may conjecture it was in 1532. From the Treasurer's Accounts, 17th of May 1532, we find that some persons were then under accusation of heresy, letters having been sent on that day "to the Bishop of St. Andrews, to advertize him of the changing of the dirt of the accusation of the Lutherans."—Forrest was a Benedictine Monk; and from mention of the town where he was born, we may conjecture he was the son of "Thomas Forrest of Linlithgow," to whom various sums were paid by the Treasurer "to the bigging of the dyke about the Paliss of Linlithgow," between April and July 1505. tacken, who, after long empreasonment in the53 Sea toure114114Vautr. edit, and all the later MSS. have erroneously "the said tower." The Castle of St. Andrews, originally built in the year 1200, by Bishop Roger, as an Episcopal residence, stands close to the sea-shore, and one of the towers projecting into the sea, no doubt obtained for it this name. "A nuik in the bottom of the Sea tower, a place where many of God's children had been imprisoned before," is again mentioned by Knox in 1547. of Sanctandross, was adjudgeit to the fyre by the said Bischop James Betoun, and his doctouris, for non uther cryme but becaus he had ane New Testament in Engliss. Farther of that history we have nott, except that he deid constantlie, and with great patience, at Sanctandross. After whose death, the flame of persecutioun ceassed, till the death of Maistir Normound Gowrlaw, the space of ten yearis115115See note 113 above: all the MSS. read "ten years." or neyrby; not that thei bloody beastis ceassed by all meanes to suppresse the light of God, and to truble such as in any sorte war suspected to abhore thair corruptioun; but becaus the realme was trubled with intestine and civile warres, in the which much blood was sched; first, at Melrose, betuix the Dowglasse and Baleleweh, in the yeir of God Jm. Vc. twenty sax, the xviiij day of Julij; nixt, at Lynlythqw, betuix the Hammyltonis and the Erle of Levenax, whair the said Erle, with many utheris, lost his lyif, the thretten day of September, the year foirsaid; and last, betuix the King him self and the said Dowglasses,116116The events here mentioned were all connected with the sway of the Douglasses in the minority of James the Fifth. The first was the attempt by Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch, at the head of 1000 horse, at Melrose, to rescue the King from the Earl of Angus, on the 25th of January 1526. The second was an equally unsuccessful attempt, for the same end, by the Earl of Lennox, at Kirkliston, on the 4th of September that year, where Lennox was cruelly slain by Sir James Hamilton of Finnart. But the King at length made his escape from Falkland in July 1528, (or, as Mr. Tytler conjectures, on the 22d or 23d of May.) On the 5th of September that year, an act of forfeiture was passed against Archibald Earl of Angus, his uncle, and his brother Sir George Douglas. They had retired to England, and continued in exile till the death of James in 1542. whome he banished the realme, and54 held thame in exyle during his hole dayis. Be reassone of these, we say, and of other trubles, the Bischoppis and thair bloody bandis cold not fynd the tyme so favorable unto thame as thei requyred, to execut thair tyranny.

In this mydd tyme, so did the wisdome of God provide, that Hary the Eyght, King of England, did abolishe frome his realme the name and authoritie of the Pape of Rome; suppress the Abbayis, and uther places of Idolatrie; which geve esperance to diverse realmes, that some godlye reformatioun should thairof have ensewed. And thairfoir, frome this our countrey, did diverse learned men, and utheris that leved in fear of persecutioun, repayre to that realme; whair albeit thei fand not such puritie as thei wished, (and thairfoir diverse of thame socht other countreis,) yit thei eschaped the tyranny of merciless men, and war reserved to better tymes, that thei mycht fructifie within His Church, in diverse places and partis, and in diverse vocationis. Alexander Setoun remaned in England, and publictlie, (with great praise and conforte of many,) tawght the Evangell in all sinceritie certane yearis. And albeit the craftynes of Wyncester,117117Wyncester, that is Stephen Gardyner, Bishop of Winchester. He became Lord Chancellor of England in the reign of Mary, and died in November 1555. See Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, vol. ii. pp. 40-71. and of otheris, circumvened the said Alexander, that thei caused him at Paules Croce to affirme certane thingis that repugned to his formar trew doctrin;118118Both Foxe and Calderwood have preserved a detailed account of Seaton's accusation in 1541, in which year his "Declaration made at Poules Crosse," was printed at London. A notice of this rare tract, and some further particulars of his history will be added in the Appendix, No. VII. yit it is no dowbt, but that as God potentlie55 had rung with him in all his lyiff, but that also in his death, (which schortlie after followed,) he fand the mercy of his God, whareupoun he ever exhorted all men to depend. Alexander Alæsius, Maistir Johnne Fyfe, and that famouse man Doctor Machabeus, departed unto Duch land,119119"Duch land," Deutschland—means Germany, not Holland. whare by Goddis providence thei war distributed to severall places.120120See Appendix, No. VI.—Protestant Exiles from Scotland. Makdwell, for his singular prudence,121121In MS. G, "providence." besydis his learnyng and godlynes, was elected borrow maistir in one of the Steadis.122122Steidis, Stadts—probably one of the States in North Holland. Calderwood has strangely confounded Macdowall and Macchabeus, as one person. Macdowall's Christian name is not given by any of our writers; but there is, I think, little doubt that he was James Mackdowell, one of the Determinants in St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, in the year 1515. Alesius was appointed to the Universitie of Lipsia;123123Alexander Alesius, or Alesse, was a native of Edinburgh, born in 1500, and educated at St. Andrews. Calderwood, Bayle, the Biographia Britannica, Dr. MʻCrie, and, in particular, the Rev. Christopher Anderson, (Annals of the English Bible, vol. ii. pp. 427-468,) have given detailed accounts of his subsequent life and writings. He was imprisoned, and narrowly escaped the persecuting violence of his Superior, Patrick Hepburn, Prior of St. Andrews, in the year 1529. Alesse has the merit of being among the first who contended for the translation of the Scriptures into the vernacular tongue. He died at Leipzig on the 17th of March 1565. and so was Maistir Johnne Fyff,124124John Fyfe prosecuted his studies in St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, under Gawin Logye. His name occurs as a Determinant, in 1522, and a Licentiate in 1524. Dr. MʻCrie says, that Fyfe having fled from St. Andrews, accompanied Alesse to Germany, and shared in his honours at Leipzig.—(Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 371.) He is said to have returned to Scotland, and died in St. Leonard's, about the beginning of the Reformation, or soon after.—(Calderwood's Hist. vol. i. p. 96.) He seems however to have been a Professor at Frankfort. See Appendix, No. VI. whare, for thare honest behaveour and great cruditioun, thei war halden in admiratioun with all the godly. And in what honour, credite, and estimatioun, Doctor Machabeus125125Dr. MʻCrie has brought together a number of particulars respecting Dr. John Macchabeus.—(Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 372.) Some additional notices will be given in the Appendix, No. VI. But it may here be noticed, in connexion with the following footnote, that Macchabeus was brought from Wittemburg to Copenhagen, in the year 1542; that he was one of the translators of the Bible into Danish, first printed at Kiobenhaffn, in 1550, folio; and that he died on the 5th of December 1557. was with Christianus King of Denmark, Cawp56manhoven,126126In Vautr. edit., and MSS. G, W, &c., "Cawpmanhowen;" in MS. G, "Capmanhoven." This name joined with the words "and famous men," might suggest that an individual was meant. It is however Copenhagen, (in Danish, Kiobenhaven, i.e. the Merchant's haven,) the city in which Macchabeus attained great distinction. Sir David Lyndesay of the Mount, in his official character as Lyon-King at Arms, visited Denmark in 1550; and his acquaintance with Macchabeus might have led to the first publication of his Dialog, or Four Books of the Monarchie, under a fictitious designation, although actually printed by John Scot, either at St. Andrews or Edinburgh in 1554: it bears on the title, "Imprintit at the command and expensis of Doctor Machabevs in Capmanhovin." There is a later edition, apparently in 1558 and 1559, with a similar imprint, but the name is rendered "Nachabeus." and famowse men of diverse nationis, cane testifie. Thus did God provid for his servandis, and did frustrat the expectatioun of these bloody beastis, who by the death of one, in whome the lyght of God did clearly schyne, intended to have suppressed Christis trewth for ever within this realme. But the contrary had God decryed; for his death was the cause, (as said is,) that many did awaik frome the deadly sleape of ignorance, and so did Jesus Christ, the onlye trew Light, schyne unto many, for the way-tackin of one. And albeit that these notable men did never after, (Maistir Johnne Fyfe onlie excepted,) conforte this countree with thair bodelye presence; yit maid thame fructifie in His Churche, and raissed thame up lightis out of darkness, to the prase of his awin mercy, and to the just condempnatioun of thame that then rewled, to wit, of the King, counsall, and nobilitie, yea of the hole people, who sufferred such notable personages, without crymes committed, to be injustlie persecuted, and so exyled. Otheris war after evin so entraited: but of thame we shall speak in thair awin places.

No soonare gatt the Bischoppis oportunitie, (which alwyise thei sought,) but so sone renewed thei the battell against Jesus Christ; for the foirsaid leprouse Bischop, in the year of God Jm. Vc. thretty four, caused to be summoned Sir Williame57 Kirk, Adam Dayis, Hendrie Karnes, Johnne Stewart, indwellaris of Leyth,127127The 26th of August 1534, is the date assigned for the trial, "befoir the Bishop of Ross, be ane commission of the Bischope of Sanctandrois," of Kirk and others. (Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 18.) Of these persons, Calderwood informs us, that Sir William Kirk, as his name denotes, was a priest; but "whether he compeared and abjured, or fled, we can find no certaintie;" that Adam Dayes, or Dease, was "a ship-wright that dwelt on the north side of the bridge of Leith;" that Henry Cairnes, "skipper in Leith, fled out of the countrie to the Easter seas;" and that "John Stewart, indweller in Leith, died in exile." (Hist. vol. i. p. 108.)—"Henricus Cairnys, incola de Leith," was denounced as a fugitive, and condemned for heresy, in 1538-9; and on the 8th of April 1539, the names of seven sons and five daughters of Henry Carnis in Leith, are specified in a letter under the Privy Seal, granting them the escheat of the various goods and property which belonged to their father.—(MʻCrie's Life of Knox, vol. i. pp. 358-366.) with diverse otheris, such as, Maistir Williame Johnestoun,128128In Vautr. edit., MS. A. &c., is added, "our advocate."—Johnstone studied at St. Andrews, and his name appears among the Determinants, in St. Leonard's College, in 1525. Mr. William Johnstone was the last of nine Advocates who were admitted at the insitution of the Court of Session, 27th May 1532. The time when he fled appears to have been two years later. But after the death of James V, he returned to Scotland, probably with the Governor, and apostatized from the Reformed faith. This we learn from a letter, written to the Pope, in the Queen's name, which states, "that the bearer, Mr. William Johnstone, a layman, had ten years previously imbibed the new doctrines; that after much distress of mind, he earnestly longed to be reunited to the mystical body of Christ, but no opportunity had hitherto presented itself. Wherefore James Earl of Arran, Governor of our kingdom, supplicates that his Holiness the Pope might receive the said William into the bosom of the Church." This letter is dated the 18th of April 1544.—(Epistolæ Regum Scotorum, vol. ii. p. 200.) Maister Henry Hendyrson, schoolmaister of Edinburgh,129129Henryson, or Henderson, appears in the list of Licentiates in St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews, in 1524. He had previously been employed as an assistant to Mr. David Vocat, principal Master and Tutour of the Grammar School of the burgh of Edinburgh, who having chosen "his kind freend and discipill, Master Henry Henrison, to be con-master;" this nomination was approved of by George Bishop of Dunkeld and Abbot of Holyroodhouse; and (apparently on the death of Vocat,) it was further confirmed by a royal charter, dated 21st of March 1529, enjoyning that "the said Master Henry Henrysoun be at hie solempne festivale tymes with ws, the said Abbot and our successouris, at Hie Mass and Ewin sang, with his surples upoun him, to do ws service the time that we sall doe devyne service within our said Abbey, as efferis." (Reg. Mag. Sigilli, lib. xxiii. No. 157.—See MʻCrie's Life of Melville, vol. ii. p. 479,) Calderwood, in mentioning that Henryson had fled, and been condemned as a heretic, adds, that he died in England.—(Hist. vol. i. p. 108.) The escheat of his goods was granted to James Bannatyne, according to an entry in the Treasurer's Accounts, 1539, 1540, "Compositio bonorum eschætorum Magistri Henrici Henderson convict. de crimine heresieos, ab antiquo concess. Jacobo Bannatyne," &c. (MʻCrie's Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 359.) of whome some compeired in the Abbay Kirk of58 Halyrudhouse, and so abjured and publictlie brynt thare byllis:130130To burn one's bill, was a sign of recantation. "The form of burning one's bill, (says Keith,) or recanting, was this—The person accused was to bring a faggot of dry sticks and burn it publicly, by which ceremony he signified that he destroyed that which should have been the instrument of his death." (Hist. vol. i. p. 15.) otheris compeared nott, and tharefoir war exyled. Butt in judgement war produced two, to wit, David Stratoun,131131David Stratoun is described by Calderwood and other writers, as a brother of the Laird of Lauriston. (See note 135.) On the 10th of March 1538-9, for the sum of £20, the composition of a tenement in Dundee, falling to the King, "per decessum Davidis Straitoun in Quhitstoun, justificati ad mortem pro certis criminibus heresieos," was granted to David Gardyne and Mariote Erskyn. Pitscottie erroneously places the execution of Stratoun and Gourlay under the year 1530. Their trial took place in Holyroodhouse, in the King's presence; James Hay, Bishop of Ross, (from 1525 to 1538,) acting as Commissioner for Archbishop Beaton.—(See Foxe's Martyrs; Cald. Hist. vol. i. p. 106; Keith's Hist. vol. i., p. 16.) a gentilman, and Maister Normound Gowrlay,132132Norman Gourlay was in priest's orders, and had been a student at St. Andrews. His name occurs in the list of Determinants, in 1513, and of Licentiates, in 1515. a man of reassonable eruditioun, of whom we mon schortlye speak. In Maister Normound appeared knawledge, albeit joyned with weakness. But in David Stratoun, could onlye be espyed, for the first, a haterent against the pride and avaritiousnes of the preastis; for the causse of his delatioun was, he had maid to him self ane fische boit to go to the sea. The Bischop of Murray, (then being Priour of Sanctandross,133133These words are added in the margin of the MS., probably in Knox's own hand.) and his factouris, urgeid him for the teind thairof. His ansuer was, Yf thei wald haif teynd of that which his servandis wane in the sea, it war but reassoun, that thei should come and receave it whare his gatt the stock; and so, as was constantlye affirmed, he caused his servandis cast the tenth fische in the sea agane.59 Processe of curssing was led against him, for non payment of such teindis:134134See note 77.—The Rev. C. Anderson shows, from Foxe, that it was the Vicar of Ecclesgreig, and not Prior Hepburn, with whom Stratoun had a dispute about tythes. (Annals, vol. ii. p. 470.) which when he contempned, he was delaited to answer for heresye. It trubled him vehementlie; and thairfoir he begane to frequent the company of such as war godlie; for befoir he had bene ane man verry stubburne, and one that dispysed all reading, (cheaflie of those thingis that war godly;) but miraculouslie, as it war, his appeared to be changeid; for he delyted in nothing but in reading, (albeit him self could not reid,) and was ane vehement exhortar of all men to concord, to qwyetness, and to the contempt of the warld. He frequented much the company of the Lard of Dun, whome God, in those dayis, had marvelouslie illuminated. Upoun a day, as the Lard of Lowristoun,135135   From the Register of the Great Seal, it is evident that the Stratouns of Stratoun and the Stratouns of Lauriston in Kincardineshire, were one and the same family. Thus we find that charters were granted to
    (1.) Alexander Stratoun de eodem, and Agnes Ogilvy his spouse, in 1507; and to Alexander Stratoun de Lauranstoun, (of the barony of Stratoun,) in 1509.

    (2.) Andrew Stratoun de eodem, and Isobel Lindsay his spouse, in 1541.

    (3.) George Stratoun, son and heir of Andrew Stratoun de eodem, in 1539; and George Stratoun de Lauriston, in 1547. (The last will of George Stratoun of that ilk, is recorded 5th April 1576, in the Register of Confirmed Testaments.)

    (4.) Alexander Stratoun, son and heir of George Stratoun de eodem, in 1553. This Alexander Stratoun de eodem was served heir of George Stratoun de eodem, his father, 3d June 1580.

    David Stratoun, who suffered martyrdom, was probably a younger son of the first Alexander Stratoun above mentioned.
that yit lyveth, then being ane young man, was reading unto him upoun the New Testament, in ane certane qwyet place in the feildis, as God had appointed, he chaunced to read these sentenceis of our Maistir, Jesus Christ: "He that denyis me befoir men, or is eschamed of me in the myddest of this wicked generatioun, I will deny him in the presence of my Father, and befoir his angellis." At which wordis, he suddandlie being as one ravissed, platt him self136136In MS. G, "cast himself." upoun his knees, and extending baith handis and60 visage constantlie to the heavin a reassonable tyme, at lenth he burst furth in these wourdis, "O Lorde, I have bene wicked, and justlie may thow extract thy grace from me. But, Lord, for thy mercyis saik, lett me never deny thee, nor thy trewth, for fear of death or corporall pane." The ischew declaired that his prayer was not vane: for when he, with the foirsaid Maistir Normound, was produceid in judgement in the Abbey of Halyrudhouse, the King him self, (all cled in redd,) being present, great laubouris war maid, that the said David Stratoun should have recanteid, and brunt his bill. But he ever standing at his defence, alledgeing that he had not offended, in the end was adjudgeid unto the fyre; and then, when that he perceaved the danger, asked grace of the King, (which he wold willinglye have granted unto him:) The Bischoppes proudly answered, That the Kingis handis war bound in that case, and that he had no grace to give to such as by thare law war condempned. And so was he, with the said Maistir Normond, after dennar, upoun the twentye sevin day of August, the zeir of God Jm. Vc. thretty four foirsaid, lead to a place besydis the Roode of Greynsyd;137137The Rood or cross of Greenside. The actual site of the gibbet, where criminals were executed, is somewhat doubtful; (Maitland's Edinburgh, p. 215;) but it was near the road leading from the Calton towards Leith. James the Second, in 1456, had granted a piece, on the eastern side of this road, in the place which still retains the name of the Greenside, for holding public sports and tournaments. and thair thei two war boyth hanged, and brunt, according to the mercy of the Papisticall Kirk.138138In MS. G, "Church." To that same dyett war summoned, as befoir we have said, otheris of whome some eschaiped in England,139139Among the persons who fled at this time to England, was James Hamilton, Sheriff of Linlithgow, and brother of Patrick Hamilton; also his sister Katherine. In August 1535, Cranmer introduces him to Crumwell as a gentleman who had left his country for no cause, but "that he favoured the truth of God's word;" and on the 24th of April 1536, he sent to Crumwell a copy of the sentence given against him by the Bishops at Holyrood, praying that Henry would write to his nephew on his behalf. See the Rev. Chr. Anderson's Annals of the English Bible, vol. ii. pp. 471, 472. Hamilton obtained permission to return in 1540. and so for that present eschaiped the death.

This thaire tyranny notwithstanding, the knowledge of God did61 wonderouslie increase within this realme, partlie by reading, partlie by brotherlye conferance, which in those dangerouse dayis was used to the comforte of many; butt cheaflie by merchantis and marinaris, who, frequenting other cuntreis, heard the trew doctrin affirmed, and the vanitie of the Papisticall religioun openlye rebucked: Amongis whome war Dundy and Leyth principalles, against whome was maid ane verry strayte inquisitioun, by David Betoun, cruell Cardinall;140140The exact dates of the several persons accused of heresy, or who suffered martyrdom in Scotland during the reign of James the Fifth, in many instances cannot be ascertained; but it is evident that while many persons were accused between 1534 and 1537, the flames of persecution were rekindled with greater fury, at the time that David Beaton became Coadjutor of St. Andrews, and was raised to the dignity of a Cardinal, at the close of the year 1538. and diverse war compelled to abjure and burne thair byllis, some in Sanctandross, and some at Edinburgh. About the same tyme, Capitane Johnne Borthwik was brunt in figure, but by Goddis providence eschaiped thair fury.141141Knox has here mistaken the time when Sir John Borthwick, being accused, but having made his escape to England, was burned in effigy. The date was the 28th of May 1540, or two days after the baptism of Prince James. See Appendix, No. VIII. And this was done, for a spectackle and triumphe to Marie of Loreane,142142Mary of Lorraine, daughter of the Duke of Guyse, and widow of the Duke of Longueville, became James the Fifth's second Queen. On her arrival from France, she landed at Balcomie, near Crail, in Fife, on the 14th of June 1538. She was conveyed to St. Andrews with great pomp; and Pitscottie has furnished an interesting account of the pageants, &c., represented on that festive occasion. See also Lyon's Hist, of St. Andrews, vol. i. p. 273. laitlie arrived fra France, as wyff to James the Fyft, King of Scottis. What plagues sche brought with hir, and how thei yitt continew, such as ar nott blynd may manifestlie see.

The raige of those bloody beastis proceadith so that the Kingis Courte it self eschaipit nott that danger; for in it62 diverse war suspected, and some accused. And yitt ever still did some lycht burst out in the myddis of darknes; for the trewth of Christ Jesus entered evin in the cloastearis, alsweall of Frearis, as of Monkis and Channounes. Johnne Lyn, ane Gray freare, left his hipocryticall habite, and the den of those murtheraris the Gray Frearis. Ane Black freir, called Frear Kyllour,143143In Vautr. edit., "Killor." Unfortunately his play, which probably was represented in 1535 or 1536, has not been preserved. Neither has any information respecting Friar Kyllour himself been discovered. sett furth the Historye of Christis Passioun in forme of a play, quhilk he boith preached and practised opinlie in Striveling, the King him salf being present, upoun a Good Friday in the mornyng: In the which, all thingis war so levelye expressed, that the verray sempill people understood and confessed, that as the Preastis and obstinat Pharisyes persuaded the people to refuise Christ Jesus, and caused Pilat to condampne him; so did the Bischoppes, and men called Religious, blynd the people, and perswaid Princes and Judgeis to persecute sick as professis Jesus Christ his blessed Evangell.

This plane speaking so enflammed the hartes of all that bare the beastis mark, that thei ceassed nott, till that the said Frear Kyllour, and with him Frear Beverage, Sir Duncane Symesoun,144144The property of persons convicted of heresy and other penal crimes, became escheated to the Crown; and the escheat was usually bestowed by a special grant from the King under the Privy Seal, upon payment of a composition to the High Treasurer. On the 1st of March 1538-9, such a grant was made to James Menteith, "of all gudis quhilkis pertenit to uniquhile Sir Duncane Symsoun, Chaplane, and pertenyis to our Soverane Lord be reason of eschete, through justifying of the said Sir Duncane to the deid for certane crymes of heresy imput to him."—(MʻCrie's Knox, vol. i. p. 363.) Robert Froster,145145In Vautr. edit. and the later MSS. "Forrester." Robert Forrester was "brother to Thomas Forrestare of Arngibbonne." Along with "William Forrestare, son to John Forrestare, burgess of Stirling," and three other persons, he found surety to underly the law, on the ground of "haifing and using of sic bukis as ar suspect of heresy," &c. 10th January 1538-9.—(Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. 216.) It appears from Knox and other authorities, that he was condemned, and suffered on the 1st of March that year; and after their death, the goods of Robert Forrester, and of William Forrester, were confiscated 23d March 1538-9. ane gentilman, and Dene Thomas63 Forret,146146   Of Thomas Forret, Canon-regular in the Monastery of St. Colm's Inch, and Vicar of Dollar, who finished his education at Cologne, an interesting account is preserved in Foxe's Martyrs, and has been copied into "The Scots Worthies." His father is said to have been Master of the King's Stables, in the reign of James the Fourth. In the Treasurer's Accounts, in February 1501, we find the name of Thomas Forret, as one of the persons at Court to whom dresses were furnished at the King's expense. In like manner,—
    "1507, July 9. Item, to Thome Foret, in bredil-silver of ane hors send furth of Sanct Johnstoun to the King, ix s.

    "1512, July 10. Item, to Thome Foret, to pas to Fast Castle, to see the Inglis schippis, xiiij s."
Channoun Regulare and Vicar of Dolour, ane man of upright lief, who all togetther war cruelly murthered in one fyre,147147In MS. G, is added, "Upoun the Castell Hill." the last day of Februar, in the zeir of [God] 1538.148148   That is 1538-9, the year then being reckoned to commence on the 25th of March. But the actual date of their martyrdom, instead of the last day of February, seems to have been the 1st of March, according to an incidental notice in the Household Books of James the Fifth; as, in order to render the example more striking, the King himself was present:—
    "1 Mar. 1539. Accusatio Hæreticorum et eorum Combustio, apud Edinburgh, Rege Presente."—(Archæologia, vol. xxii. p. 7.) The next day the King returned to Linlithgow. A corresponding notice is furnished by the Treasurer's Accounts, 1st of March 1539.

    "Item, deliverit to Archibald Heriot messinger, to pas and search their goods who were abjured and declared heretics in Edinburgh and Stirling, xij s."
This cruelty was used be the said Cardinall, the Chancellar, Bischope of Glasgw, and the incesteous Bischope of Dumblane.149149That is, the Cardinal Beaton; Gawin Dunbar, Archbishop of Glasgow and Lord Chancellor; and George Crichton, Bishop of Dunkeld.

After that this cruelty was used in Edinburght, upon the Castell Hill, to the effect that the rest of the Bischoppes mycht schaw thame selfis no less fervent to suppress the light of God, than hie of Sanctandrose was, war apprehended two in the Diosey of Glasgw. The one was named Jeronimus Russall,150150In a letter from Sir Thomas Wharton, at Carlisle, 7th November 1538, to Lord Crumwell, it is said, "There was at Dumfreis laitlie one Frere Jerom, callid a well lernid man, taken by the Lorde Maxvell upon commandment from the Bishopis, and lyith in sore yerons, like to suffre for the Inglish menes opynyons, as thai saie, anenpst the lawis of Gode. Hit passeth abrode daylie, thankes be to God, there, all that same notwithstandinge."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 141.) a Cordyleyr frear, a young man of a meak nature,64 qwyk spreat, and good letteris; and one Kennedy,151151Petrie the Church Historian, says, "The summer following (1539,) Jerome Russell, a Gray friar, and Thomas Kennedy, a young man of Aire, not above 18 years of age, were at Glascow, accused of heresy."—(Hist. p. 179.) Whether he had any authority for calling him Thomas, can only be conjectured. Calderwood names him N. Kennedy; hence he has been called Ninian; but see note 23. who passed not xviij yearis of aige, one of excellent injyne in Scotish poesye. To assist the Bischope of Glasgw in that cruell judgement, or att least to caus him dippe his handis in the blood of the Sanctes of God, war send Maister John Lawder,152152Of Mr. John Lauder mention will afterwards be made, in connexion with Knox's account of George Wishart's trial. Maister Andro Oliphant,153153Oliphant was educated at St. Andrews, his name occurring among the Determinants, in 1525. Having taken his Master's degree, he obtained preferment in the Church, as Vicar of Foulis and Innertig; and was employed by Cardinal Beaton as his confidential agent at Rome. In Sadler's State Papers is an intercepted letter from Beaton to him, dated 11th November 1539, (vol. i. p. 13.) In May 1540, in the proceedings against Sir John Borthwick, he is styled Notary Public, and Secretary to Cardinal Beaton. Oliphant, (misnamed Eliphant,) in the Provincial Council, held at Edinburgh in 1549, is styled "Secretarius et Notarius in Concilio."—(Wilkins, Conc. vol. i. p. 46.) In 1553 and 1554, he was again employed at Rome, in the affairs of the Governor and of Archbishop Hamilton; and in 1558, he appeared as the accuser of Walter Myll, when tried for heresy. See next note. The name of Mr. Andro Oliphant, Notary Public, also occurs in November 1559, in the Acts of Parliament, (vol. ii. p. 508.) and Frear Maltman, sergeantis of Sathan,154154In MS. G, "servantis." In Vautr. edit. "servantes;" and Vautr. edit., MSS. A, E, &c., read "Meitman." Of this Friar, who with Lauder and Oliphant, are emphatically styled "servants of Satan," not much is known. According to Pitscottie, whilst Schir Andrew Oliphant stood forth as the public accuser of Walter Myln, in April 1558, Friar Maltman preached a sermon on the same occasion, previously to his trial in the Abbey Kirk of St. Andrews. apt for that purpose. The day appointed to thare crueltie approched, the two poore sanctis of God war presented befoir those bloody bowcheouris: grevouse war the crymes that war layed to thare charge. Kennedy at the first was faynt, and glaidly wald have recanted. But whill65 that place of reapentance was denyed unto him, the Spreit of God, which is the Spreit of all conforte, begane to wyrk into him, yea the inward conforte begane to burst furth, alsweall in visage, as in tung and wourd; for his countenance begane to be chearfull, and with a joyfull voce upoun his kneis, hie said, "O eternal God! how wonderouse is that luf and mercy that thow bearest unto mankynd, and unto me the moist cative and miserable wrache above all utheris; for, evin now, when I wold have denyed thee, and thy Sone, our Lord Jesus Christ, my onlye Saveour, and so have casten my self in everlesting damnatioun; thow, by thy awin hand, has pulled me frome the verray bottome of hell, and mackis me to feall that heavinlie conforte which tackis fra me that ungodly fear, whairwyth befoir I was oppressed. Now I defy death; do what ye please: I praise my God I am readdy." The godly and learned Jeronimus, rayled upoun by those godless tyrantes, ansured, "This is your houre and the power of darknes: now sytt ye as judgeis; and we stand wrongfullie accused, and more wrongfullie to be condempned; but the day shall come, when our innocency shall appeare, and that ye shall see your awin blyndness, to your everlesting confusioun. Go fordward, and fulfill the measur of your iniquitie." Whill that these servandis of God thus behaved thame selfis, aryseth a variance betuix the Bischope and the beastis that came from the Cardinall; for the Bischope said, "I think it better to spayr these men, nor to putt thame to death."155155Petrie, in his notice of their trial, says, "because Bishop Gawin Dunbar was thought cold in the business, Messrs. John Lauder, and Andro Oliphant, and Frier Maltman, were sent from Edinburgh to assist him."—(Hist. Part ii, p. 179.) We may indeed conclude, that unless for the zeal of these Inquisitors, Russell and Kennedy might have escaped martyrdom. Wharat the idiot Doctouris offended, said, "What will yo do, my Lord? Will ye condempne all that my Lord Cardinall and the other Bischoppes and we have done? Yf so ye do, ye schaw your self ennemye to the Kirk and us,66 and so we will reputt yow, be ye assured." At which wordis, the faythless man effrayed, adjudgeed the innocentis to dye, according to the desyre of the wicked. The meak and gentill Jerome Russall conforted the other with many confortable sentences, oft saying unto him, "Brother, fear nott: more potent is He that is in us, then is hie that is in the world: The pane that we shall suffer is schorte, and shalbe lycht; but our joy and consolatioun shall never have end: And thairfoir lett us contend to enter in unto our Maister and Saveour, by the same strait way, which he has traidd156156In MS. G, "trod:" in Vautr. edit. "taken." befoir us. Death cane not destroy us; for it is destroyed allreaddy by him for whose saik we suffer." Wyth these and the like confortable sentences, thei passed to the place of executioun; and constantlie triumphed owir death and Sathan, evin in the myddest of the flammyng fyre.

And thus did those cruell beastis intend nothing but murther in all the quarteris of this Realme.157157Thomas Duke of Norfolk, in a letter to Lord Crumwell from Berwick, 29th of March 1639, says, "Dayly commeth unto me, some gentlemen and some clerkes, wich do flee owte of Scotland, as they saie, for redyng of Scripture in Inglishe; saying that, if they were taken, they sholde be put to execution. I geve them gentle wordes; and to some, money." In the same letter, he adds, "Here is nowe in this toune, and hath be[ne] a good season, she that was wife to the late capitaigne of Donbar, and dare not retorne, for holding our waies, as she saithe. She was in Englande, and sawe Quene Jane. She was Sir Patricke Hamelton's doughter, and her brother was brent in Scotlande 3 or 4 yeres past."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 155.) This last reference as to date is an obvious mistake. See extract from Foxe's Martyrs, in Appendix, No. V., respecting Katherine Hamilton, and her brother, James Hamilton of Kincavel, who returned in 1540, and is mentioned in the following note. For so far had that blynded and most vitious man, the Prince, (most vitious, we shall call him, for hie nether spaired manis wieff nor madyn, no more after his mariage then he did befoir,)—so far, we say, had he gevin him self to obey the tyranny of those bloody beastis, that he had maid a solempned vow, That none should be spaired that was suspect of Heresye, yea,67 althought it war his awin sone. To press and push him fordward in that his fury, he lacked not flatteraris ynew; for many of his miazeonis war pensionaris to preastis; amangis whome, Oliver Synclar, yitt remaning ennemy to God, was the principale. And yit did not God cease to give to that blynded Prince documentis, that some suddane plague was to fall upoun him, in case hie did not reapent his wicked lief; and that his awin mouth did confesse. For after that Sir James Hammyltoun was beheaded,158158   Sir James Hamilton of Finnart was a bastard son of James first Earl of Arran; but he obtained letters of legitimation, 20 Jan. 1512-13. His slaughter of the Earl of Lennox in 1526, (see note 116,) was rewarded by the Captaincy of Linlithgow Palace. In Buchanan's Admonition, written in 1570, after the Regent Earl of Murray's death, to expose "the practises of the Hamiltons," there is a detailed account of the several conspiracies against James the Fifth, in which Sir James was concerned. But Hamilton latterly became a favourite of the King, and acquired large possessions. In 1533, he was appointed an Extraordinary Lord of Session; and, as Master of Works, he superintended the building or additions made to the Palace of Linlithgow, Blackness Castle, and other royal edifices.—(Treasurer's Accounts, Sept. 1538, and April 1539.) On the 9th of October 1539, is this entry,—
    "Item, gevin to Schir James Hammiltoun, Master of Wark, to compleit the Kingis wark in Striveling, as the appointment and contract maid betuix the Compt and him thairupon beris, iiijm. lib." (£4000.)

    "Item, (in April 1540,) gevin to Schir James Hammyltoun, in parte payment of the rest of his comptis for the warkis of Lynlythqw and Blakness, at the Kingis command, be ane precept, iijc. lib." (£300.)

    But his fate was not less sudden than it must have been unexpected. In the same record, we find that on the 16th of August 1540, a messenger was employed "for summonyng of ane assiss to Schir James Hammiltoun, and for wyne brocht into the Lordis, being upoun his inqueist, xv s. x d."—His accuser was James Hamilton of Kincavel, Sheriff of Linlithgow, and being convicted of treason, which had been long concealed, his sentenco was carried into immediate execution.
(justlie or injustlie we disput nott,) this visioun came unto him, as to his familiaris him self did declare: The said Sir James appeared unto him, having in his handis a drawin sworde, by the which fra the King hie stroke boith the armes, saying to him these wourdis, "Tak that, whill thow receave a finall payment for all thy impietie." This visioun,159159Pitscottie has given a more detailed narrative of Sir James Hamilton's condemnation and of the King's vision. with sorowfull conteanance, hie68 schew on the morow; and schortlie thaireftir deid his two sonnes, boith within the space of 24 houris; yea, some say, within the space of sex houris.160160The birth of a Prince, named James after his father, on 22d of May 1540, is mentioned at note 201. The younger son, named Arthur, Duke of Rothesay, &c., was born at Stirling, in April 1541, where he died, according to Lesley, eight days after his baptism.—(Hist. p. 188.) In the Treasurer's Accounts, about the end of April 1541, there was paid "to Andre Zare in Striviling, for ane cap of leid that my Lord Duke was buried in." Prince James died within six hours of Arthur. Mr. Tytler falls into a strange mistake in placing their death subsequently to that of Queen Margaret, widow of James the Fourth. In a letter to her brother Henry the Eighth, written from Stirling, on the 12th of May 1541, she mentions the great distress "for the death of the Prynce and hys brothar, both with the Kyng my derrest son, and the Quene hys wyffe."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 188.) The Queen Dowager died, however, within a few months; the "Diurnal of Occurrents" says on the 24th of November. This date is evidently incorrect, as on the 1st of that month, messengers were despatched with letters "to divers Lordis and gentilmen to cum to the Quenis tyrement." (Treasurer's Accounts.) A letter, describing her last illness, is preserved among the State Papers, vol. v. p. 193, written in December, by Ray the pursuevant, who had been sent by the Privy Council to Scotland specially to report on the subject. In his awin presence, Georde Steill, his greattest flatterar, and greattest ennemy to God that was in his Courte, dropped of his horse, and deid without worde,161161His death may be referred to the end of the year 1541, or early in 1542; as the Treasurer paid "to David Hardy, be ane tykket of George Steilis, for hinging of the tapescherie in Halyrudhouse, and doun taking of the samin, vij s." on the 16 Oct. 1541.—The name of George Steill is occasionally met with in the Treasurer's Accounts, during the reign of James the Fifth. We may conjecture that he was the son of John Steill, one of the servitors to James the Fourth, (apparently King's tailor,) from 1495 to 1502. George, who was a burgess of Edinburgh, had acquired the lands of Houston, and other property. He had a charter under the Great Seal, of the office of Coquet Clerk of the borough: "Officii Clericatus Coketæ Burgi de Edinburgo," 3 Sept. 1523. The charters of the lands of Houston, in Linlithgowshire, were granted to himself and Christian Wilson his spouse, 31 July 1530, and 22 Sept. 1532. He had also a charter of "the Common-myre near Duddingston Loch," in the County of Edinburgh, 24 July 1540. In the year 1672, the Common-myre is described as extending to 52 acres, in the barony of Preistfield, now Prestonfield, (Retours, Edin. No. 1196.) that same day that, in oppin audience of many, the said George had refuisscd his portioun of Christis kingdome, yf the prayeris of the Virgin Marie should not bring him thairto. How terrible a visioun the said Prince saw,69 lying in Lynlythqw, that nycht that Thomas Scott,162162Thomas Scott of Pitgorno, in Fife, was the second son of Sir William Scott of Balweary, (Douglas's Baronage, p. 304.) A person of the same name was a Licentiate at St. Andrews in 1501. He seems to have held some situation at Court, as, among other persons of the Royal Household, he received £40, at Christmas 1530, for their "fealis and pensionis." In 1533, the Treasurer also paid "Thomas Scot for his fee, be the Kingis precept," the sum of £133, 2s. 8d. On the 19th of October 1532, Scott was admitted an Ordinary Lord of Session, in the room of his father, who was then deceased—(Senators of the College of Justice, p. 40.) As a further mark of Royal favour, he was appointed Justice Clerk in 1535. A letter, signed by him, "Thomas Scott of Pitgorno," on the 1st of December 1537, addressed to Crumwell, complains of the resetting of traitors who had escaped to England, (some of them, we may suppose, were persons accused of heresy;) and he concludes with suggesting that Henry the Eighth would make an acceptable "propyne" to his nephew, by sending James a young lion, brought from Flanders.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 125.) Justice Clerk, dyed in Edinburgh, men of good credite cane yitt reporte. For effrayed at mydnycht, or after, hie cryed for torches, and reissed all that lay besyd him in the Palice, and told that Thome Scott was dead; for hie had bene at him with a company of devillis, and had said unto him these wordes, "O wo to the day, that ever I knew thee, or thy service; for, for serving of thee against God, against his servandis, and against justice, I am adjudgeid to endless torment." How terrible voces the said Thomas Scott pronunced befoir his death, men of all estaitis heard; and some that yitt lyve cane witness;163163Scott's death must have taken place about the close of 1539, the office of Justice-Clerk having been conferred on Thomas Bellenden of Auchinoul, 26th December that year. In a letter written by Mr. Alexander Colvile, Justice-Depute, 20th December 1622, the above confession of Scott is thus mentioned in connection with the appointment of suitable persons to the office of Justice-Clerk, "If he, I say, be not a sound, conscientious man, and free of baise bribrie, he may prove a pernitious instrument, and to the cawse that iniquitie may be committed; as we have yit in memorie of one Thomas Scot of Abotishall, quho was Justice Clerk to James the Fift, of happie memorie, quho being strukin with a terror of conscience, at the hour of his death, for his evill cariage in that place, dyed in desperation, crying, 'I am damned! I am damned!'"—(Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. iii. p. 596.) A proof of Scott's iniquitous proceedings is embodied in the Act of Parliament rescinding the forfeiture of John Lord Glammys, on the 15th of March 1542-3, upon a pretended Confession, being "fraudfullie indusit be umquhile Thomas Scot, Justice-Clerk, and utheris familiaris to our said umquhile Soverane Lord, to mak the said pretendit Confessioune, sayand to him, that his life, landis, gudis, movabill and ummovabill, suld be saif to him; and that na process nor sentence of forfaultor sould be led aganis him."—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 422.) his voce was ever, "70Justo Dei judicio condemnatus sum:" that is, I am condempned by Goddis just judgement. He was most oppressed for the delatioun and fals accusatioun of such as professed Christis Evangell, as Maister Thomas Marjoribankis,164164Mr. Thomas Marjoribanks of Ratho, was one of the ten Advocates admitted at the institution of the College of Justice, 7th of May 1532. He acquired the lands of Ratho in 1540; and in that year, he was Provost of Edinburgh, and sat in the Parliaments 1540 and 1546. He was admitted a Lord of Session, and Clerk-Register, on the 8th of February 1548-9, as successor to Sir James Foulis. "Maister Thomas Marjoribankis, now Clerk of oure Soverane Ladyes Register, for his feyes in the yeris of God 1549 and 1550," received "for ilk year 20 merkis, Summa £26, 13s. 4d." He was deprived of the office of Clerk-Register in 1554, and died before 1560.—(Senators of the College of Justice, p. 98.) and Maister Hew Rig,165165Mr. Hugh Rigg was admitted an Advocate, on the 16th of November 1537. He obtained a Charter of Confirmation to himself and Janet Hopper his spouse, of the lands of Carberry, in the shire of Edinbuigh, 21st July 1543. The old baronial mansion-house of Carberry stands in the eastern part of the parish of Inveresk.—(New Statistical Account.) Hugh Rigg is again mentioned by Knox, and also by Pitscottie, as one of the four persons to whom the Governor of Scotland communicated the overtures of the Duke of Somerset, immediately previous to the battle of Pinkie. He was succeeded by his son James Rig of Carberry, whose name occurs, in 1577 and 1580, in lists of Assize (Pitcairn's Crim. Trials); and "Magr. Quintigernus Rig," was served heir to his father, James Rig of Carbarry, 29 Jan. 1600.—(Retours, Edinb. No. 30.) then advocattis, did confesse to Maister Henrie Balnavis; who, from the said Thome Scott, cam to him, as he and Maister Thomas Ballenden166166Mr. Thomas Bellenden, or Bannatyne, of Auchinoul, was the son of Patrick Bellenden. He was admitted an Ordinary Judge on the 22d of June 1535. He was appointed Director of Chancery, 10th of September 1538; and on the 26th of December 1539, he succeeded Scott of Pitgorno, as Justice-Clerk. He was one of the Commissioners who met for redress, on the Border; and Sir William Eure informs Crumwell, on the 26th of January 1540, that he had "hade diverse commynyages with Mr. Thomas Bellendyn, one of the said Counsellours for Scotlande, a man by estymatioun apperaunte to be of th'age of fiftye zeres or above, and of gentle and sage conversatioun, specially touching the staye of the spiritualitie of Scotland."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 169.) He died in 1546, and was succeeded in his offices of Justice-Clerk and Director of Chancery, by his eldest son, Sir John Bellenden. war sytting in Sanet Geillis Kirk, and asked him forgevance in the name of the said Thomas.71 None of these terrible forwarnynges could eyther change or mollifie the heart of the indurat, licherous, and avaritious tyranne; but still he dois procead frome impietie to impietie. For, in the myddest of these admonitionis, he caused putt handis in that notable man, Maister George Balquhannan,167167   Buchanan was born in the year 1506. Having taken his Bachelor's degree at St. Andrews, 3d Oct. 1525, he completed his academical course at Paris. It is usually stated that he returned to Scotland, along with Gilbert Earle of Cassilis, in 1537. The following notices from the Treasurer's Accounts, prove that date to be incorrect.
    "Item, the xvj day of Februar [1535-6,] be the Kingis gracis precept and speciale command to Maister George Balquhannan and Andro Myln, servandis to Lord James, to be thame twa gounis," &c., and various other "leverays," viz., "hoiss, bonettis, hugtonis, and doublettis."

    "Item, [the xxj day of August 1537,] to Master George Balquhannan, at the Kingis command, xx lib."

    In July 1538, upon occasion of "the Quenis (Magdalene's) saull mess and dirige, quham God assolze," Maister George Balquhanan received a goun of Paryse blak, lyned with blak satyne, &c. Also £20, at the King's command.
to whome, for his singulare eruditioun and honest behaveour, was committed the charge to instruct some of his bastard children.168168Lord James Stewart, to whom Buchanan acted as tutor, was the King's natural son, by Elizabeth Shaw, of the family of Sauchie.—(Dr. Irving's Life of Buchanan, p. 17.) He had the Abbacies of Kelso and Melrose conferred on him; but he died at an early age, in the year 1548. Butt, by the mercifull providence of God, he eschaped (albeit with great difficultie,) the rage of these that sought his blood, and remancs alyve to this day, in the yeare of God Jm. Vc. threseor sax yearis, to the glorie of God, to the great honour of his natioun, and unto the conforte of those that delyte in letteris and vertew. That singulare werke of David his Psalmes in Latine meter and poesie,169169On the title of the first edition of Buchanan's Paraphrase of the Psalms, he is characterized as Poetarum nostri sæculi facile princeps. It was printed at Paris, by Henry Stephanus, in 8vo, without date; but apparently in 1564. A second edition has the date 1566. But the same printer had published a selection of 18 Psalms by Buchanan, with corresponding versions by other Poets, at Paris in 1556, 4to. besydis many utheris, cane witness the rare graces of God gevin to that man, which that tyrant, by instigatioun of the Gray Frearis, and of his other flatteraris, wold altogither have72 devored, yf God had nott providit remeady to his servand by eschaping.170170The date of Buchanan's escape from Scotland is fixed by his own statement to the beginning of the year 1539, when he says five persons (Symson, Forrester, &c., see note 145) were condemned to the flames, whilst nine others made a formal recantation of their Lutheran errors, and many more were driven into exile; among whom was George Buchanan, who escaped by the window of his bed-chamber, while his keepers were asleep: "In his fuit Georgius Buchananus qui, sopitis custodibus, per cubiculi fenestram evaserat."—(Hist. lib. xiv.)

This cruelty and persecutioun171171These words seem to belong to the last paragraph; but all the copies place them as here printed. notwithstanding, thei monstouris and hypocreattis the Gray Frearis, day by day, came farther in contempt; for not only did the learned espy172172In MS. G, "espy and detest." thare abhominable hypocrisye, but also men, in whom no such graces nor giftis ware thought to have bene, begane plainlie to paynt the same furth to the people; as this Ryme, which here we have inserted for the same purpose, maid by Alexander Erle of Glencarne,173173Alexander Lord Kilmauris, third son of the fourth Earl of Glencairn. In 1543, he was in England as a hostage for his father's sincerity; and Sir Ralph Sadler says, in a letter to Henry the Eighth, "Furthermore, he hath written to your Majesty to have his son home, entring other pledges for him. He is called the Lord of Kilmaurs, and the Master of Glencairn; and in my poor opinion, they be few such Scots in Scotland, both for his wisdom and learning, and well dedicate to the truth of Christ's word and doctrine."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 83.) "The acute Sadler," as Sir Walter Scott remarks, "discerned the germ of those qualities which afterwards made this nobleman the great promoter of the Reformation, and in consequence a steady adherent of the English interest." (ib.) Both the Earl of Glencairn, and his son Lord Kilmaurs, received pensions from Henry the Eighth. Owing to the death of his brothers, he succeeded to the Earldom in 1547, and survived till 1574. yitt alyve, can witnesse, intitulat,

Ane Epistle direct fra the Holye Armite of Allarit,174174Thomas Douchtie, Hermit of Alareit, or Loretto, near Musselburgh—see note 186. to his Bretheren the Gray Freires.

I, Thomas, Armite in Larite, Sainet Frances brether175175In MS. G, "Francis Ordour dos." hartlie greit,73

Beseiking yow with ferme176176In MS. G, "gud." intent,
To be walkryfe and diligent;
For thir Lutherians, rissen of new,
Our Ordour daylie dois persew:
Thay smaikis do sett their haill intent,
To reid this English New Testament;
And sayes, We have thame clene disceavit.
Therefore, in haist, they man be stoppit.177177In MS. L 2, "stayed."
Our stait hypocrisie they prysse,
And us blaspheamis on this wyse,
Sayand, That we are heretikes,
And fals, loud, liand, mastif tykes;
Cumerars and quellars of Christes kirk,
Sueir swongeouris178178In Vautr. edit. "Such lasie scamleris." that will not wirk,
But ydlelie our living wynnes,
Devouring woulves into sheip skynnes,
Hurkland with huides into our neck,
Wyth Judas mynd to jouck and beck,
Seikand Christes peple to devoir,
The down thringars of God his179179In MS. G, "Christis glorie." glore,
Professouris of hipocrisie,
And doctouris in idolatrie,
Stout fyschares with the Feindis nett,
The upclosars of Heavins yett,
Cankcarit corruptars of the Creid,
Homlok sawares amangest good seid,
To trow in traytouris, that do men tyiste,
The hie way kennand thame fra Chryst,
Monstouris with the Beast his mark,
Dogges that never stintes to bark,
Kirk men that are with180180In MS. G, "to." Christ unkend,
A sect that Sathane self hes send,74
Lurkand in holes, lyke traytour toddes,
Mantenaris of idoles and false goddes,
Fantastik fooles and feynzeit fleachearis,
To turne fra the treuth181181In MS. G, "fra treuth." the verie teachearis.
For to declair thair haill sentence,
Wald mekle cummer your conscience.
Thay say your fayth it is sa stark,
Your cord and lowsie coit and sark,
Ye lippin, may bring yow to salvatioun,
And quyte excludes Christ his passioun.
I dreid this doctryne, yf it last,
Sall either gar us wirk or fast;
Therfor, with speid we mon provyde,
And not our proffit to oureslyde.
I schaip my selfe, within schort quhyle,
To turse182182To turse, or carry. In MS. G, and all the other copies, it is "to curse," which has no sense. our Ladie in Argyle;
And there, uncraftie183183In MS. G, "on craftie." wyse to wirk,
Till that we bigged have ane kirk;
Syne miracles mak be your avyse.
Thay kettereles, though they had but lyse,
The twa part to us they will bring:
But ordourlie to dress this thing,
A gaist I purpose to gar gang,
Be counsall of Freir Walter Lang,184184Friar Walter is apparently a mistake for Friar William Laing. (See the following note.) Foxe has stated it was through this Friar William Laing, "bewrayer of the confession to Archbishop James Beaton," that Henry Forrest, whose fate is mentioned at page 52, was condemned and given over to the secular judges to suffer death. See the extract from Foxe's Martyrs, in Appendix, No. V.
Quhilk sall mak certane demonstrations,
To help us in our procurations,
Your haly Ordour to decoir:
That practik he proved anes before,75
Betuix Kirkcaldie and Kingorne;
But lymmars made therat sic skorne,
And to his fame maide sic degressioun,
Sensyne he hard not the Kinges confessioun.185185Calderwood says, "Frier Laing had been confessor to the King," (Hist. vol. i. p. 142;) and the Treasurer's Accounts in 1540, show that "Schir William Layng, Chaplane," was then attached to the Court. On the 6th of February 1539-40, he received various articles of dress, viz., a gown of French black, a hugtoun of Parise black, a doublet of black sattin, and a black bonnet. On the 22d Dec. 1540, "abbis, towellis," &c., were furnished "to his chapell." In 1511, "Schir William Layng," is described as "Maister Elymosinar in the Princes house;" £13, 6s. 8d. having been previously paid "for his liveray clathis, be ane precept, above the ordinar, admittit to him in my Lord Prince house;" and in July that year, £20 was "gevin to Schir William Layng, Chaplane, enterit this zere (in the Household)."—"Willelmus Laynge, studens," was incorporated in the University of Glasgow, in 1493; and another "Willelmus Layng, clericus Parochialis Glasguensis," in 1501.
Thoicht at that tyme he came na speid,
I pray yow tak guid will as deid;
And him amongest your selves receave,
As ane worth mony of the leave.
Quhat I obteyne may, through his arte,
Ressoun wald ye had your parte.
Your Ordour handles na monye,
But for uther casualitie,
As beif, meill, butter, and cheiss,
Or quhat that we have, that ye plese,
Send your Bretheren et habete.
As now nocht elles, but valete.
Be Thomas your brother at command,
A cullurune kythed throw many a land.186186According to a contemporary chronicler, the Chapel of our Lady of Loretto was founded so late as 1533, by Thomas Douchtie, here styled the Hermit of Alareit. "In this mene tyme (1533,) thair come ane heremeit callit Thomas Douchtie, in Scotland, quha had bein lang Capitane [captive?] befoir the Turk, as was allegit, and brocht ane ymage of our Lady with him, and foundit the Cheppil of Laureit besyid Musselburgh."—(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 17, Edinb. 1833, 4to.) In like manner Buchanan says, this impostor Douchtye, having returned from Italy, built a church to the Virgin Mary, and made great gain by his fictitious miracles.—(Hist. lib. xiv. p. 41.) The Chapel dedicated to our Lady of Loretto, (sometimes called Alareit,) stood beyond the eastern gate of Musselburgh, near the Links; and the name for the locality is still retained. It was connected with the Nunnery of the Sciennes, and became one of the most noted shrines in Scotland, during the reign of James the Fifth. Lesley says, that the King, previously to his marriage, having sailed for France, (24th July 1536,) the vessel in which he had embarked, after sailing by the north of Scotland, and the west, was driven by a storm, and that he landed at St. Ninians, in Galloway, "and sua returnit to Strivilinge, and thairfra passit on his feet in pilgrimage to the Chapell of Lorrett, besid Mussilburgh."—(Hist. p. 150.) Queen Margaret, in a letter to Henry the Eighth, printed in the State Papers, vol. v. p. 181, (where it is placed under the year 1540, instead of 1536,) thus mentions her son's voyage, saying that his nephew had been "in grete dangere of seyis, be contrare wyndis, quhilk agane his mynd, be extreme stormis, compellit to mak course furth of this Est sey northward, compassing the maist parte of this realme throuch the occeane seyis, and be the grace of God arryvit in the port of St. Ninianis callit Quhithorne." James, after his pilgrimage on foot from Stirling, sailed from Leith, with a squadron of seven vessels, and had a more fortunate voyage. On the 7th of September 1536, the Treasurer paid £13, 6s. 8d. to Sir Henry Balfour, in part of £40, "to be gevin to puir houshuldarris to pray for his Hienes prosperous returnyng."

When God had gevin unto that indurat Prince sufficient documentis, that76 his rebellioun against his blessed Evangell should not prosperouslie succeid, hie rases up against him warr, as that he did against obstinat Saull, in the which he miserablie perrished, as we shall after hear.

The occasioun of the Warr was this. Hary the Eight, King of England, had a great desyre to have spokin with oure King; and in that poynt travailled so long, till that he gat a full promesse187187Proposals for such a meeting had been made in 1534, and again in 1536. The above meeting was to have taken place on the 15th of January 1541-2, according to Articles agreed upon the previous month.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 199; Tytler's Hist. vol. v. p. 242.) maid to his Ambassadour, Lord Williame Hawart. The place of meatting was appointed [at] York; which the King of England keap[t] with such solempnitie and preparationis, as never for such ane purpoise was sein in England befoir. Great brute of that jorney, and some preparatioun for the same was maid in Scotland; but in the end, by persuasioun of the Cardinall David Betoun, and by otheris of his factioun, that jorney was stayed, and the Kinges77 promesse falsefeid. Whareupoun war scharpe letteris of reproch send unto the King,188188Henry the Eighth, says Sir Walter Scott, "insulted James by the threat, that he had still the name rod in in keeping which had chastized his father. By that rod, the Duke of Norfolk was intimated, who, while yet Earl of Surrey, commanded at Flodden, where James IV. fell."—(Hist. of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 31.) See note 193. and also unto his Counsall. King Hary frustrat, returned to London, and after his indignatioun declaired, began to fortifie with men his frontearis foranent Scotland. Thare war send to the Bordouris Sir Robert Bowis, the Erle of Anguss, and his brother, Sir George Duglass. Upoun what uther trifeling questionis, (as for the debatable land and such like,) the war brak up, we omitt to wryte. The principall occasioun was the falsefeing of the promeisse befoir maid. Oure King perceaving that the warr wald ryse, asked the Prelattis and Kirkmen, what supporte thei wald maik to the susteanyng of the same; for rather wald he yitt satisfie the desyre of his Uncle, then he wald hasard warr, whare hie saw nott his force able to resist. Thei promissed montanes of gold, (as Sathan thaire father did to Christ Jesus yf he wold wirschipe him;) for rather wold thei have gone to hell, or he should have mett wyth King Hary: for then, thought thei, Fayr weill our kingdome; and fayr weill, thought the Cardinall, his credite and glorie in France. In the end, thei promissed fyftie thousand crownes by year,189189Pitscottie says, that the Bishops, in apprehension that James might follow his uncle's example, in casting down the Abbeys, "budded (bribed) the King to bide at home, and gave him three thousand pounds by year to sustain his house, off their benefices." At a later date, the Clergy, we are told, offered to contribute and assign to him of yearly rent of their benefices, the sum of thirty thousand pounds; or to enlarge the sum to £100,000, provided the King gave them a secular judge to their mind, to execute justice on the wicked heretics whom they had delated to the King, in the list or scroll elsewhere referred to.—(Hist. pp. 230, 255, 256, edit. 1778.) It was but proper that the Clergy, to whom the King had sacrificed so much, should thus manifest their liberality; but indeed such contributions were not unusual, on the part of the beneficed clergy and dignitaries of the Church. In August 1513, previously to the calamitous expedition which had such a fatal catastrophe at Floddon, the Clergy contributed the sum of £10,275, 10s. 9d. (Treasurer's Accounts.) to be weall payed, so long as the warres78 lested; and farther, that thaire servandis, and otheris that appartened unto thame, and war exemed from common service, should not the less serve in tyme of necessitie. These vane promisses lifted up in pryde the harte of the unhappye King: and so begynnis the warr. The realme was quartered, and men war laid in Jedburgh and Kelso. All man, (foollis we meane,) bragged of victorie; and in verray deid the begynnyng gave us a fayr schaw. For at the first wardane raid, which was maid at the Sanct Bartholomess day,190190The 24th of August 1542. in the zeir of God Jm. Vc. fourty twa, was the Wardane Sir Robert Bowis, his brother Richard Bowis, Capitane of Norhame, Sir Williame Mallerie191191In MS. G, "Malberie." The name should be Mowbray. knycht, a bastarde sone of the Erle of Anguss, and James Dowglas of Parkhead, then rebelles, with a great number of borderaris, soldeouris, and gentilmen, tackin.


The Reade was termed Haldane Rig.192192Halden Rig, or Hawden Rig, in Roxburghshire, a few miles to the east of Kelso. In the MS. it was originally written "Maxwell heucht," but this is corrected to Haldane Rig. In the later MSS. "Reade," is written more intelligibly "raid." The Erle of Anguss, and Sir George his brother, did narrowlie eschaipe. Our Papistis and Preastis, proude of this victorye, encouraged the King, so that thare was nothing heard but, "All is owres. Thei ar butt heretyckis. Yf we be a thousand and thei ten thousand, thei dar not feght. France shall enter the ane parte, and we the other, and so shall England be conqueast within a year." Yf any man was sein to smyle att sick vanitie, his was no more bot a tratour and ane heretyck. And yitt by these meanes, men had greattar libertie then thei had befoir, as concernyng thair conscience; for then ceassed the persecutioun. The warr continued till mydd September; and then was send doune the old Duck of North79folk,193193Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk, when Earl of Surrey, convoyed the Princess Margaret from England, to her marriage with James the Fourth, at Holyrood, in 1503; and he commanded the English army at Floddon, in 1513, when the rashness of that gallant but unfortunate Monarch proved fatal to himself, and so disastrous to his country. He died in 1524; and was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas third Duke of Norfolk, who was Lieutenant-General in the North, and had also been at Floddon. He commanded the English troops which invaded the southern parts of Scotland, in August 1542 and died in 1554, upwards of eighty years of age. with such ane army as a hundreth yearis befoir had not come in Scotland. Thei wer in amassing thaire forses, and setting fordwarte of thare preparationis and munitionis, which ware exceading great, till mydd October, and after; and then thei merched from Berwik, and tended to the west, ever holding Tweid upoun thair one syd, and never camped from that ryver the space of a myle, during the hole tyme thei continewed in Scotland, which was ten or twelf dayis. Forresse war runne upon the day to Smallame,194194Now Smailholm. Stichell, and such place nere about, but many snapparis thei gate. Some cornes thei brunt, besydis that which the great host consumed, but small butting thei caryed away. FALA RAID. The King assembled his forse att Falow,195195Fala Muir, a plain near the western termination of the Lammermuir hills. (for hie was advertised that thei had promessed to come to Edinburght,) and tackin the mustaris all att ane howre, two dayis befoir Alhallow evein,196196In Vautr. edit. "Hallow-evin." The Eve of Hallowmass; in Scotland, Halloween, the 31st of October; Hallowmass, or All Saints, of course, being the 1st of November. thair war found with him auchttein thousand able men. Upoun the bordouris, that awaited upoun the Engliss army, war ten thousand men, with the Erle of Huntlie, Lordis Erskyn, Seytoun, and Home. These ware judgeid men ynew to hasard battell, albeit the other war esteamed fourtie thousand. Whill the King lyis at Fawla, abyding upoun the gunnes, and upoun advertisment frome the armye, the Lordis begyne to remember how the King had bene long abused by his flatteraris, and principallie by the pensionaris of the preastis. It was80 anes concluded, that thei wald mack some new remembrance of Lauder-brig197197This alludes to the summary execution by the Scotish nobles of Cochrane and other favourites of James the Third, in hanging them over the bridge of Lauder, in the year 1479, as related by all our Historians. to see yf that wald, for a seassoun, somewhat help the estait of thare cuntrie. But, becaus the Lordis could nott aggrie amonges thame selfis, upoun the persones that deserved punishment, (for everie man favored his friend,) the hole eschaiped; and the purpoise was opened unto the King, and by him to the Curteouris, who after that, till that thei came to Edinburgh, stood in no litill feare: But that was suddandly foryett, as we shall after hear. Whill tyme is thus protracted, the Engliss army, for skarstye of victualles, (as was bruted,) retearis thame owir Twead upoun the nycht, and so begynnes to skaill. Whareof the King advertissed, desyris the Lordis and barronis to assist him, to follow thame in England. Whose answer was, with one consent, "That to defend his persone and realme, thei wold hasard lyef and whatsoever thei had; butt to invaid England, nether had thei so just titill as thei desyred; nether yit could thei be then able to do any thing to the hurte of England, considering that thei had long befoir bene absent fra thair houssis, thare provisioun was spent, thare horse wereyed, and that which was greatest of all, the tyme of year did utterlie reclame." This thare answer seamed to satisfie the King; for hie in woordis praised thare prudent foresight and wyse counsall. But the mynt maid to his Curteouris, and that bald repulse of his desyres gevin to him in his awin face, so wounded his proud harte, (for long had hie roung198198In Vautr. edit. "had he runne." as him self list,) that he decreed a notable revenge, which, no doubt, he had not failled to have executed, yf God by his awin hand had not cutted the coardis of his impietie. He returnes to Edinburgh; the nobilitie, barones, gentilmen, and81 commones to thair awin habitationis: And this was the secund and thrid dayis of November.

Without longar delay, at the Palice of Halyrudhouse, was a new Counsall convened, a Counsall, we meane, of his abusaris; wharein war accusationis laide against the most parte of the nobilitie. Some war heretickis, some favoraris of England, some freindis to the Dowglassis, and so could thare be none faythfull to the King, in thaire opinioun. The Cardinall and the Preastis cast fagottis in the fyre with all thare force; and fynding the King hollie addict to thare devotioun, delivered unto him ane Scroll,199199See note 210, respecting this Scroll. conteanyng the names of such as thei, in thare inquisitioun, had convict for Heretickis. For this was the ordour of justice, which these holy fatheris keapt in dampnying of innocent men. Whosoevir wald delaite any of heresye, he was heard: no respect nor consideratioun had what mynd the delatour bayre to the persone delated; whosoever war produced for witnesses war admitted, how suspitious and infame that ever thei ware; yf two or thre had provin any poynt, that by thare law was holden heresye, that was ane heretick: rested no moir but a day to be affixed to his condempnatioun, and to the executioun of thare corrupted sentence. What man could be innocent, whare such judgeis was party, the world may this day considder. Trew it is, by fals judgement and false witnesses, have innocentis bene oppressed from the begynnyng. Butt this fredome to sched innocent blood gatt never the Devill but in the kingdome of Antichrist, "that the innocent should dye, and neyther knaw accusatour nor yitt the witnesses that testifeid against him." Butt how shall the Antichrist be knowin, yf he shall not be contrarious to God the Father, and his Sone Christ Jesus, in law, lief, and doctrin. Butt this we omitt.


The same Scroll had the Cardinall and Prelattis ones200200In the later copies, "once." presented unto the King befoir, what tyme he returned frome the Navigatioun about the Ylis.201201The date of the King's voyage round the Isles has been mistaken by most of the older writers, such as Buchanan, Lesley, and others. This may have partly arisen from confounding it with his previous voyage in 1536. (See note 186.) James purposed to have sailed on the 14th of May 1540, but he deferred setting out till after the birth of his son, who was born at St. Andrews on the 22d of May. This happy event James communicated in a letter to his uncle, the King of England, on the same day: "It hes liket God of his great gudnes to have send unto us, this 22 day of May instant, ane sone and Prince, fair and lillik to succeid to ws and this our Realme. We think it accordis ws weill to mak you participant with ws of sic joyus gud novellis," &c.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 177.) The baptism of the Prince took place on the 28th of May, and the King is said to have sailed on the day following. The Treasurer's Accounts for 1540 and 1541, which furnish a number of interesting notices connected with the expense of this voyage, show that the arrangements for sailing were not compleated before the 11th or 12th of June, which may be held as the actual date of the expedition. In the collection of State Papers referred to, are two letters, conveying reports of the preparations for the voyage, furnished by some of "the espiallis," or English spies; and also another letter from James himself to Henry the Eighth, on his return, dated at Edinburgh the 29th of July 1540, in which he says, that "all thingis standyng at gude poynt and ordour, we addressit us, as we thought expedient, to visie our Ilis, North and Southt, for ordouring of thame in justice and good policy," &c. (ib. p. 182.) Butt then it was refuissed by the prudent and stowt counsall of the Lard of Grange,202202James Kirkcaldy of Grange held the office of High Treasurer from the 20th March 1537, till the death of James in 1542; but his Accounts during the latter months of the King's reign are not preserved. Having accompanied James to France, the Laird of Grange had also acted as Treasurer Extraordinary from 11th September 1536, until the King's return in May 1537. who opened clearly to the King the practise of the Prelattis, and the danger that thairof mycht ensew. Which considered by the King, (for being out of his passioun, he was tractable,) gave this answer, in the Palice of Halyrudhouse, to the Cardinall and Prelattis, after that thei had uttered thair malice, and schew what profit203203In the MS. "propheit." mycht arise to the Croune, yf hie wold follow thair counsall. "Pack you, Jefwellis:204204In MS. G, "josrellis;" MS. A, "jesuits;" MS. L2, "jeffells." gett yow to your chargeis, and reforme your awin lyves, and be nott instrumentis of discord83 betuix my nobilitie and me; or ellis, I avow to God, I shall reforme yow, not as the King of Denmark by impreasonment does, neythor yitt as the King of England does, by hanging and heading; but I shall reforme yow by scharpe whingaris,205205In Vautr. edit., MS. L 2, &c., "I shall reprove you by sharpe punishmentes."—From an interesting letter of Sir William Eure to Crumwell, dated from Berwick, 26th January 1539-40, it seems, that this answer or reprimand was uttered at Linlithgow, rather than Holyrood; and was occasioned by his witnessing the representation of Sir David Lyndesay's play, called, "Ane Satire on the Three Estates," which evidently produced a strong, but unfortunately no lasting impression on the King's mind. After describing "the Enterlude," Eure proceeds, "My Lorde, the same Maister Bellenden shewed me, that after the said Enterluyd fynished, the King of Scottes did call upon the Bischope of Glasgow [Gawin Dunbar], being Chauncelour, and diverse other Buschopes, exorting thaym to reforme thair facions and maners of lyving, saying, that oneles thay soe did, He wolde send sex of the proudeste of thayme unto his Uncle of England, and, as those were ordoured, soe He wold ordour all the reste that wolde not amende: And therunto the Chauncelour should [did] aunsuer, and say unto the King, that one worde of his Graces mouthe should suffice thayme to be at commaundement: And the King haistely and angrely answered, that he wold gladely bestowe any wordes of his mouthe that could amend thaym."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 170.) yf ever I heir such motioun of yow againe." The Prelattis dascht and astonyed with this ansure, ceassed for a seassoun to tempt any farther, by rigour against the nobilitie. But now, being informed of all proceadingis by thaire pensionaris, Oliver Synclar, Ross lard of Cragye,206206John Ross of Craigie, near Perth, was one of the prisoners taken at Solway Moss, in 1542.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 233.) and utheris, who war to thame faythfull in all thingis, thei conclude to hasarde ones207207In the later copies, "once." agane thare formar suyt; which was no sonar proponed but as sone it was accepted, with no small regrate maid by the Kingis awin mouth, that he had so long dyspised thare counsall; "For, (said hie,) now I plainlie see your woordis to be trew. The nobilitie neyther desyres my honour nor continuance; for thei wold nott rydd a myle for my pleasur to follow my ennemyes. SOLAN MOSS, HOW IT BEGAN. Will ye tharefor fynd me the meanes, how that I may have a Raid maid in England, without thare knawledge and consent, that may be knawin to be my awin84 Raide? and I shall bynd me to your counsall for ever." Thare concurred togitther Achab and his false prophettis; thare war gratulationis and clappin of handis; thare war promisses of diligence, closenes, and felicitie. Finally, conclusioun was tackin, that the West bordour of England, which was moist empty of men and garresonis, should be invaided; the Kingis awin banner should be thare; Oliver,208208Oliver Sinclair, see note 224. the great moynzeoun,209209In Vautr. edit. "minion." should be generall levetenant; but no man should be pryvey, (except the Counsall that was thare then present,) of the interprise, till the verray day and executioun thaireof. The Bischoppes glaidly took the charge of that Raid. Letteris war sent to such as thei wold charge to meat the King, day and place appointed. The Cardinall, with the Earle of Errane, war directed to go to Haddingtoun, to mack a shaw against the East bordour, when the utheris ware in readdynes to invaid the Weast. And thus neather lacked counsall, practise, closenes, nor diligence, to sett fordwarte that interprise: And so, amanges these consultaris, thare was no doubt of ane good successe; and so was the Scroll thankfullie receaved by the King him self, and putt into his awin pocket, whare it remaned to the day of his death, and then was found. In it war conteaned mo then ane hundreth landed men, besydis otheris of meaner degree, amonges whome was the Lord Hammyltoun him self,210210Knox has previously alluded to this scroll or list of names. See pages 81 and 82. Sir Ralph Sadler, in a letter to Henry the Eighth, dated 27th of March 1543, details a conversation he had with the Governor, who told him, "That a number of noblemen and gentlemen the late King had gotten written in a Roll, which were all accused of Heresy; of the which, (he said,) he was the first, and the Earl of Cassilis, the Earl of Glencairn and his son, the Earl Marishal, and a great many gentlemen, to the number of eighteen score, because they were all well minded to God's Word, which then they durst not avow; but now, (quoth he,) I shall do mine endeavour to set forth the glory of God with the assistance of the King's Majesty."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 94.) then secound persone of the realme, delaited.

It was bruted, that this Read was devised by the Lord Maxwell;211211Herbert Lord Maxwell, Warden of the West Marches, was taken prisoner at the battle of Solway. Sir Ralph Sadler, in a letter dated 4th April 1543, reports a detailed conversation he had with him on the state of Scotland.—(State Papers, vol. i. p. 117.) He died in 1546. butt85 the certaintie thairof we have not. The nyght befoir the day appointed to the interprise, the King was found at Lowmabane.212212Lochmaben—see note 225. To him cumis cumpanyes frome all quarteris, as thei war appointed, no man knowing of ane uther, (for no generall proclamatioun past, but prevey letteris,) nether yitt did the multitude know any thing of the purpose till after mydnycht, when that the trompet blew, and commanded all man to march fordwart, and to follow the King, (who was constantlye supposed to have bene in the host.) Guydes war appointed to conduct thame towardis England, as boith faythfullye and closlye thei did. Upon the point of day, thei approched to the ennemys ground; and so passes the wattir without any great resistance maid unto thame. The forrow213213That is, the foray. In Vautr. edit. this sentence, reads, "The forward goeth forth, feare ryses, daunger might have bin scene on every side." The later MSS. are equally unintelligible. goes furth, fyre ryses, herschip mycht have bein sein on everie syd. The unprovedeid people war all together amased; for brycht day appearing, thei saw ane army of ten thowsand men; thare cornes and howssis214214The words, "cornes and houses," connecting the foot of p. 71, and the top of p. 72, in Vautr. edit, have been omitted; and this omission occurs also in MSS. I, and L 2. upoun every syd send flambes of fyre unto the heavin. To thame it was more then a wonder, that such a multitud could have bene assembled and convoyed, no knowledge thairof cuming to any of thare Wardanes. For supporte thei looked nott; and so at the first thei ware utterlie dispared. And yitt begane thei to assemble togitther, ten in one company, twenty in ane uther; and so, as the fray proceaded, thare troopes encreassed, but to no number; (for Carleyle, fearing86 to have bein assaulted, suffered no man to ishe out of thare yettis;) and so the greatast nomber, that ever appeared or approched befoir the discomfitour, past nott thre or foure hundreth men; and yitt thei maid hott skarmisching, as in thair awin ground, in such fates,215215In Vautr. edit. "fentes." thei ar most experte. About ten houris, when fyris war kendilled and almost slokned216216In Vautr. edit. "slaked." on every syd, thought Olyver tyme to schaw his glorie; and so incontinent was displayed the Kingis baner; Oliver upoun spearis lyft up upoun menis schoulderis, and thair with sound of trompett was he proclamed generall lievtenneant, and all man commanded to obey him, as the Kingis awin persone under all hieast panes. Thare was present the Lord Maxwaill, Wardane, to whome the regiment,217217In Vautr. edit., and MS. G, &c., "the regiment of things." in absence of the King, propirlie apperteaned: he heard and saw all, butt thought more then he spak. Thare war also present the Erles Glencarne and Cassiles, with the Lord Flemyng, and many uther Lordis, Baronis, and gentilmen of Lotheane, Fyf, Anguss, and Mearnes. In this mean tyme did the skirmishing grow hottar218218In MS. G, "gritter." then it was befoir: schouttis war heard on everie syd. Some Scottismen war stryckin doune; some not knowing the ground lared, and lost thair horse.219219In Vautr. edit. "were mired, and lost their horses." Some Engliss horse of purpose war lett lowse, to provok gready and imprudent men to preak220220In MS. G, "proik;" MS. A, "pricke." at thame; as many did, but fand no advantage. Whill such disordour ryses more and more in the army, men cryed in everie care, "My Lord Lievetennant, what will ye do." Charge was gevin, that all man should lyght and go to array; for thei wald fight it. Otheris cryed, "Against whome will ye feght? Yone men will feght non utherwyise then ye see thame do, yf ye will stand hear whill the morne." New purpose was tackin, that87 the foott men, (thei had with thame certane bandis of soldeouris,221221In MS. G, "of futemen soldeors.") should softlye retear towardis Scotland, and the horsemen should tack thare horse agane, and so follow in ordour. Great was the noyse and confusioun that was heard, whill that everie man calles his awin sloghorne.222222In Vautr. edit. "his own sluggard;" in MSS. G, I, and L 2, "slughorne." The day was neyre spent, and that was the cause of the greatast fear. The Lord Maxwell perceiving what wold be the end of such begynnynges, stood upoun his foote with his freandis, who being admonissed to tack his horse, and provide for him self; ansured, "Nay, I will rather abyd hear the chance that it shall please God to send me, then to go home and thare be hanged." And so hie remaned upoun his foote, and was tackin, whill the multitud fledd, and took the greattar schame. The ennemeis perceaving the disordour, increassed in courage. Befoir thei shouted; but then thei strok. Thei schote spearis and dagged arrowis, whare the cumpanyes war thikest. Some reacuntaris war maid, but nothing availled. The soldeouris caist from thame thaire pickis, culveringis, and utheris weaponis fensable; the horsmen left thair spearis; and so, without judgement, all man fled. The sea was filling, and so the watter maid great stope; but the fear was such as happy was hie that mycht gett a tackar. Such as passed the watter and eschaped that danger, nott weill acquented with the ground, fell into the Sollen Moss.223223In MS. A, "Solloway Mosse;" in Vautr. edit. "the slimy mosse." Solway Moss derives its name from the Solway Frith, a well known arm of the sea, which forms the boundary between England and Scotland for upwards of fifty miles. The Moss lies on the Cumberland side of the small river Sark, in the tract of land formerly known as the Debateable Ground. The entrie thairof was pleasing yneuch, but as thei proceaded, all that took that way, eyther lost thare horse, or ellis thame selfis and horse boith. To be schort, a greattar feir and disconfiture, without cause, hes seldome bein sein. For it is said, That88 whare the men war nott sufficient to tack the handis of presonaris, some rane to houssis, and randred thame selfis to wemen. Stout Oliver224224Oliver Sinclair of Pitcairns was the third son of Sir Oliver Sinclair of Roslin. He was a favourite of James the Fifth; and Pitscottie says the King placed him as Governor of Temptallon or Tautallon Castle, when the powerful family of the Douglasses were driven into exile.—(Hist. p. 224.) It is more probable it was some years later that he received the command of this stronghold, which is on a cliff overhanging the sea, about two miles to the east of North Berwick. In the Treasurer's Accounts, June 1537, we find £120 "was delivered to Olivere Sinclare, in Cowper, to pay the Kingis gentillmen with." In the following month, £20 was paid "to Olivere inclare, in compleat payment of his lyveray clathis." And on the 6th Oct. 1540, there was "gevin to Olipher Sinclar at the Kingis command, to the warkis of Tamtalloun," £66, 13s. 4d. In November 1541, when the Queen Dowager died at Methven, he and John Tennant, two of the gentlemen of the King's Privy Chamber, were sent to take and lock up all her goods.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 194.) He was taken prisoner after his shameful defeat at Solway; but obtained his liberty in 1543. Sadler mentions, that when he was about to repair to Tantallon Castle, at the end of that year, as a place of security, under the protection of Sir George Douglas, Sinclair was lying in wait, in a small village near hand, in the hope of seizing him and his retinue.—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. pp. 220, 329, 333.) was without strack tackin, fleing full manfully; and so was his glorie (stincking and foolishe proudnes we should call it,) suddandly turned to confusioun and schame. In that disconfiture war tackin the two Erles foirsaid, the Lordis Flemyng, Somervaill, and many otheris baronis and gentilmen, besydis the great multitud of servandis. Worldly men may think, that all this came but by mysordour and fortoun, (as thei terme it;) but whosoever has the least sponk of the knowledge of God, may as evidentlie see the werk of his hand in this disconfiture, as ever was sein in any of the battelles left to us in registre by the Holy Ghost. 1. REG. 20. For what more evident declaratioun have we, that God faught against Benhadab, King of Aram, when he was disconfited at Samaria, then that we have that God faught with his awin arme against Scotland? In this formare disconfiture, thare did two hundreth and thretty personis in the skyrmyshe, with sevin thousand following them89 in the great battell, putt to flyght the said Benhadad with thretty Kingis in his cumpany. But hear thare is, in this schamefull disconfiture of Scotland, verray few mo then three hundreth men, without knowledge of any back or battell to follow, putt to flight ten thowsand men without resistance maide. Thare did everie man reaconter his marrow, till that the 230 slew such as matched thame. But heir without slawchter the multitud fled. Thare had those of Samaria the prophete of God to conforte, to instruct, and to promesse victorie unto thame. But England, in that persute, had nothing, but as God secreatlie wrought by his providence in these men that knew nothing of his wirking, nether yitt of the causes thareof, more then the wall that fell upoun the rest of Benhadadis army knew what it did. And tharefor, yit agane we say, that such as in that suddane dejectioun beholdis not the hand of God, feghting against pride for fredome of his awin litill flock, injustly persecutted, dois willingly and malitiouslie obscure the glorie of God. But the end thairof is yitt more notable.

The certane knowledge of the disconfiture cuming to the Kingis earis, (who wated upoun newes at Lowmaban,225225Lochmaben, in the parish of that name in Annandale. Lesley, however, says, "During the tyme of this Raid, the King of Scotland remanit in Carlaverock upoun the Bordour, not far from Soloway Moss."—(Hist. p. 165.) The distance of either place from the scene of this disgraceful defeat was not considerable. Lochmaben was a Royal Castle; and Pitscottie, like Knox, says, that the King "was in the Castle of Lochmaben."—(Hist. p. 174.) But Pinkerton and Tytler follow Lesley.) hie was stryckin with ane suddane feare and astonisment, so that skarslye could hie speak, or had226226Hand, or hold: in MS. G, "hald." purpoise with any man. The nycht constrayned him to remane whare he was, and so yead227227In Vautr. edit., MS. G, &c., "and so went." to bed; but raise without rest or qwyet sleape. His continuall complaint was, "Oh, fled Oliver! Is Oliver tane? Oh, fled Oliver!" And these woordis in his melancholie, and90 as it war caryed away in ane transe, repeated hie from tyme to tyme, to the verray hour of his death. Upone the morne, which was Sanct Katherins day,22822825th of November.—James was still at Edinburgh on the 30th of November, when he wrote a letter to Henry the Eighth.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 228.) returned he to Edinburgh, and so did the Cardinall from Hadingtoun. But the one being eschamed of the other, the brute of thare communicatioun came nott to publict audience. The King maid inventorie of his poise, of all his juwellis and other substance;229229See note 245 and tharefter, as eschamed to look any man in the face, secreatlie departed to Fyfe, and cuming to the Hall-yardis,230230Hallyards, in the parish of Auchtertool. was humanlie receaved of the Ladye231231In Vautr. edit., MS. G, &c., "the Lady of Grange." This was Janet Melville, daughter of Sir John Melville of Raith, and Helen Napier. She married James Kirkcaldy of Grange, High Treasurer, from 1537 to 1542. See note 202 Grange, ane ancient and godly matron, (the Lard at his cuming was absent.) In his cumpany war only with him Williame Kirkaldy, now Lard of Grange, and some otheris that wated upoun his chalmer. The Lady at suppar, persaving him pensive, begane to conforte him, and willed him to tack the werk of God in good parte. "My portioun, (said he,) of this world is schorte, for I will nott be with you fyvetene dayis." His servandis reparing unto him, asked, Whare hie wold have provisioun maid for his Yule?232232Yule, or Christmas; as in Vautr. edit., MSS. E, I, and L 2. quhilk then approched. He ansuered, with a disdanefull smyrk, "I can nott tell: chuse ye the place. Butt this I cane tell you, or Yule day,233233In Vautr. edit. "Christmas daye." ye wilbe maisterless, and the realme without ane King." Becaus of his displeasur, no man durst mack contradictioun unto him. So after that hie had visited the Castell of Carny,234234Castle of Carny, in the parish of Moonzie, in the shire of Fife. perteanyng to the Erle of Crawfurd, whare the said Erles dowghter, ane of his hoores,235235These words are omitted in MS. G. was, hie returned to Falkland and took bedd. And albeit91 thare appeared unto him no signes of death, yet hie constantly affirmed, befoir such ane day, "I shalbe dead."


In this meantyme, was the Quene upoun the point of hir delivery in Linlithqw, who was delivered the awcht day of December,236236Lesley and later writers say that Mary was born on the 7th of December. Prince Labanoff, however, proves that it was the 8th, "C'est la véritable date.—J'ai trouvé dans le State Paper Office de Londres, une lettre autographe de Marie Stuart de 1584, dans laquello elle dit: le viij Décembre, xlije de ma naissance."—(Lettres de Marie Stuart, vol. i. p. 1.) in the yeare of God Jm. Vc. fourty twa yearis, of Marie, that then was borne, and now dois ring for a plague to this realme, as the progress of hir hole lief hath to this day declaired. The certantie that a dowghter was borne unto him cuming to his earis, he turned from such as spak with him, and said, "The devill go with it! It will end as it begane: it came from a woman; and it will end in a woman." After that, hie spak nott many woordis that war sensible. But ever hie harped upoun his old song, "Fy, fled Oliver! Is Oliver tane? All is loist." REGIS EXITUS In this meantyme, in his great extremitie, cumes the Cardinall, (ane apt confortare for a desperat man.) He cryes in his ear, "Tak ordour, Schir, with your realme: who shall rewill during the minoritie of your Dowghter? Ye have knawin my service: what will ye have done? Shall thare nott be four Regentes chosyn? and shall nott I be principall of thame?" Whatsoever the King answered, documentis war tackin that so should be, as my Lord Cardinall thought expedient.237237This story of Cardinal Beaton having forged, or caused the King, in his last moments, to subscribe his name to a paper, which he afterwards filled up as a Will, constituting Beaton Regent during the minority of Mary, has been discredited; (see note in Keith's Hist. vol. i. p. 63;) but it undoubtedly obtained credence at the time, as Sadler reports a conversation he had with the Governor on the 12th April 1543, who said, "We have other matters to charge the Cardinal with; for he did counterfeit, (quoth he,) the late King's Testament; and when the King was even almost dead, (quoth he,) he took his hand in his, and so caused him to subscribe a blank paper."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 138.) Lesley also says the Cardinal made some impediment to Arran's appointment as Governor, "alleging that the King be his Testament nominat four Regentis: bot the same on no wise could be verefeit nor provin."—(Hist. p. 169.) Buchanan further confirms this by asserting, that Beaton "having bribed Henry Balfour, a mercenary priest, he, with his assistance, forged a false Will for the King," &c.—(Hist. lib. xv. 1.) This Henry Balfour is the Priest or Chaplain who is mentioned at the end of note 186. As92 many affirme, a dead manes hand was maid to subscrive ane blank, that thei mycht wryte above it what pleased thame best. This finissed, the Cardinall posted to the Quene, laitly befoir delivered, as said is. At the first sight of the Cardinall, sche said, "Welcome, my Lord: Is nott the King dead?" What moved hir so to conjecture, diverse men ar of diverse judgementis. Many whisper, that of old his parte was in the pott, and that the suspition thairof caused him to be inhibite the Quenis cumpany. Howsoever it was befoir, it is plane that after the Kingis death, and during the Cardinallis lyif, whosoever guyded the Court, he gat his secreat besynes sped of that gratiouse Lady, eyther by day or by nycht. Howsoever the tydingis lyked hir, she mended with als great expeditioun of that dowghter as ever she did befoir of any sone she bayre. The tyme of hir purificatioun was sonar then the Leviticall law appointes. But she was no Jewess, and thairefore in that she offended nott.238238In MS. G, this sentence occurs on the margin, having been omitted in the text by the transcriber.

The noyse of the death of King James divulgat, who departed this lyef, the threttene day of December, the year of God 1542 foirsaid,239239   James the Fifth died at Falkland, and was buried in the Chapel of the Palace of Holyroodhouse. The day of his death is variously stated. Some writers, as Knox, calling it the 13th, others the 14th of December; but in the Treasurer's Accounts, there are various payments connected with his obsequies, under this head,—
    "The Expensis debursit be the Compter fra the tyme of the Kingis Grace decess quhoine God assolze, quhilk ves the xxj day of December, anno etc. xlije" &c.
the hartes of men begane to be disclossed. All man lamented that the realme was left without a male to succeid; yit some rejosed that such ane ennemy to Goddis treuth was tackin away. Hie was93 called of some, a good poore manis King: of otheris hie was termed a murtherare of the nobilitie, and one that had decreed thair hole destructioun. Some prased him for the repressing of thyft and oppressioun; otheris disprased him for the defoulling of menis wyffis and virgines. And thus men spak evin as affectionis led thame. And yitt none spack all together besydis the treuth; for a parte of all these foresaidis war so manifest, that as the verteuis could nott be denyed, so could nott the vices by any craft be clocked. The questioun of governement was throught this realme universallie moved. The Cardinall proclamed the Kingis Last Will,240240See note 237. and thairin war expressed foure Protectouris, or Regentis, of whome him self was the first and principall, and with him war joyned the Erles Huntley, Ergyle, and Murray.241241Buchanan states, that the three persons who were joined with Beaton, when the King's pretended Will was proclaimed, were the Earls of Huntly, Argyle, and Arran. Knox and Spottiswood, instead of Arran, name the Earl of Murray, who was bastard brother of James the Fifth.—(Keith's Hist. vol. i. p. 64.) This was done the Mononday at the Mercat Croce of Edinburgh. But the Mononday following, took the hole Regentis remissioun for there usurpatioun; for by the stout and wyese counsall of the Larde of Grange, did the Erle of Errane, then secound persone to the Croune,242242James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, failing Mary Queen of Scots, then an infant, was next heir to the Crown. causse assemble the nobilitie of the realme, and required the equitie of thare judgementis in that his just suyt to the governement of this realm, during the minoritie of hir to whome hie was to succeid, failling of hir and of hir lauchfull successioun.243243In MS. G, "successors." His freindis convened, the nobilitie assembled, the day of decisioun is appointed. THE CARDINALIS REASSONIS AGAINST THE GOVERNEMENT OF HAMMYLTONIS The Cardinall and his factioun oppones244244In Vautr. edit. "appoints;" the same blunder is copied in MSS. I, and L 2. thame to the governement of one man, and especiallie to the regiment of any called Hammyltoun: "For94 who knowis nott, (say the Cardinall,) that the Hammyltonis ar cruell murtheraris, oppressouris of innocentis, proud, avaritiouse, duble, and false; and finallie, the pestilence in this commoun wealth." Whairto the said Erle ansured, "Defraude me not of my right, and call me what ye please. Whatsoever my freindis have bene, yitt, unto this day, hes no man caus to complaine upoun me, nether yitt am I mynded to flatter any of my freindis in thare evill doing; but by Goddis grace shalbe as fordwarte to correct thare enormities, as any within the realme cane reassonablie requyre of me. And tharefor, yit agane, my Lordis, in Goddis name I crave that ye do me no wrong, nor defraud me not of my just titill befoir that ye have experience of my governement." At these woordis, war all that feared God or loved honestie so moved, that with one voce thei cryed, "That petitioun is most just, and onless we will do against God, justice, and equitie, it can nott be denyed." And, in dispyte of the Cardinall and his suborned factioun, was he declaired Governour, and with publict proclamatioun so denunceid to the people. The Kingis Palace, treasure, jewellis, garmentis, horse, and plate,245245On the last of February 1542-3, the Treasurer's Accounts exhibits this "Item, gevin to Henry Wardlaw, for the writing of the Inventour Buke of all the Kingis clething, jowellis, and uther gere, for his laubouris, xl s." war delivered unto him by the officiaris that had the formar charge; and he honored, feared, and obeyed more hartlie, then ever any King was befoir, so long as his abood at God. The caus of the great favor that was borne unto him was, that it was bruted that hie favored Goddis woord; and becaus it was weall knowin, that hie was one appointed to have bene persecuted, as the Scroll found in the Kingis pockat, after his death, did witnesse. These two thingis to gitther, with ane opinioun that men had of his simplicitie, bowed the hartes of many unto him in the begynnyng, who after, with dolour of hartes, war compelled to95 change thare opinionis: But heirof will after be spoken. The varietie of materis that occurred we omitt, such as the ordour tackin for keaping of the young Quene;246246The infant Queen remained in the Palace of Linlithgow, under the nominal charge of the Queen Dowager. Parliament, in March 1543, nominated the Earls Marishal and Montrose, Lords Erskine, Ruthven, Livingstone, Lindesay of Byres, and Seton, and Sir James Sandilands of Calder, "as keepers of the Quenis Grace," or any two of them quarterly.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 414.) of the provisioun for the Mother; the home calling of the Dowglassis; and other such, as apperteane to ane universall Historye of the tyme: For, as befoir we have said, we mynd only to follow the progresse of the Religioun, and of the matteris that cane not be dissevered from the same.

The Governour247247On the 22d of December 1542, after the death of James the Fifth, James Hamilton, 2d Earl of Arran, was chosen Regent or Governor of Scotland during the minority of the infant Princess. At the first meeting of the Estates of Parliament, on the 12th of March 1543, his appointment was confirmed, with a declaration of his being second person of the realm, and nearest to succeed to the Crown, "failing our Sovereign Lady, and the children lawfully to be gotten of hir body."—(Acta Parl. Scot, vol. ii. p. 411.) establissed in governement, godly men repaired unto him, exhorted him to call to mynd for what end God had exalted him; out of what danger he had delivered him; and what expectatioun all men of honestie had of him. At thare instant suyting, more then of his awin motioun, was Thomas Guylliame,248248   Friar Thomas Guilliam, (or Williams,) is described as a native of Athelstaneford in East Lothian; and is said to have attained considerable distinction in his Order of Dominican or Black Friars in Scotland. The Governor entertained him as his Chaplain, until the return of his brother the Abbot of Paisley from France, had the effect of withdrawing him from the English interest, and disowning the new doctrines. The Friar's name occurs in the Treasurer's Accounts:—
    1542-3, On the 23d of February, there was furnished "to be ryding gownis, with hudis, to Freir Thomas Gilzame, and Freir Alexander Lindsay, of Scottis black," &c. Also, "cottis, ryding sokkis," &c.

    1543, 21st April, "Gevin to Freir Thomas Gilzem, at his Grace command, at his passing to Hamilton, v lib. x s."

    On the following day, the 22d of April, Sir Ralph Sadler communicates to Henry the Eighth the information, "that the Governor was clearly altered from your Majesty, and will surely revolt to the Cardinal, the Earls of Lennox, Huntley, Argyle, and Murray, and the clergy, to his own utter confusion.... In so much as the said Governor hath not only put away his Friers preachers, which he hath all this while defended, and kept about him to preach the Word of God, but also hath secretly sent to the said Cardinal and Earls," &c. (vol. i. p. 158.)
a Blak Freare, called to be precher.96 The man was of solid judgement, reassonable letteris, (as for that age,) and of a prompt and good utterance: his doctrine was holsome, without great vehemency against superstitioun. Preached also sometymes Johnne Rowght, (who after, for the veritie of Christ Jesus, sufferred in England, in the dayis of Marie of curssed memorie,249249In Vautr. edit., MSS. G, &c., the words "in the dayis of Marie of curssed memorie," are omitted.) albeit not so learned, yett more sempill, and more vehement against all impietie. The doctrine of these two provoked against thame, and against the Governour also, the hatterent of all such as more favored darknes then light, and thare awin bellyes more then God. The Gray Frearis, (and amonges the rest Frear Scott,250250Calderwood, under the year 1531, says, "A landed man, named Johne Scot, after he had travelled through Italie, France, and the Holie Land, returneth home. He brought with him from Jerusalem some date-tree leaves, and a pocke full of stones, which he fained were taken out of the pillar to which Christ was bound, when he was scourged." He then records some instances of Scot's extraordinary fasting, first in Scotland, and afterwards at Rome, Venice, and London; and also of his deceptions.—(Hist. vol. i. p. 102.) In April 1532, John Scot "was wardit in the Castle of Edinburgh, for not obeying a decreit against him be James Lawson of Hieriggs; the quhilk Johne Scot fastit without meat or drink of veritie xxxij dayes, exceptand ane drink of water." And on the 6th of October, "he was brocht nakit to the Croce of Edinburgh, quhair he preichit publictlie, the samyne quhilk fasting was be helpe of the Virgin Marye."—(Diurnal of Occurrents, pp. 14,16.) In 1541, on the 11th of July, there was paid "to Johne Scot, callit the Santt, at the Kingis command, xxij s."—(Treasurer's Accounts.) In George Makeson's MS., among his "Recollectionis of my Lordis G[racis] missives," &c., is this note, "To let Freir Johne Scott vant [want] na thing for his bukis and pensioun: at command quhairof I gaif him xxiij lib. 3 Septembris 1553." who befoir had geavin him self furth for the greatest professour of Christ Jesus within Scotland, and under that cullour had disclosed, and so endangered many,) these slaves of Sathan, we say, rowped as thei had bein ravinis, yea, rather thei yelled and rored as devillis in hell, "Heresy! heresy! Guyl97liame and Rought will cary the Govornour to the Dewill." The Toune of Edinburgh, for the most parte, was drouned in superstitioun: Edwarte Hope,251251Edward Hope, in 1560, was one of the Bailies of Edinburgh. young Williame Adamsone, Sibilla Lyndesay, Patrik Lyndesay,252252   This Patrick Lyndesay was probably the same person whose name appears in the Treasurer's Accounts, as follows:—
    1543, April 21. "Item, gevin to Patrick Lindsay, goldsmyth, for making of the Quenis Grace selis, and graving thairof, and for service and laubouris done he him to our Soverane Lord, quham God assolze, as the precept direct thairupoun beris, xxxj lib."
Francess Aikman; and in the Cannogait, Johnne Mackaw, and Ryngzeane Broune, with few otheris, had the bruyte of knowledge in those dayis. Ane Wilsone, servand to the Bisehope of Dunkell, who nether knew the New Testament nor the Old, made a dispytfull rayling ballat against the Preachcouris, and against the Govenour, for the which he narrowly eschaped hanging. The Cardinall moved boith heavin and hell to trouble the Governour, and to stay the preaching; but yitt was the battell stowtlye foughtin for a seassone; for he was tackin, and was put first in Dalkeith, after in Seatoun. But at lenth by buddis gevin253253In Vautr. edit., &c., "at length by notice given." to the said Lord Seatoun, and to the old Larde of Lethingtoun,254254Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington, near Haddington, whose name is honourably associated with the early poetical literature of Scotland, was born in 1496, and studied at St. Andrews. He then went to France to study the laws. He was admitted as a Judge in 1551, and was often employed in public commissions. He died at the advanced age of 90, on the 20th of March 1586.—(Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice, p. 97.) he was restored to Sanctandross,255255Cardinal Beaton was arrested in the end of January 1542-43, and imprisoned by the Governor first in the Castle of Dalkeith, from whence he was transferred to Blackness. He at last obtained permission to go to his own Castle of St. Andrews, under the guard of George fifth Lord Seaton, (who died in 1545.) Sir Ralph Sadler confirms the above statement by Knox, of Seaton having been bribed by the Cardinal. In a letter to Henry the Eighth, 12th April 1543, he says the Governor told him of the proposal to have the Castle of St. Andrews delivered to the Lord Seaton, and all the Cardinal's retainers put out, "Nevertheless, (quoth he,) the Lord Seton being corrupt by the Cardinal with great sums of money and other gifts, brought the Cardinal into his own strength, in the said Castle of St. Andrews. And whereas the Lord Seton, (quoth he,) hath not twelve or sixteen men within the Castle, the Cardinal hath three hundred; so that he is plainly at his own liberty," &c. Sadler adds, "I told him he had been very evil served, and that the Lord Seton had a great matter to answer unto. Whereunto he said, That he should answer to it," &c.—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. pp. 70, 107, 131, 136, and 137.) frome whense he wrought all myscheif, as we shall after heare.

The Parliament approched, which was befoir the Pashe;256256Pasche, or Easter: the Parliament met on the 12th of March 1542-43. thare begane98 questioun of the abolishing of certane tyrannicall Actes, made befoir,257257Knox apparently refers to various Acts passed in the Parliament held at Edinburgh, 14th of March 1540-41, at which the King was present. These Acts prohibited all discussion on matters of religion; and persons from arguing against the Pope's authority, under the pain of death and confiscation of their goods; suspected heretics were declared to be incapable of exercising any office; and such as had fled to avoid the censures of the Church, were held to be condemned.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 370.) There were still earlier Acts against Heresy, and the importation of Heretical books. The Act 17th July 1525, contains some additions in the original record, on the 5th September 1527, (see fac-simile plate, vol. ii. p. 295;) and the Act so enlarged was renewed, 12th June 1535, (ib. p. 341.) There is also preserved a letter written by James the Fifth, addressed to the Lords of Council and Session, dated at Aberdeen, 3d May 1534, in reference to "diverse tractatis and bukes translatit out of Latin in our Scottis toung be Heretikis, favouraris and of the secte of Luther," which were sent to various parts of the realm; and the Lords, on the 8th of May, passed some stringent rules, for destroying all such books, and for punishing trespassers and suspected persons.—(Acts of Sederunt, p. 21, Edinb. 1811, folio.) But the Acts alluded to were in part nullified by the additions made to them on the 15th March 1542-43, (Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 415.) On the same day, Parliament sanctioned the "haifing the Haly Write, in the vulgar toung," as mentioned in note 265. at devotioun of the Prelattis, for manteanyng of thair kingdom of darkness, to witt, "That under pane of heresye, no man should reade any parte of the Scriptures in the Engliss toung, nether yitt any tractat or expositioun of any place of Scripture." Such articles begane to come in questioun we say, and men begane to inquyre, yf it was nott als lauchfull to men that understoode no Latyne, to use the woorde of thare salvatioun in the toung thei understood, as it was for Latine men to have it in Latyne, Græcianes or Hebrewis to have it in thare tounges. It was ansured, That the Kirk first had forbiddin all tounges but thei three. But men demanded, when that inhibitioun99 was gevin; and what counsall had ordeaned that, considering, that in the dayis of Chrisostome he compleanes, that the people used not the Psalmes, and other holy bookis, in thare awin toungis? And yf ye will say thei war Greakis, and understoode the Greak toung; we ansure, that Christ Jesus commanded his woorde to be preached to all nationis. Now, yf it aught to be preached to all nationis,258258These words, "Now, yf" &c., are omitted in MSS. A and W. it must be preached in the tung thei understand: Now, yf it be lauchfull to preach it, and to hear it preached259259The words, "and to hear it preached," are omitted in MS. G. in all tounges, why shall it not be lauchfull to read it, and to hear it red in all tounges? to the end that the people may trye the spreittis, according to the commandiment of the Apostill. Beaten with these and other reassonis, thei denyed not but it may be red in the Vulgar toung, providit that the translatioun war trew. It was demanded, what could be reprehended in it? And when much searching was maid, nothing could be found, but that Luif, say thei, was putt in the place of Cheritie. When the questioun was asked, What difference was betuix the one and the other, and yf thei understud the nature of the Greak terme Αγαπε?260260In MS. G. "[Greek: agapê.]" thei war dume. Ressoned for the party of the Secularis, the Lord Ruthven, (father to him that prudentlie gave counsall to tack just punishment upoun that knaif Dawie,261261David Rizzio. for that he abused the unhappy King Hary262262Henry, Lord Darnley. in mo cases then one,) a stout and discreat man in the cause of God, and Maister Henrie Balnevis, ane old professour: For the parte of the Clargie, Hay, Dene of Restalrige,263263It may be remarked, that either Hay's name, or Dean of Restalrig, appear to be a mistake; and the marginal note may have had reference to this.—In 1540, Thomas Gibson, Dean of Restalrig, was conjoined with Cardinal Beaton as his suffragan; and it was proposed, that whilst acting in that capacity, Gibson should retain the benefices which he then held. At the Provincial Council in 1549, Mr. John Sinclair, afterwards Bishop of Brechin, and Lord President, sat as Dean of Restalrig.—(Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iv. p. 46.) and certane old Boses with him.


The conclusioun was, the Commissionaris of browghtis, and a parte of the100 Nobilitie requyred of the Parliament, that it mycht be ennacted, "That it should be lauchfull264264In MS. G, "lesoun," (lesum.) In Vautr. edit. "lawfull." to everie man to use the benefite of the translatioun which then thei had of the Bibill and New Testament, togitther with the benefite of other tractises conteanyng holsome doctrine, unto such tyme as the Prelattis and Kirk men should geve and sett furth unto thame ane translatioun more correct." The Clargy hearto long repugned; butt in the end, convicted by reassonis and by multitud of votes in thare contrare, thei also condiscended; and so by Act of Parliament, it was maid free to all man and woman to reid the Scriptures in thair awin toung, or in the Engliss toung:265265The Act of Parliament, 15th March 1542-3, allowing the translation of the Scriptures "in the vulgar tongue, in the English or Scotish, of a good translation," was proclaimed on the 19th of that month. It has been doubted whether, during the short interval which this Act was allowed to remain in force, any edition was printed in Scotland; most probably there was. But we know that Parliamentary enactments of a previous date were insufficient to prevent the importation of copies of Tyndale's translation of the New Testament, so early as 1526, as well as in subsequent years: See the Rev. C. Anderson's Annals of the English Bible, vol. ii. and so war all Actes maid in the contrair abolished.

This was no small victorie of Christ Jesus, feghting against the conjured ennemyes of his veritie; not small conforte to such as befoir war holdin in such bondage, that thei durst not have red the Lordis Prayer, the Ten Commandimentis, nor Articules of thare fayth, in the Engliss toung, but thei should have bene accused of heresye. Then mycht have bene sein the Byble lying almaist upoun everie gentilmanis table. The New Testament was borne about in many manis handes. We grant, that some (alace!) prophaned that blessed wourd; for some that, perchance, had never red ten sentenses in it, had it maist common in thare hand; thei wold chope thare101 familiares on the cheak with it, and say, "This hes lyne hyd under my bed-feitt these ten yearis." Otheris wold glorie, "O! how oft have I bein in danger for this booke: How secreatlie have I stollen fra my wyff at mydnyeht to reid upoun it." And this was done of many to maik courte thairby; for all man esteamed the Governour to have bein the most fervent Protestand that was in Europa. Albeit we say that many abused that libertie granted of God miraculouslye, yitt thairby did the knowledge of God wonderouslie increase, and God geve his Holy Spreit to sempill men in great aboundance. Then ware sett furth werkis in our awin toung, besydis those that came from England, that did disclose the pryde, the craft, the tyranny, and abuses of that Romane Antichrist.

The fame of our Governour was spred in diverse cuntreis, and many praised God for him. King Hary send unto him his Ambassadour, Mr. Saidlar,266266Sir Ralph Sadler was born in the year 1507. Having gained a situation in the family of Thomas Lord Crumwell, he was brought under the notice of Henry the Eighth, and after various other engagements, he commenced his diplomatic career in 1537, by an embassy to Scotland. He was again in this country as ambassador on seveval subsequent occasions. His "State Papers and Letters," edited by Arthur Clifford, with a Memoir by Sir Walter Scott, Edinb. 1809, 2 vols. 4to, is a work of great importance for illustrating the history of the period to which they relate. who lay in Edinburgh a great parte of the sommer. His commissioun and negotiatioun was, to contract a perpetuall amitie betuix England and Scotland: the occasion wharof God had so offerred, that to many men it appeared that from heavin He had declared his good pleasur in that behalf. For to King Hary, of Jane Somer,267267Lady Jane Seymour. (after the death of Quene Katherin, and of all utheris that mycht haif maid his mariage suspect,) was gevin a sone, Edwarte the Saxt of blessed memory, eldar some yearis then our Maistress, and unto us was left a Quene, as befoir we have heard. This wonderfull providence102 of God caused men of greatast judgement to enter in disputatioun with thame self, whither that, with good conscience, any man mycht repugne to the desyres of the King of England, considdering that thairby all occasioun of warr mycht be cutt of, and great commoditie mycht ensew to his realme. The offerris of King Hary war so large, and his demandis so reassonable, that all that lovith quyetness war content tharewith. Thare war sent from the Parliament to King Hary, in commissioun, Schir Williame Hammyltoun,268268In Vautr. edit., and in MS. G, Hamilton's name is omitted. Schir James Lermont, and Maister Henry Balnevis;269269The Commissioners sent to England in March 1542-43, were Sir James Learmonth of Balcomie, Treasurer; Sir William Hamilton of Sanquhar; and Henry Balnaves of Halhill, Secretary. Their names frequently occur in the political transactions of the period. They returned to Edinburgh sometime between the 10th and 31st of July 1543. In the course of their negotiation, (in May,) the Earl of Glencairn and Sir George Douglas wore joined with them. See Sadler's State Papers, vol. i. pp. 59-63, 83, 90. who long remaynyng in England, so travailled that all thingis concernyng the mariage betuix Edwart the Saxt and Marie Quene of Scottis was aggreed upoun, except the tyme of hyr deliverance to the custody of Englismen. Upoun the finall conclusioun of the which head, war added to the formare Commissionaris Williame Erle of Glencarne and Schir George Dowglasse, to whome was gevin ample commissioun and good instructionis. In Scotland remaned Maister Saidlare. NOTE WEALL Advertismentis past so frequentlie betuix, yea, the handis of our Lordis so liberallie war anoynted,270270Alluding to the pensions granted by the English Monarch, as an effectual mode of securing such persons to his interest. besydis other commodities promissed, and of some receaved; for diverse presonaris tackin at Solane Mosse271271In Vautr. edit. "Solon mosse." The rout of the Scotch forces at Solway took place on the 26th of November 1542. Among the State Papers (vol. v. p. 232) recently published, is a document intitled, "The yerely value of the lands, and also the value and substance in goodis, of the Scottish prisoners lately taken at Salone Mosse." The principal persons were the Earls of Cassilis and Glencairne, Lords Somerville, Maxwell, Gray, Oliphant, and Flemyng, Oliver Sinclair, George Hume of Eyton, Robert Erskine son of Lord Erskine, Walter Seton of Tough, Patrick Hepburn of Waughton, and John Ross of Craigie. war send home103 ransome free, upoun promesse of thair fidelitie, which, as it was keapt, the ishew will witnesse. Butt in the end, so weall war all ones content, (the Cardinall, the Quene, and the factioun of France, ever excepted,) that solempnedlye, in the Abbay of Halyrudhouse, was the contract of mariage betuix the personis foirsaid, togetther with all the clausis and conditionis requisite, for the faythfull observatioun tharof, red in publict audience, subscryved, sealled, approved and allowed of the Governour for his parte, Nobilitie and Lordis for thare partes; and that nothing should lack that mycht fortifie the mater, was Christis body sacrat, (as Papistes terme it,) brokin betuix the said Governour and Maister Saydlar, Ambassadour, and receaved of thame boyth as a signe and tockin of the unitie of thare myndis, inviolablye272272In Vautr. edit. "immediately." to keap that contract,273273The treaty of pacification between the two kingdoms, and the projected alliance of Edward the Sixth with Queen Mary, when she had attained the age of ten years, sanctioned by the Parliament of Scotland, 8th of June, was concluded at Greenwich on the 1st of July 1543. But this proceeding, as stated in the text, was opposed by Cardinal Beaton and the French faction. (See note 274.) The Commissioners, however, as mentioned in the preceding note, having returned, this treaty, on the 25th of August, was solemnly ratified by the Governor, "at the High Mass, solemnly sung with shalms and sack-buts, in the Abbey Church of the Holyroodhouse," and the Great Seal of Scotland appended to the treaty.—(Rymer's Foedera, vol. xiv. pp. 786-791; Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. pp. 425, 426; Sadler's State Papers, vol. i. p. 270.) in all poyntis, as thei looked of Christ Jesus to be saved, and after to be reputed men wourthy of credite befoir the world.


The Papistes raged against the Governour, and against the Lordis that consented, and abaide suyre at the contract foirsaide; and they made a brag to depose the Governour,274274In Vautr. edit. the words, "and they made a brag to depose the Governour," are omitted.—Sadler, on the 16th of July 1543, writes to the English Monarch, that the Governor had informed him of the intention of the Cardinal and his party "to come to Linlithgow to surprize the young Queen, and afterwards, (if they can,) to depose and put him downe."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 233.) And in another letter from Edinburgh, dated the 23d of July, he says, "I thinke they woll not fight, for all their bragges. The Cardynall and his complices do lye at Lythcoo, with the nomber of 5 or 6000; and the Governour and his frendes and adherentes, with 7 or 8000, do lye here in this toune, not 12 myle a sonder; and ambassadours go bytwen them to treate the matiers, so that, by treatie, it is thought they shall agree, and no hurte done."—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 326.) and to confund all: And without delay rased104 their forces, and came to Linlitliqw, where the yong Quene was kept.275275This sentence, on to the words "confouud all," is written on the margin of the MS. with this addition, "as after follows;" which, I presume, has reference to the concluding part of the sentence, although it is partially deleted. The statement is not only correct in itself, but is required for the context. In MS. G, Vautr. edit., and all the other copies, while the marginal addition, "The Papists raged," &c., and also the words, "as after follows," are incorporated with the text, the clause, "And without delay," &c., is wholly omitted. But, upoun the returneyng of the saidis Ambassadouris from England, pacyficatioun was maid for that tyme; for, by the judgements of eyght personis for ather party, chosyn to judge, Whitther that any thing was done by the said Ambassadouris, in the contracting of that mariage, which to do thei had not sufficient power fra the Counsall and Parliament, it was found, That all thingis war done according to thare commissioun, and that so thei should stand: and so war the Seallis of England and Scotland interchanged. Maister James Fowles,276276Sir James Foulis of Colinton was appointed Clerk-Register in 1531, and was also admitted a Lord of Session, at the first meeting of the Court, on the 27th of May 1532. He held the office of Clerk-Register till 1548, the year before his death. The Treasurer paid "to Maister Henry Foullis, for his umquhill fatheris feyes, in the yeris of God 1547 and 1548, £26, 13s. 4d." then Clerk of Registre, receaved the Great Seall of England; and Maister Sadlare receaved the Great Seall of Scotland. The headis of the contract we pass by. Those thingis newly ratifeid, the merchantis maid frack277277In Vautr. edit. "preparation." to saill, and to thare trafique, which, by the truble of warris, had some yearis bein hindered. Frome Edinburgh war frauchted xii schippis richlie ladin, according to the wares of Scotland. From other tounes and portes departed other, who all arryved upoun the coast of105 England, towardis the south, to witt, in Yarmouht; and without any great necessitie, entered not only within readis, bot also within portes and places of commandiment, and whare that schippis mycht be arreisted. And becaus of the lait contracted amitie, and gentill intertenement that thei found at the first, thei maid no great expeditioun. Bot being, as thei supposed, in securitie, in merynes thei spend the tyme, abyding upoun the wynd.

In this meantyme, arryves from France to Scotland the Abbot of Paislay,278278John Hamilton, Abbot of Paisley. He arrived in Scotland between the 2d and 18th of April 1543. called bastard brother to the Governour, (whome yitt many esteamed sone to the old Bischope of Dunkelden, called Crychtoun,279279George Crichton, a son of Crichton of Naughton, (Keith's Bishops, p. 94,) must have been far advanced in life at this time. He was a fellow-student with Dunbar the poet at St. Andrews, having taken his Master's degree in the year 1479. He was Abbot of Holyroodhouse, which he probably resigned on obtaining possession of the See of Dunkeld, previously to November 1520. In 1533, he was nominated an Extraordinary Lord of Session, (Senators of the College of Justice, p. 45;) and died on the 24th of January 1545.) and with him Maister David Panteyr, (who after was maid Bischope of Ross.) The brut of the learnyng of these two, and thare honest lyiff, and of thare fervencye and uprychtnes in religioun, was such, that great esperance thare was, that thare presence should haif bene confortable to the Kirk of God. For it was constandlye affirmed of some, that without delay, the one and the other wald occupy the pulpete, and trewly preach Jesus Christ. But few dayis disclosed thair hypochrisye; for what terrouris, what promisses, or what enchanting boxis thei brought fra France, the commoun people knew not. But schort after, it was sein, that Frear Guylliame was inhibite to preach, and so departed to England; Johnne Rowght to Kyle,280280See note 30. (a receptakle of Goddis servandis of old.) The men of counsall, judgement, and godlynes, that had travailled to promote the Governour, and that gave him faythfull counsall in all dowt106full materis, war eyther craftely conveyed from him, or ellis, by threatnyng to be hanged, war compelled to leave him. Of the one nomber, war the Lard of Grange foirsaid, Maister Henry Balnavis, Maister Thomas Ballentyne,281281Or, Bellenden, Justice-Clerk. See note 166. and Schir David Lyndesay of the Mont;282282It is surprising that Sir David Lyndesay, among the various persons who were accused of heresy, should have escaped all persecution. For a time, the personal attachment of James the Fifth may explain this exemption, having been in his service since the King's infancy; but the effects of Lyndesay's satirical writings must have rendered him peculiarly obnoxious to the clergy. Yet we find him officially employed in foreign missions, as Lyon-King at Arms, till within a short time of his death, which took place about the year 1555. men by whose laubouris he was promoted to honour, and by whose counsall he so used him self at the begynnyng, that the obedience gevin to him was nothing inferiour to that obedience that any King of Scotland of many yearis had befoir him. Yea, in this it did surmont the commoun obedience, that it proceaded from luif of those vertewis that was supposed to have bene in him. Off the number of those that war threatned, war Maister Michaell Durham,283283   Michael Durham appears among the Determinants in St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, in 1527, and the Licentiates in 1529. It is probable he then went abroad, and took a degree in medicine at some foreign University. From the Treasurer's Accounts, we learn that for a short period before the death of James the Fifth, he was King's physician:—
    1542, July or August, "Item, to Maister Michaell Durehame, doctour in medecyne, (enterit before the last feist of Whitsunday,) for his half yearis fee, £50."

    1543, Jan., "Item, gevin to Maister Michael Durehame, doctour in medecyne, be one precept in recompensatioun of service done be him to our Sovernne Lord, quhome God assolze, and for the rest of his feis, as his said precept beris, £200."
Maister David Borthwik,284284The name of David Borthwick occurs among the Determinants in the Pedagogy of St. Andrews, in 1515. He became King's Advocate, and will be afterwards noticed. David Foresse, and David Bothwell; who counsalled him to have in his cumpany men fearing God, and not to foster wicked men in thare iniquitie, albeit thei war called his freindis, and war of his surname. This counsall understand by the foirsaid Abbote, and by the Hammyltonis, (who then repaired107 to the Courte as ravenes to the carioun,) in plane wourdis it was said, "My Lord Governour nor his freandis will never be at qwyetness, till that a dosone of thire knaiffis that abuse his Grace be hanged." These wourdis was spokin in his awin presence, and in the presence of some of thame that had better deserved then so to have bene entracted: the speakar was allowed for his bold and plane speakin. And so the wicked counsall deprehended, honest and godly men left the Court and him in the handis of such, as by thare wicked counsall led him so far from God, that he falsefeid his promeise, dipt his handis in the bloode of the Sanctes of God, and brought this commoun welth to the verray poynt of utter ruyne.285285In MS. G, "to the uter point of ruyne." And these war the first fructis of the Abbot of Paisley his godlynes and learnyng: butt heirefter we will hear more.


All honest and godly men banished from the Courte, the Abbot and his counsall begynnis to lay befoir the inconstant Governour, the dangeris that mycht ensew the alteratioun and change of religioun; the power of the King of France; the commoditie that mycht come to him and his house, by reatenyng the ancient league with France; and the great danger that he brought upoun him self, yf, in any joyt, he sufferred the authoritie of the Pape to be violated or called in dowbt within this realme: considering that thairupoun only stood the securitie of his rycht to the successioun of the Croune of this realme; for by Goddis word wold not the devorcement of his father frome Elizabeth Home, his first wyf,286286James second Earl of Arran was the grandson of Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, created Lord Hamilton in 1445, and the Princess Mary, daughter of James the Second, and relict of Thomas Boyd, Earl of Arran. His father was thrice married. His first wife was Beatrix Drummond, by whom he had one daughter, married to Andrew Stewart Lord Evandale and Ochiltree. His second wife was Lady Elizabeth Home, sister of Alexander Earl of Home, from whom he obtained a divorce in 1511. Janet, daughter of Sir David Beaton of Creich, Comptroller of Scotland, was his third wife, by whom he had his son James, second Earl of Arran; but who being born during the life of his father's divorced wife, his legitimacy depended on the validity of his divorce. Had he, in such a case, been set aside, Matthew Earl of Lennox would have been next in succession. be found lauchfull, and so wald his secound108 mariage be judgeit null, and he declaired bastard. Caiaphas spak profesy, and yitt wist not what he spak; for, at that tyme, thare was no man that trewlie feared God, that mynded any such thing, but with thare hole force wold have fortifeid the titill that God had gevin unto him, and wold never have called in questioun thingis doun in tyme of darknes. But this head we pas by till God declair his will thairintill. Ane other practise was used; for the Cardinall being sett at libertie, (as befoir we have heard,) ceassed not to trafique with such of the nobilitie as he mycht draw to his factioun, or corrupt by any meanes, to raise a party against the said Governour, and against such as stoode fast at the contract of mariage and peace with England; and so assemblit at Linlythqw, the said Cardinall, the Earlis Ergyle, Huntely, Bothwell, the Bischoppis and thare bandis; and thairefter thei passed to Striveling, and tooke with thame bayth the Quenis, the Mother and the Dowghter,287287   The infant Queen, who had hitherto been kept in the Palace of Linlithgow, (note 246) was brought to Stirling on the 23d of July 1543, (note 274.) After the Governor's very inconsistent proceedings in the month of August, and his reconciliation with the Cardinal, Queen Mary was crowned with great ceremony, on the 9th of September 1543. The following entries are from the Treasurer's Accounts:—
    1543. "Item, the fourth day of August, be my Lord Governoris precept and speciall command, deliverrit to Mathew Hammiltoun, capitane and kepar of the Palice of Linlithqw, for furnesyng of the said Palice, the sowme of £55.

    "Item, to the Lord Levingstoun, for keping of the Princes[s] in Linlithqw, quhilk was awin him the sum of £93, 6s. 8d.

    October. "Item, to the Lord Levingstoun, for keping of the Princes[s] in Striveling, fra the xxiij day of Julij in anno Domini etc. xliijo to the last day of this moneth of October inclusive, £180."
and threatned the depositioun of the said Governour, as inobedient to thare Haly Mother the Kirk, (so terme thei that harlott of Babilon,109 Rome.) The inconstant man, not throwghtlie grounded upoun God, left in his awin default destitut of all good counsall, and having the wicked ever blawing in his earis, "What will ye do! Ye will destroy your self and your house for ever:"—The unhappy man, (we say,) beaten with these tentationis, randered him self to the appetites of the wicked; for he qwyetlie stall away from the Lordis that war wyth him in288288In MS. G, "with him than in." the Palice of Halyrudhouse, past to Stirling, subjected him self to the Cardinall and to his counsall, receaved absolutioun, renunced the professioun of Christ Jesus his holy Evangell, and violated his oath that befoir he had maid, for observatioun of the contract and league with England.289289All this took place about the 3d of September, or within nine days of the Governor's ratification of the English alliance, mentioned in note 273, and six days of his having issued a proclamation against the Cardinal.—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. pp. 277, 278, 282.)

At that tyme was our Quene crouned,290290On the 9th of September 1543: see note 287. and new promess maid to France. The certaintie heirof cuming to King Hary, our Schotish schippis war stayed, the sayles tackin from thare rayes, and the merchantis and marynaris war commanded to suyre custody. New commissioun was send to Maister Saidlar, (who then still remaned in Scotland,291291Sadler, in this embassy, arrived in Edinburgh in March 1543. Notwithstanding the treaty referred to in a previous note, he did not succeed in the great object of his mission at this time, that of gaining the Governor to a steady adherence to his original policy of favouring the Reformed doctrines, and adhering to the English in opposition to the French interest. Sadler was recalled in December 1543; and the country was speedily invaded and devastated by the English troops.) to demand the caussis of that suddane alteratioun, and to travaill by all meanes possible, that the Governour mycht be called back to his formar godly purpoise, and that he wold not do so foolishlie and inhonestlye, yea, so cruelly and unmercyfullie to the realme of Scotland; that he wold not only lose the commodities offerred, and that war presentlie to be receaved, but that also he wold expone it to the hasard110 of fyre and suord, and other inconvenientis that mycht insew the warr that was to follow upoun the violatioun of his fayth: but nothing could availl. The Devill keapt fast the grippe that he gatt, yea, evin all the dayis of his governement. For the Cardinall gatt his eldast sone in pledge, whom he keapt in the Castell of Sanctandross, whill the day that Goddis hand punished his pryde.

King Hary perceaving that all hope of the Governouris reapentance was lost, called back his Ambassadour, and that with fearfull threatnyngis, as Edinburgh after felt; denunced warr, maid our schippis pryses, and merchantis and marynaris lauchfull preasonaris, which, to the browghtis of Scotland, was no small hearschipp. Butt thairat did the Cardinall and Preastis lawch, and jestinglye he said, "When we shall conqueise England, the merchantis shalbe recompenssed." The somar and the harvist pass ower without any notable thing; for the Cardinall and Abbot of Paislie parted the pray amonges thame: the abused Governour bayre the name only.

In the begynnyng of the wynter, came the Erle of Levenox to Scotland,292292Matthew Earl of Lennox returned to Scotland, by the advice of Cardinal Beaton, and landed at Dumbarton on the last day of March 1543. sent fra France in haterent of the Governour, whome the King, (by the Cardinallis advise,) promessed to pronunce bastard, and so to maik the said Erle Governour. The Cardinall forther putt the said Erle in vane hoipe that the Quene Dowager should marye him. He browght with him some money, and more he after receaved fra the handis of La Broche. Butt at lenth, perceaving him self frustrate of all expectatioun that he had, eyther by France, or yitt by the promeise of the Cardinall, he concluded to leave France, and to seak the favouris of England, and so begane to drawe a factioun aganis the Governour; and in haterent of the otheris inconstancie, many favored him in the begynning;111 for thare assembled at the Yule, in the toune of Ayre, the Erles of Anguss, Glencarne, Cassilles, the Lordis Maxwaill, [and Somerville,]293293A blank in the MS. and in all the copies. The name of Somerville is supplied on the authority of letters from Sir Ralph Sadler to Henry the Eighth, and from the Privy Council of England to Sadler.—(Sadler, vol. i. p. 161; State Papers, vol. v. p. 280.) the Lard of Drumlangrig, the Schireff of Ayre,294294Sir Hugh Campbell of Loudon. with all the force that thei, and the Lordis that remaned constant at the opinioun of England, mycht mack; and after the Yule, thei came to Leyth. The Governoure and Cardinall, with thare forces, keape Edinburgh, (for thei war slaklie persewed.) Men excuse the Erle of Levenox in that behalf, and layd the blame upoun some that had no will of Stewartis regiment. Howsoever it was, such ane appointment was maid, that the said Erle of Levenox was disapoynted of his purpose, and narrowly eschaiped; and first gat him to Glasgw, and after to Dumbertane. Schir George Dowglass was delivered to be keapt as pledge. The Erle his brother,295295In MS. G, "was efter tane in the Lenterne, at the siege of Glasgw." was, in the Lentrane after, tackin at the sege of Glasgw. It was bruyted, that boyth the brethren, and otheris with thame, had lossed thare headis, yf by the providence of God the Engliss army had nott arryved the sonare.

After that the Cardinall had gottin the Governour hole addict to his devotioun, and had obtened his intent above a parte of his ennemyes, he begane to practise, how that such as he feared, and thairfoir deadly haited, should be sett by the earis one against ane other, (for in that, thowght the carnall man, stood his greatast securitie.) The Lord Ruthven he haited, be reassone of his knowledge of Goddis woord: the Lord Gray he feared, becaus at that tyme he used the cumpany of such as professed godliness, and bare small favour to the Cardinall. Now, thus reassoned the worldly wise man, "Yf I can putt ennimitie betuix those two, I shalbe rydd of a great nomber of unfreindis; for the most112 parte of the cuntrey will either assist the one or the other; and so will thei be otherwise occupied, then to watch for my displeasur." He fyndes the meanes, without longe process; for he laubouris with Johnne Charterowse, (a man of stout corage and many freindis,)296296   John Charteris of Couthilgourdy had been elected Provost of Perth, 1st October 1543, but was discharged, by appointment of the Governor, 26th January 1543-44, when Mr. Alexander MʻBreck was chosen. Patrick Lord Ruthven, who was chosen Provost on the 7th October 1544, was attempted to be discharged on the 26th January 1544-45, and to be replaced by John Charteris; but the Ruthven party prevailing, Charteris was not admitted.
    The skirmish of which Knox here gives a minute and accurate description, took place on the 22d of July 1544, when Lord Gray's partizans were repulsed with a loss of upwards of sixty men.—(Adamson's Muses Threnodie, by Cant, pp. 70, 71, 112.) Lord Gray, in October that year, received from the Cardinal a grant of part of the lands of Rescobie in Forfarshire, for his "ready and faithful help and assistance in these dangerous times of the Church."
to accept the provostrie of Sanct Johnestoun, which he purchasses to him by donatioun of the Governour, with a charge to the said Toune to obey him as thare lauchfull Provest. Whareat, not only the said Lord Ruthven, but also the toune, being offended, gave ane negative ansuer, alledging, That such intrusioun of men in office was hurtfull to thare priviledge and fredom; which granted unto thame free electioun of thare Provest from year to year, at a certane tyme appointed, quhilk thei could not nor wold nott prevent. Heirat the said Johnne offended said, "That he wold occupie that office by force, yf thei wold not give it unto him of benevolence;" and so departed and communicat the mater with the Lord Gray, with Normond Leslie, and with other his freindis; whome he easily persuaded to assist him in that persuyt, becaus he appeared to have the Governouris ryght, and had nott only a charge to the toune, as said is, but also he purchassed letteris to beseige it, and to tack it by strong hand, yf any resistance war maid unto him. Such letteris, we say, made many to favour his actioun. The other maid for defence, and so tuk113 the Maister of Ruthven (the Lord that after departed in England,)297297Patrick Master of Ruthven was the oldest son of Patrick third Lord Ruthven, the principal actor in Rizzio's murder, on the 9th March 1566, and who fled into England, where he died on the 13th June that year. Having predeceased his father, and leaving no issue, Patrick was succeeded by his next brother, William, who is styled Master of Ruthven, in a charter, 9th April 1565. This son, who was afterwards created Earl of Gowrye, was also concerned with his father in the murder of Rizzio. the mantenance of the toune, having in his cumpany the Lard of Moncreif,298298Moncrieffe of Moncrieffe, in the parish of Dunbarny, Perthshire. and other freindis adjacent. The said Johnne maid frack for the persuyt; and upoun the Magdelane day,299299Mary Magdalene's day, the 22d of July. But the year was 1544, and not 1543: see note 296; and the Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 84, where forty persons are said to have been slain. in the mornyng, anno 1543, approched with his forses; the Lord Gray tacking upoun him the principall charge. It was appointed, that Normond Leslye, with his freandis, should have come by schip, with munitioun and ordnance, as thei war in reddynes. But becaus the tyde served nott so soone as thei wold, the other thinking him self of sufficient forse, for all that war in the toune, entered in by the brig, whare thei fand no resistance, till that the formar parte was entered a pretty space within the Fische Gate;300300In MS. G, "a pretty spaice fra the Fische-Yet." and then the said Maister of Ruthven, with his cumpany, stowtlie recountred thame, and so rudlye repulsed the formest, that such as war behynd gave back. The place of the retear was so straite, that men that durst not feght, could not flye at thare pleasur, (for the moist part of the Lord Gray his freindis war upoun the brig;) and so the slaughter was great; for thare fell in the edge of the suord threescoir men. The Cardinall had rather that the unhappe had fallen on the other parte; but howsoever it was, he thowght that such truble was his conforte and advantage. The knowledge whareof came unto the earis of the partie that had receaved the disconfiture, and was unto thame no114 small greaff; for as many of thame entered in that actioun for his pleasour, so thowght thei to have had his fortificatioun and assistance, whairof fynding thame selfis frustrat, thei begane to looke more narrowly to thame selfis, and did not so much attend upon the Cardinallis devotioun, as thei had wont to do befoir: and so was a new jelosey engendered amanges thame; for whosoever wold nott play to him the good vallett, was reputed amangis his ennemyes. The Cardinall drew the Governour to Dundye;301301Sadler, on the 13th of November 1543, states that "the Governor and Cardinal are now gone over the water of Forth, into Fife and Angus," to gain the Earl of Rothes, the Lords Gray, Ogilvy, and Glammis, to their party, "either by force or policy."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 340.) for he understood that the Erle of Rothess and Maister Henrie Balnaves war with the Lord Gray in the Castell of Huntlie.302302Castle Huntley, in the parish of Longforgan, built by the second Lord Gray of Foulis. He had extensive possessions in the Carse of Gowrye, and according to tradition, he named the Castle after his Lady, a daughter of the Earl of Huntley. The Governour send and commanded the saidis Erle and Lord, with the foirsaid Maister Henrie, to come unto him to Dundy, and appointeid the nixt day, at ten houris befoir none; which hour thei decreid to keap; and for that purpose assemblet thare folkis at Bawgawy,303303In MS. G, "Balgawy." The place referred to is Balgavie, near Innergowrye, two or three miles from Dundee, on the road to Perth. or thareby. The Cardinall advertissed of thare nomber, (thei war mo then thre hundreth men,) thowght it nott good that thei should joyn with the toune, for he feared his awin estaite; and so he persuaded the Governour to pas furth of Dundy befoir nyne houris, and to tak the strayth way to Sanct Johnnestoun.304304The old name of the city of Perth. Which perceaved by the foirsaid Lordis, thei begane to feare that thei war come to persew thame, and so putt thame selves in ordour and array, and merched fordward of purpose to have biddin the uttermost. But the craftie fox foirseing, that in feghtting stood nott his securitie, rane to his last refuge,115 that is, to manifest treasone; and so consultatioun was tackin how that the force of the otheris mycht be brokin. And at the first, war send the Lard of Grange and the Provest of Sanctandross,305305The Provost of St. Andrews in 1544, was Sir James Learmonth of Balcomie, or Dairsye. (knowing nothing of treason,) to ask "Why thei molested my Lord Governour in his jorney?" Whairto thei ansuered, "That thei ment nothing less; for thei came at his Grace's commandiment, to have keap the hour in Dundy appointed by him, which becaus thei saw prevented, and knawing the Cardinall to be thare unfreand,306306In Vautr. edit. "their friend." thei could nott butt suspect thare unprovided cuming furth of the toune; and thairfoir, thei putt thame selfis in ordour not to invaid, but to defend in caise thei war invaded." This ansure reported, was send to thame the Bischope of Sanctandross,* THE ABBOT OF PASLEY307307The marginal explanation having been taken into the text, the later copies read as if the Bishop of St. Andrews and the Abbot of Paisley were different persons. John Hamilton, Abbot of Paisley, became Cardinal Beaton's successor in the Metropolitan See. In MS. G, the passage reads, "This answer reported, was send to thame the Bishop of Sanct Andrewes, the Abbot of Pasley, Mr. David Panter," &c., "to desyre," &c. In Vautr. edit. it is still further from the correct reading, by the omission of thame, "This answer reported, was sent to the Bishop of Sainct Andrewes, the Abbot of Pasley," &c.* Maister David Panter, the Lardis of Balclewhe and Coldinknowis, to desyre certane of the other cumpany to talk with thame; which thei easelie obteined, (for thei suspected no treasone.) After long communicatioun, it was demanded, Yf that the Erle and Lord and Maister Henrie foirsaid, wold nott be content to talk with the Governour, providit that the Cardinall and his cumpany war of the ground? Thei ansuerit, "That the Governour mycht command thame in all thinges lauchfull, but thei had no will to be in the Cardinalles mercye." Fayre promisses ynew war maid for thare securitie. Than was the Cardinall and his band commanded to depart; as that he did according to the pur116poise tackin. The Governour remaned and ane certane with him; to whom came without cumpany the saidis Erle, Lord, and Maister Henrye. After many fair woordis gevin unto thame all, to witt, "That he wold have thame aggreed with the Cardinall; and that he wold have Maister Henrye Balnaves the wyrkar and instrument thairof," he drew thame fordwartes with him towardis Sanet Johnnestoun, whether to the Cardinall was ridden. Thei begane to suspect, (albeit it was to lett,) and tharefor thei desyred to have returned to thare folkis, for putting ordour unto thame. But it was ansuerid, "Thei should send back fra the toune, but thei most neidis go fordwart with my Lord Governour." And so, partlye by flatterye and partlye by force, thei war compelled to obey. And how sone that ever thei war within the toune, thei war apprehended, and upoun the morne send all three to the Black Nesse, whare thei remaned so long as that it pleased the Cardinallis graceless Grace, and that was till that the band of manrent and of service, sett some of thame at libertie. And thus the Cardinall with his craft prevalled on everie syd; so that the Scotesh proverbe was trew in him, "So long rynnis the fox, as he fute hes."308308This proverbial phrase, "Ay rynnis the fox, quhill he fute hes," occurs at the end of a poem "againis Treason," by Dunbar.—(Poems, vol. i. p. 136.)

Whether it was at this his jorney, or at ane other, that that bloody bowchar executed his crueltye upoun the innocent personis in Sanct Johnestoun, we can not affirme; neyther yett thairin study we to be curious; but rather we travall to expresse the veritie, whersoever it was done, then scrupluslye and exactly to appoint the tymes,309309   The Parliament met at Edinburgh, in December 1543, and the following Act against Hereticks was passed on the 15th; which may be quoted in connexion with the proceedings at Perth in the following month,—
    "The quhilk day, My Lord Governour causit to be schewin and proponit in plane Parliament to all Estatis being thair gaderit, how thair is gret murmure that Heretikis mair and mair risis and spredis within this Realme, sawand dampnable opinionis incontrar the fayth and lawis of Haly Kirk, actis and constitutionis of this Realme: Exhortand thairfor all Prelatis and Ordinaris, ilkane within thair awin diocy and jurisdictioun, to inquir apoun all sic manor of personis, and proceid aganis thame according to the lawis of Haly Kirk; and My said Lord Governour salbe rady at all tymes to do thairin that accordis him of his office."—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 443.)
which yitt we117 omitt nott when the certaintye occurres. The veritie of that cruell fact is this. At Sanct Paules day,310310   St. Paul's day was the 25th of January, and the year 1543-4, is fixed by the reference to "the first burning of Edinburgh," by the English troops under the Earl of Hertford, in May 1544. (See note 320.) Keith, and his editor Mr. Parker Lawson, are at a loss to reconcile the dates of the Governor and Cardinal's visit to Perth, and the execution of the persons mentioned by Knox. Knox's account of these martyrs at Perth is corroborated not only by the more detailed account given in Foxe's Martyrs, (p. 1230,) but by the following extracts from the Treasurer's Accounts. The Governor spent his Yule or Christmas, 1543, not at St. Andrews, but at Stirling. The following were payments made by the Treasurer:—
    1543, December. "Item, in the tyme of Zule, deliverit to my Lord Governour, to play at the cartis with the Quenis Grace in Striviling, in ane hundreth crownis of the Sonn, £110."

    1543-4, "Item, the xij day of Januar, efter the aggreance maid betuix my Lord Governour and the saidis Lordis, (Earl of Levinox, &c.,) at convenit in Leith againis his Grace, hyrit liiij cart hors, quhilk past agane to Striveling with the said artalze, and fra Striveling to Sanct Jhonstoun [and] Dunde, for punising certane Heretikis within the saidis townis, and payit to the saidis hors viij dayis wagis, to every hors on the day iij s.... Summa, lxiiij lib. xvj s.

    "Item, xx Jannarij, after the Counsale and Convention haldin at Striviling, at my Lord Governoris departing towart Sanct Johnstoun for punischment as said is, hyrit to turs certane small artalze with his Grace thair, xxvj cart hors, to ilk hors the day iij s.... Summa, xxxj lib. iiij s.

    "Item, to xij pyoneris, quhilkis past and convoyit the said small artalze, viij dayis wagis, to every man in the day ij s. Summa, ix lib. xij s."

    In Mercer's Chronicle of Perth, is this brief notice, "The execution of James Hunter, Robert Lambe, James Ronaldstone, and his spouse, at Perth, in Januar, in Sanct Pawlis day. 1543[-4] yeiris."
befoir the first burnyng of Edinburgh, came to Sanct Johnestoun the Governour and Cardinall, and there, upoun invyous delatioun, war a great nomber of honest men and wemen called befoir the Cardinall, accused of heresye; and albeit that thei could be convict of nothing but only of suspitioun that thei had eittin a guse upoun Fryday, four men war adjudged to be hanged, and a woman to be drouned; which cruell and118 most injust sentence was without mercy putt in executioun. The husband was hanged, and the wyfe, having ane suckin babe upoun hir breast, was drowned.—"O Lorde, the land is nott yitt purged from such beastlye crueltye; neyther has thy just vengence yitt strickin all that war criminall of thare blood: But the day approchcs when that the punishment of that cruelty and of otheris will evidentlye appear." The names of the men that war hanged, war James Huntar, Williame Lambe,311311   His name was Robert, not William Lamb, burgess of Perth. Calderwood has given a detailed account, as related by "Mr. John Davidson, a diligent searcher in the last acts of our Martyrs," of the manner in which Lamb interrupted Friar Spence, when preaching on All-hallow-day. See Wodrow Society edit, of his History, vol. i. p. 174. He also states that Knox's account of these Perth Martyrs "is confirmed by the Registers of the Justice-Court, where it is registered, that Robert Lamb, merchant in Perth, James Ranoldsone, skinner, William Andersone, maltman, James Hunter, fleshour, were convicted of art and part in breaking the Act of Parliament, by holding an assemblie and convention in Sanct Anne's Chappell, in the Spey-yards, upon Sanct Andrewes day [30th Nov.] last by past, conferring and disputing there upon the Holie Scriptures.... Item, Helen Stirk, spous to James Ranoldsone, convicted Becaus of art and part in breaking the Acts of Parliament, in dishonouring the Virgin Marie." See also Foxe's Martyrs, p. 1230. The executions at this time are thus very summarily noticed in the Diurnal of Occurrents, (p. 30,)—
    "Upoun the xxviij day of Januare [1543-4,] the Governour with his Lordis past to Sanct Johnstoun and Dundie, and brunt mony limmaris in the said tolbuis [townis]."
Williame Andersoun, James Rannelt, burgesses of Sanct Johnestoun. At that same tyme war banissed Schir Henrie Eldar,312312Sir Henry Elder, as his name denotes, was in Priest's orders; and John Elder, we may suppose, was his brother. In a list of the Magistrates of Perth, elected 7th Oct. 1541, we find "John Elder, Treasurer;" and, as a burgess of the town, he is to be distinguished from John Elder "the Redshank," who fled at this time into England. (See Appendix, No. VI.) In the Treasurer's Accounts, 1543-46, there was £200 paid as the composition for the remission granted to John Elder, burgess of Perth, and also £40 for the similar exemption given to Laurence Pillour, "pro disputatione in Sacris Scripturis contra tenorem Acti Parliamenti."—(MʻCrie's Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 359.) Johnne Eldar, Walter Pyper, Laurence Pullare, with diverse utheris, whose names came nott to our knowledge. That sworne ennemye to Christ Jesus, and unto all in whome any sponk of trew knowledge appeared, had119 about that same tyme in preason diverse; amonges whome was Johne Roger, a Blak Freir, godly, learned, and ane that had fruetfully preached Christ Jesus, to the conforte of many in Anguss and Mearnes, whome that bloody man caused murther in the ground of the Sea-toure of Sanctandross, and then caused to cast him ower the craig, sparsing a false bruyt, "That the said Johnne, seaking to flie, had broken313313In the MS. "broking." his awin craig."

Thus ceassed nott Sathan, by all meanes, to manteane his kingdome of darkness, and to suppresse the light of Christis Evangell. But potent is he against whome thei faught; for when thay wicked war in greatast securitie, then begane God to schaw his anger. For the thride day of Maij, in the year of God Jm. Vc. xliiij yearis, without knowledge of any man in Scotland, (we meane of such as should haif had the care of the realme,) was seene a great navye of schippis arryving towardis the Firth. The postis came to the Governour and Cardinall, (who boith war in Edinburgh,) what multitud of schippis ware sene, and what course thei took. This was upoun the Setterday befoir nune. Questioun was had, what should thei meane? Borne said, It is no doubt but thei ar Englismen, and we fear that thei shall land. The Cardinall scripped and said, "It is but the Island flote: thei ar come to mak a schaw, and to putt us in feare. I shall lodge all the men-of-ware into my cae,314314In MS. G, &c., "eye." that shall land in Scotland." Still sittis the Cardinall at his dennare, eavin as that thare had bene no danger appearing. Men convenis to gase upoun the schippis, some to the Castell Hill, some to the Craiggis, and other places eminent. But thare was no questioun, "With what forces shall we resist, yf we be invadit?" Sone after sax houris at nycht, war arryved and had casten anker in the Read of120 Leyth, mo then two hundreth sailles. Schortlie thare after the Admirall schot a flote boite, which, frome Grantoun craigis315315In Vautr. edit. "Granton hilles." till be east Leyth, sounded the deipe, and so returned to hir schippe. Heirof war diverse opinionis. Men of judgement foresaw what it ment. But no credite was geavin to any that wold say, "Thei mynd to land." And so past all man to his rest, as yf thei schippis had bene a gard for thare defence.

Upone the poynt of day, upon Sounday, the fourt of Maij, addressed thei for landing, and ordered thei thare schippis so that a galay or two lade thare snowttis to the craiggis.316316In Vautr. edit. "the hilles." The small schippis called pinaces, and light horsmen approched als neir as thei could. The great schippis discharged thare souldiouris in the smallare veschellis, and thei by bottis, sett upon dry land befoir ten houris ten thousand men, as was judged, and mo. The Governour and Cardinall seing then the thing that thei could nott, or att least thei wold nott beleve befoir, after that thei had maid a brag to feght, fled as fast as horse wold cary them; so that after, thei approched nott within twenty myllis of the danger. The Erle of Anguss, and George317317In MS. G, "Sir George." Sir George Douglas of Pittendreich was brother of the Earl of Angus. Dowglas war that nycht freed of ward, (thei war in Blakness.)318318Blackness Castle, in the parish of Carriden, Linlithgowshire, close to the river Forth, about five or six miles above South Queensferry. This is one of the four fortresses which were stipulated in the Act of Union, in 1707, to be kept in repair. The said Schir George in merynes said, "I thank King Hary and my gentill Maisteris of England."


The Engliss army betuix twelf and one hour319319In Vautr. edit. "between one and two of the clock." entered in Leyth, fand the tables covered, the dennaris prepared, such aboundance of wyne and victuallis, besydis the other substance, that the lyik riches within the lyik boundis121 was nott to be found, neyther in Scotland nor England. Upone the Mononday the fyft of Maij, came to thame from Berwik and the Bordour, two thowsand horsmen, who being somewhat reposed, the army, upoun the Wedinsday marched towardis the Toune of Edinburgh, spoyled and brynt the same, and so did thei the Palice of Halyrudhouse.320320During this Expedition under the Earl of Hertford, the town of Edinburgh, with the exception of the Castle, was "utterly ruinate and destroyed with fire," during the space of four successive days; "Also, we brent th'abbey called Holy Rode-house, and the Pallice adjonynge to the same." This took place in the beginning of May 1544.—(Dalyell's Fragments of Scotish History, p. 7.) The horsmen took the House of Cragmyllare, and gatt great spoyle tharein; for it being judged321321In MS. G, the word "judged" is omitted.—Craigmillar Castle, now a picturesque ruin, in the parish of Libberton, is about three miles south from Edinburgh. The English forces, on the 8th of May 1544, "past to Craiginillar, quhilk was haistilie gevin to thame: promesed to keip the samyne without skaith; quhilk promes thai break, and brunt and destroyit the said Hous."—(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 32.) the strongast house near the Toune, other then the Castell of Edinburgh, all man sowght to saif thare movables thairin. But the stoutness of the Larde gave it over without schote of hack-que-boote, and for his reward was caused to merch upoun his foote to Londoun. He is now Capitane of Dumbar and Provest of Edinburgh.322322Sir Simon Preston of Craigmillar. He was Provost of Edinburgh in 1565, and three following years. His father, Simon Preston, had been Provost in 1536.

The Englismen seing no resistance, hurlled by force of men cannounes up the calsay to the Butter-throne,323323The Tron, or beam, used for weighing merchandize, stood in the High Street, nearly opposite what is now called the Tron Church. But the Butter-Tron was probably at the building afterwards called the Weigh-House, which stood nearly in the middle of the street, at the head of the West Bow, leading to the Castle. or above, and hasarded a schoote at the for-entree of the Castell. Butt that was to thare awin paines; for thei lying without trinche or gabioun, war exponed to the force of the hole ordinance of the said Castell, which schote, and that nott122 all in vane; for the quheill and extrye of one of the Engliss cannownes war brokin, and some of thare men slayne; and so thei left with small honour that interprise, tackin rather of rashnes, then of any advised counsall. When the most parte of the day thei had spoyled and brynt, towardis the nyeht thei returned to Leyth, and upoun the morow returned to Edinburgh, and executed the rest of Goddis judgementis for that tyme. And so when thei had consumed boyth the Tounes, thai laded the schippis with spoyle thareof,324324   Among the spoils, it is stated, that the furniture and library in the Palace of Holyrood were carried off; including a fine brazen font from the Abbey. (See Archæologia Scotica, vol. iv. p. 13.) But some of the books and furniture had previously been removed by the Governor to Hamilton Palace, where probably they are still preserved. On the 8th of May the Treasurer paid, "be his Gracis speciall command, to certane pure men quhilkis tursit (carried) his Gracis cofferis out of the Palice of Halyrudhous to the Castell of Edinburgh, and fra thare to the Castell of Hammiltoun, the soume of xj lib."
    "Item, (on the 16th of May,) to ane pure man of Edinburgh, quhilkis savit fifty-pece of weschell of my Lord Governouris, the tyme of the Inglische menis being thair, and deliverit the samyn to Sir David Hammiltoun, x s."
and thei by land returned to Berwik, using the cuntry for the most parte at thare awin pleasur.

This was a parte of the punishment, which God took upoun the realme for infidelitie of the Governour, and for the violatioun of his solempned oath. Butt this was nott the end; for the realme was devided in two factionis; the one favored France; the other the league laitly contracted with England: The one did in no thingis throwghlie credite the uther; so that the countrey was in extreame calamitie; for to the Englismen war delivered diverse strenthis, such as Carelaverok, Lowmaben and Longhame. The maist parte of the Bordouris war confederat with England. And albeit that first, at Ankrome Mure, in Februare, in the year of God Jm. Vc. fourty four, was Schir Raif Evers,325325Ancrum Moor, about a mile and a half to the north of the village of that name, in the county of Roxburgh. The battle took place on the 17th of February 1544-45, when Sir Ralph Evers was slain, and the English forces routed. with many123 other Englismen slayne, and the yeare after war some of the saidis strenthis recovered; yitt was it nott without great loss and detriment to the commoun wealth. For in the moneth of Junij, in the year of God Jm. Vc. fourty fyve, Monsoure de Lorge,326326Captain de Lorge Montgomery, with about 3500 men, arrived from France in May or June 1545.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. pp. 594-596.) with bandis of men of warr, came frome France for a further destructioun to Scotland; for upoun thare brag was ane army rased. Fordwarte go thei towardis Wark,327327The Castle of Wark, a border fortress, on the bank of the river Tyne in Northumberland, near Coldstream. evin in the myddist of harvist. The Cardinallis baner was that day displayed, and all his fecallis war charged to be under it. Many had befoir promissed, but at the poynt it was left so bayre, that with schame it was schut up in the pock againe, and thei after a schaw returned with more schame to the realme, then skaith to thare ennemyes. The black booke of Hammyltoun maikis mentioun of great vassalege328328In Vautr. edit. "great slaverie." done at that tyme by the Governour, and the Frenche.329329In MS. G, "the Frenche Captane." But such as with thare eyis saw the hole progresse, knew that to be a lye, and dois repute it amonges the veniale synnes of that race, which is to speake the best of thameselves thei can.

That wynter following, so nurtored the French men, that thei learned to eatt, (yea, to beg,) caikes which at thare entrie thei skorned. Without jesting, thei war so miserable entreated, that few returned to France agane with thare lyves. The Cardinall had then almost fortifeid the Castell of Sanctandross, which he maid so strong, in his opinioun, that he regarded neyther England nor France. The Erle of Levenox, as said is, disapoynted of all thingis in Scotland, past to England, whare he was receaved of King Hary in protectioun, who gave him to wyffe Lady Margaret Dow124glas,330330Matthew Stewart fourth Earl of Lennox, had retired to England in 1545. He married Lady Margaret Douglas, daughter of the Earl of Angus and Margaret, widow of King James the Fourth. She was thus niece of the English Monarch, at whose Court she resided until her marriage. Their son was Henry Lord Darnley, who married Mary Queen of Scots. The Earl of Lennox became Regent of Scotland in 1570, upon the death of the Earl of Murray. of whome was borne Hary, umquhile husband to our Jezabell Maistres.

Whill the inconstant Governour was sometymes dejected and sometymes resed up againe be the Abbot of Paslay,331331John Hamilton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, was a natural son of James first Earl of Arran. He pursued his studies first at Glasgow, and afterwards at Paris. In 1525, he obtained the rich Abbacy of Paisley; and as Abbot he sat in the Parliaments of 1535 and 1540. His relationship to the Governor, over whom he obtained great influence, led to his rapid promotion. He was successively Lord Privy Seal, High Treasurer, Bishop of Dunkeld, and a Judge in the Court of Session. On the death of Cardinal Beaton, he became his successor as Primate. The "Catechisme," which usually passes under his name, from having been printed at his expense, at St. Andrews, in 1552, exhibits a solitary instance on the part of the Roman Catholic clergy to convey spiritual instruction, and is most creditable to his memory. who befoir was called "chaster then any madyn," begane332332That is, the Abbot of Paisley now began, &c. to schaw him self; for after he had tackin by craft the Castellis of Edinburgh and Dumbar, he tooke also possessioun of his Eme's wyiff,333333In the MS. this word Eme's, at first inaccurately written, was corrected, but not distinctly, and led to the substitution of Enemies wyfe, in all the other copies. Eme usually means Uncle; here it merely signifies kinsman. the Lady Stennoss:334334Lady Grizell Sempill was the eldest daughter of Robert third Lord Sempill, and was the second wife of James Hamilton of Stenhouse, Captain of the Castle of Edinburgh. A charter under the Great Seal was granted of the lands of Kittiemuir, on the 10th of March 1539, "Jacobi Hamilton de Stanehouse et Grizeldi Sempill ejus conjugi." Her husband, who was Provost of Edinburgh, was slain in endeavouring to quell a tumult between some of the auxiliary troops quartered in the Canongate, and the inhabitants, on the 1st of October 1548. the woman is and hes bein famouse, and is called Lady Gylton. Hir Ladiship was holdin alwayis in propertie;335335In MS. G, "Gilston;" and in Vautr. edit., &c., "haldin in povertie." It probably means, that her connexion with the Archbishop always continued. Some further notice of this Lady will be given in a subsequent note. but how many125 wyiffis and virgenes he hes had sen that tyme in commoun, the world knowis, albeit nott all, and his bastard byrdis336336George Martine, in his "Reliquiæ Divi Andreæ," written in 1683, has given an account of Hamilton, in which, in reference to the Archbishop and this Lady, he says, "I have seen copies of charters granted by this Archbishop to William, John, and James Hamiltons, his three naturall sones born of this Grizzell Sempill; and they are designed her naturall sones, but they came all to be forfeited." (P. 244.) Letters of Legitimation of John and William Hammylton, bastard sons of Grissel Sempill, daughter of Robert Master of Sempill, were dated 9th Oct. 1551.—(Reg. Mag. Sigill.) bear some witness. Such is the example of holynes that the flock may receave of the Papisticall Bischoppis.


In the myddest of all the calamities that came upoun the realme after the defectioun of the Governour from Christ Jesus, came in Scotland that blissed Martyre of God Maister George Wisharte,337337Knox places Wishart's return to Scotland in 1544, although the Commissionars to whom he alludes came back in July 1543. The exact time has not been well ascertained: see Appendix, No. IX. in cumpany of the Commissionaris befoir mentionat, in the year of God 1544; a man of such graces as befoir him war never hard within this realme, yea, and ar rare to be found yit in any man, nocht withstanding this great lyght of God that sence his dayis hes schyned unto us. He was not onlye singularlye learned, aisweall in godlye knowledge, as in all honest humane science; bot also he was so clearlye illummated with the spreat of prophesye, that he saw nott only thingis perteanyng to him self, but also such thingis as some Tounes and the hole Realme afterward felt, which he foir-spak, nott in secreat, but in the audience of many, as in thare awin places shalbe declaired. The begynnyng of his doctrin was in Montrose. Tharefra hie departed to Dundy, whare, with great admiratioun of all that heard him, he tawght the Epistill to the Romanes, till that, by procurement of the Cardinall, Robert Myll, then one of the principall men in Dundye, and a man that of old had professed knowledge,126 and for the same had sufferred trublc, gave, in the Quenis and Governouris name, inhibitioun to the said Maister George, that he should truble thare toune no more; for thei wold not suffer it. And this was said unto him, being in the publict place; which heard, he mused a pretty space,338338In MS. G, "a litill space." with his eis bent unto the heavin, and thareafter looking sorowfullie to the speakar, and unto the people, he said, "God is witness, that I never mynded your truble, but your conforte. Yea, your truble is more dolorous unto me, then it is unto your selves. But I am assured that to refuse Goddis Word, and to chase from yow his messinger, shall not preserve yow frome truble; but it shall bring yow into it. For God shall send unto yow messingeris, who will not be efinayed of bornyng, nor yitt for banishment. I have offerred unto yow the woorde of salvatioun, and with the hasarde of my lyef I have remaned amanges yow. Now ye your selves refuise me, and tharefoir man I leave my innocencye to be declared by my God. Yf it be long prosperus with yow, I am nott ledd with the Spreitt of treuth. Butt and yf truble unlooked for apprehend yow, acknowledge the caus, and turne to God, for he is mercifull. But yf ye turne not at the first, he shall viseitt yow with fyre and sword." These woordis pronunsed, he came doune frome the preaching place. In the kirk present was the Lord Merschell,339339William fourth Earl Marishall, according to Sadler's report to Henry, 27th March 1543, was "a goodly young gentleman, well given to your Majesty, as I take him." He was friendly to the Reformation, and survived till about the year 1581.—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 99.) and diverse noblemen, who wold have had the said Maister George to have remaned, or ellis to have gone with him in the countrey. Butt for no requeast wold he eyther tary in the toune or on that syd of Tay any longar. Butt with possible expeditioun past to the west-land, whare he begane to offerr Goddis woord, which was of many127 gladlye received, till that the Bischop of Glasgw, Dumbar, by instigatioun of the Cardinall came with his gatheringis to the toune of Ayr, to mack resistance to the said Maister George, and did first occupy the kirk. The Erle of Glencarne being thairof advertissed, repaired with his freindis to the toune with diligence, and so did diverse gentilmen of Kyle, (amonges whome was the Lard of Lefnoryss,340340In MS. G, "Locnoreis." The person referred to was George Crawfurd of Leifnorris, or Loch Norris, now called Dumfries House, the seat of the Marquess of Bute, in the parish of Old Cumnock, Ayrshire. a man far different frome him that now lyvith*, ANNO 1566.* in maneris and religioun,) of whome to this day yitt many lyve, and have declared thame selfis alwayes zelous and bold in the caus of God, as after wilbe heard. When all war assembled, conclusioun was tackin that thei wold have the kirk; wharto the said Maister George utterlye repugned, saying, "Lett him allone; his sermon will nott much hurte: Lett us go to the Merkate Croce;" and so thei did, whare he made so notable a sermon, that the verray ennemies thame selves war confounded. THE BISCHOPE OF GLASGOW HIS PREACHING IN AYRE The Bischope preached to his jackmen, and to some old bosses of the toune. The summe of all his sermon was: "Thei say that we shuld preach: why nott? Bettir late thrive then never thrive: had us still for your Bischop, and we shall provid better for the next tyme." This was the begynnyng and the end of the Bischoppis sermon, who with haist departed the toune, butt returned nott agane to fulfill his promisse.

The said Maister George remaned with the gentilmen in Kyle, till that he gate suyre knowledge of the estate of Dondye. Hie preached commonlie at the kirk of Gaston,341341Gaston, or Galston, a parish in the district of Kyle. and used much in the Barr.342342This phrase, "used much in the Bar," signifies that he frequented the house of Barr, the seat of John Lockhart of Barr, in the parish of Galston. He was requyred to come to the kirk of Mauchlyne, as that he did. But the Schiref128 of Ayr343343Sir Hugh Campbell of Loudoun, was hereditary Sheriff of the county of Ayr. caused man the kirk, for preservatioun of a tabernakle that was thare, bewtyfull to the eie. The personis that held the kirk was George Campbell of Mongaswood, that yitt lyveth,* ANNO 1566.* Mongo Campbell of Brounesyd, George Read in Dawdeling, the Lard of Tempilland.344344The persons here named were all proprietors of lands in Ayrshire. Mongarswood, or Monkgarswood, is in the parish of Mauchline; Bronnsyde, in Sorne; Dawdeling, (in Vautr. edit. "Dawdilling,") or Daldilling, also in the parish of Sorne; and Tempilland, in that of Auchinleck. The Crawfurds were proprietors of Templeland; and the Reids of Daldilling, appear in the Retours 1651 and 1673, in the succession of their property.—(Ayr, Nos. 449 and 679.) Some zelous of the parishyne, amangis whome Hew Campbell of Kingzeanclewch,345345Kinyeancleuch is in the parish of Mauchline. Hugh Campbell was a cadet of the Campbells of Loudoun; and his son Robert Campbell of Kinyeancleuch, who is afterwards mentioned, was a special friend of Knox, and much distinguished himself by his singular zeal and devotedness in promoting the Reformation. offended that thei shuld be debarred thare parish kirk, concludit by force to enter. But the said Maister George withdrew the said Hew, and said unto him, "Brother, Christ Jesus is as potent upoun the feildis as in the kirk; and I fynd that he him self often preached in the deserte, at the sea syd, and other places judged prophane, then that he did in the Tempill of Hierusalem. It is the woord of peace that God sendis by me: the blood of no man shalbe sched this day for the preaching of it." And so with drawing the hole people, he came to a dyck in a mure edge, upoun the sowth-west syd of Mauchlyne, upoun the which he ascended. The hole multitude stood and sat about him, (God gave the day pleasing and hote.) He continewed in preach[ing] more then three houris. In that sermoun, God wrowght so wonderfullye with him, that ane of the most wicked men that was in that countrey, named Laurence Ranckin lard of Scheill,346346In Vautr. edit. "Shaw." Laurence Rankin, laird of Sheill, in the parish of Ochiltree, Ayrshire. was converted.129 The tearis rane from his eis in such habundance, that all men wondered. His conversioun was without hipochrysye, for his lyif and conversatioun witnessed it in all tymes to come.

Whill this faithfull servand of God was thus occupyed in Kyle, woord rais that the plague of pestilence was rissen in Dondye,347347The year 1544 is the date usually assigned for the ravages of the plague in Dundee. It would seem to have prevailed in different parts of the country for two or three successive years. The probable time of Wishart's visit on that occasion may have been in August 1545, as we are told, "In this tyme the pest was wonder greit in all burrowis townis of this realme, quhair mony peipill deit with great skant and want of victuallis."—(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 39.) which begane within foure dayis, after that the said Maister George was inhibite preaching, and was so vehement, that it almost passed credibilitie, to hear what nomber departed everie foure and twenty houris. The certantie understand, the said Maister George tooke his leave of Kyle, and that with the regrate of many. Bot no requeist could mack him to remane: his reassone was, "Thei ar now in truble, and thei nead conforte: Perchance this hand of God will make thame now to magnifie and reverence that woord, which befoir (for the fear of men,) thei sett at light price."348348In MS. G, "at lycht parte." Cuming unto Dondye, the joy of the faythfull was exceading great. He delayed no tyme, bot evin upoun the morow gave significatioun that he wold preache. And becaus the most parte war eyther seak, or ellis war in cumpany with those that war seak, he chosed the head of the East Porte of the Toune for his preaching place; and so the whole sat or stood within, the seik and suspected without the Porte.349349During the sixteenth century, the town of Dundee was surrounded by a double wall, with ports or gates, which were all removed about sixty years ago, with the exception of the East Gate, called the Cowgate Port, which was then "allowed to stand, from respect to Wishart's memory, and his services to the inhabitants of Dundee, during the plague of 1544; and it is still kept in good preservation."—(New Stat. Account, Forfarshire, p. 17.) The text upoun the which130 his first sermoun was made, he took fra the hundreth and sevin Psalme; the sentence thareof, "He send his woorde and heallod thame;" and tharewith joyned these woordis, "It is neather herbe nor plaster, O Lord, butt thy woord healleth all." In the which sermoun, he maist confortablie did intreat the dignitie and utilitie of Goddis woord; the punishment that cumis for the contempt of the same; the promptitude of Goddis mercy to such as trewlye turne to him; yea, the great happynes of thame whome God tackis from this miserie, evin in his awin gentill visitatioun, which the malice of man cane neyther eak nor paire. By the which sermoun he so rased up the hartis of all that heard him, that thei regarded nott death, but judged thame more happy that should departe, then such as should remane behynd; considering that thei knew nott yf thei shuld have such a confortar with thame at all tymes. He spared not to viseit thame that lay in the verray extreamitie; he conforted thame as that he mycht in such a multitude; he caused minister all thingis necessarye to those that mycht use meat or drynk; and in that poynt was the Toune wonderouse beneficiall; for the poore was no more neglected then was the rich.

Whill he was spending his lyve to conforte the afflicted, the Devill ceassed nott to stirr up his awin sone the Cardinall agane, who corrupted by money a disperat preast, named Schir Johne Wightone, to slay the said Maister George, who looked not to him self in all thingis so circumspectlie as worldlie men wold have wissed. And upoun a day, the sermoun ended, and the people departing, no man suspecting danger, and tharefore nott heading the said Maister George, the Preast that was corrupted stood wating at the foot of the steppis, his goune lowse, and his whinger drawin into his hand under his gown, the said Maister George, as that he was most scharpe of eie and judge131ment, marked him, and as he came neyr, he said, "My friend, what wald ye do?" And tharewith he clapped his hand upoun the Preastis hand, wharein the whingar was, which he tooke from him. The Preast abassed, fell down at his feitt, and openly confessed the veritie as it was. The noyse rysing, and cuming to the earis of the seik, thei cryed, "Deliver the tratour to us, or ellis we will tack him by forse;" and so thei birst350350In MS. G, "thay thrist in." in at the yett. But Maister George took him in his armes, and said, "Whosoevir trubles him shall truble me; for he has hurte me in nothing, bot he hes done great conforte boyth to yow and me, to witt, he hes lattin us understand what we may feare in tymes to come. We will watch better." And so he appeased boith the one parte and the other, and saved the lyif of him that soght his.

When the plague was so ceassed, that almost thare war none seak, he tooke his leave of thame, and said, "That God had almost putt end to that battell: he fand him self called to ane other." The gentilmen of the West had written unto him, That he should meitt thame at Edinburgh; for thei wald requyre disputatioun of the Bischoppis, and that he should be publictlie heard. Whaireto he willinglye aggreed; but first, he passed to Montrose, to salute the Kirk thare; whare he remaned occupyed sometymes in preaching, but most parte in secreat meditatioun, in the which he was so earnest, that nycht and day he wold continew in it. Whill he was so occupyed with his God, the Cardinall drew a secreat drawght for his slawchter. He caused to writt unto him a letter, as it had bein frome his most familiare friend, the Larde of Kynneyre,351351John Kynneir of Kynneir, in the parish of Kilmany, in Fife. He was served heir to his father David Kynneir de eodem, in the lands and barony of Kynneir, 30th July 1543.—(Retours, Fife, No. 2.) "Desyring132 him with all possible diligence to come unto him, for he was strickin with a suddane seakness." In this meantyme, had the tratour provided thre score men, with jackis and spearis, to lye in wate within a myll and a half of the toune of Montrose, for his dispatche. The letter cuming to his hand, he maid haste at the first, (for the boy had brought a horse,) and so with some honest men, he passes forth of the toune. But suddandlye he stayed, and musing a space, returned back; whareat thei wondering, he said, "I will nott go: I am forbiddin of God: I am assured thare is treasone. Lett some of yow, (sayis he,) go to yonder place, and tell me what ye fynd." Diligence made, thei fand the treassone, as it was; which being schawin with expeditioun to Maister George, he ansured, "I know that I shall finysh this352352In Vautr. edit., MSS. G, A, &c., "I shall ende my lyfe." my lief in that blood-thrusty manis handis; butt it will not be of this maner."

The tyme approching that he had appointed to meit the gentilmen at Edinburght, he took his leave of Montrose, and, sore against the judgement of the Lard of Dune,353353John Erskine of Dun, near Montrose, a zealous and consistent friend of the Reformation. After the establishment of the Reformation, in July 1560, although a layman, he was admitted to the office of Superintendent of Angus and Mearns. he entered in his jorney, and so returned to Dondy; but remaned not, but passed to the hous of a faythfull brother, named James Watsone, who dwelt in Inner Gowrye, distant frome the said toune two myles, and that nycht, (as informatioun was gevin to us by Williame Spadin and Johnne Watsoun, both men of good credyte,) befoir day a litill he passed furth into a yard. The said Williame and Johne followed previlie, and took head what he did. When he had gone up and doune into ane alay a ressonable space, with many sobbes and deape grones, he platt upoun354354In MS. G, "with money siches and deip grones, he plat doun." In Vautr. edit. "he fell upon." his knees,133 and setting thareon, his grones increassed; and frome his knees he fell upoun his face; and then the personis fornamed heard weaping and, as it war ane indigest sound, as it war of prayeris, in the which he continewed neyre ane hour, and after begane to be qwiet; and so arrose and came in to his bed. They that awated prevented him, as thei had bein ignorant, till that he came in; and than begane thei to demand whare he had bein? Butt that nycht he wold ansuer nothing. Upoun the morow, thei urged him agane; and whill that he dissimuled, thei said, "Maister George, be plaine with us; for we heard your grones; yea, we heard your bitter murning, and saw yow boyth upoun your kneis and upoun your face." With dejected visage, he said, "I had rather ye had bein in your beddis, and it had bein more profitable to yow, for I was skarse weall occupyed." When thei instantlie urged him to lett thame know some conforte; he said, "I will tell yow, that I am assured that my travail is neir ane end; and tharefor call to God with me, that now I schrink not when the battell waxis moist hoote." And whill that thei weaped, and said, "That was small conforte unto thame;" PROPHECIE SPOKIN BY MAISTER GEORGE WISHARTE he ansured, "God shall send yow conforte after me. This realme shalbe illuminated with the light of Christis Evangell, as clearlie as ever was any realme sence the dayis of the Apostles. The house of God shalbe builded in to it. Yea, it sall not lack, (whatsoever the ennemye imagyne in the contrare,) the verray cope stone:"355355In MS. G, "keape-stone:" Vautr. edit. has "keepe stone." Meanyng that it shuld anes be browght to the full perfectioun. "Neyther, (said he,) shall this be long to: Thare shall nott many suffer after me, till that the glorie of God shall evidently appear, and shall anes triumphe in dispyte of Sathan. Butt, allace! yf the people shall after be unthankfull, then fearfull and terrible shall the plagues be134 that after shall follow." And with these woordis he marched fordwardis in his jorney towardis Sanct Johnestoun; and so to Fyff, and then to Leyth. Whare arryved, and hearing no wourd of those that appointed to meitt him, (to witt, the Erle of Cassilles, and the gentill men of Kyle and Cunynghame,356356The words following "to meitt him," are a subsequent marginal addition by the author.) keap him self secreat a day or two. But begynnyng to wax sorowfull in spreit, and being demanded of the caus, of such as war nott into his cumpany of befoir, he said, "What differ I from a dead man, except that I eat and drynk? To this tyme God hes used my laubouris to the instructioun of otheris, and unto the disclosing of darknes; and now I lurk as a man that war eschamed, and durst not schaw him self befoir men." By these and lyik woordis, thei that heard him understoode that his desyre was to preach; and tharefoir said, "Maist confortable it war unto us to hear yow: but becaus we know the danger wharein ye stand, we dar not desyre yow." "But dar ye and otheris hear, (said he,) and then lett my God provide for me, as best pleasith him." Finally, it was concluded, that the nixt Sounday he should preach in Leyth; as that he did, and took the text, "The Parable of the Sowar that went furth to saw sead," Mathæi, 13. And this was upoun a fyvetene dayis357357In MS. G, "and this the fyftein day befoir Yuill." Vautr. reads, "the xv day before Christmas." befoir Yule. The sermon ended, the gentill men of Lotheane, who then war earnest professouris of Christ Jesus, thought not expedient that he shuld remane in Leyth, becaus that the Governour and Cardinall war schortlie to come to Edinburgh; and tharefore thei tooke him with thame, and keapt him sometymes in Brounestoun, sometymes in Langnudry, and sometymes in Ormestoun; for those thrie358358That is, Alexander Crichton of Brunstone, Hugh Douglas of Long-Niddry, and John Cockburn of Ormiston.—As there are two places of the name of Brunstone in Mid-Lothian, it may be proper to notice, that it must have been the old Castle now in ruins, in the parish of Pennycuik, where Wishart occasionally resided, and not the house of that name, at the eastern extremity of Libberton parish, which was built, or afterwards belonged to the Lauderdale family. See a subsequent note respecting the Crichtons of Brunstone. diligentlie awated upoun him. The Sounday following,135 he preached in the kirk of Enresk,359359Or Inveresk, six miles from Edinburgh. besydis Mussilburght, both befoir and at after none, whare thare was a great confluence of people, amonges whome was Schir George Douglass,360360Sir George Douglas of Pittendreich, was a younger son of George, Master of Angus, who was killed at Floddon in 1513, and brother of Archibald, seventh Earl of Angus. "He was, (says Sir Walter Scott,) a man of spirit and talents; shared with his brother in the power which he possessed during the minority of James V.; was banished with him, and almost all the name of Douglas, into England, where they remained till the death of the King; and were then sent by Henry back to their native country, along with the Solway prisoners, in order to strengthen the English party in Scotland."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 66, note.) His name appears on the 1st of April 1549, as an Extraordinary Lord of Session, which disproves the account in Douglas's Peerage of his having been killed at Pinkie, in September 1547. Having predeceased his brother, his eldest son, in 1556, became eighth Earl of Angus. who after the sermon said publictlie, THE WOORDIS OF SIR GEORGE DOWGLASS "I know that my Lord Governour and my Lord Cardinall shall hear that I have bein at this preaching, (for thei war then in Edinburght.) Say unto thame that I will avow it, and will nott onlye manteane the doctrin that I have hard, bot also the persone of the teachare to the uttermost of my power." Which woordis greatly rejosed the people and the gentilmen then present.


One thing notable in that sermon we can not pass by. Amonges otheris thare came two Gray Frearis, and standing in the entrie of the kirk doore, thei made some whispering to such as came in. Which perceaved, the preachar said to the people that stoode ney thame, "I hartlye pray yow to mack roome to those two men: It may be that thei be come to learne." And unto thame he said, "Come neyr, (for thei stoode in the verray entrye of the doore,) for I assure yow ye shall heare the woord of veritie,136 which shall eyther seall in to yow this same day your salvatioun, or condempnatioun." And so proceaded he in doctrin, supposing that thei wold have bein qwyette. But when he perceaved them still to truble the people that stood ney thame, (for vehement was he against the false wirschipping of God,) he turned unto thame the secound tyme, and with ane awfull countenance said, "O sergeantis of Sathan, and deceavaris of the soules of men, will ye nether hear Goddis trewth, nor suffer otheris to hear it? Departe and tack this for your portioun,—God shall schortlie confound and disclose your hipochrisie: Within this realme ye shall be abhominable unto men, and your places and habitationis shalbe desolate." This sentence he pronunced with great vehemeneye, in the myddist of the sermoun; and turneying to the people, he said, "Yone wicked men have provocked the Spreat of God to angar." And so he returned to his mater, and proceaded to the end. That dayis travaill ended, he came to Langnudrye; and the two nixt Soundayis preached in Tranent, with the lyik grace and lyik confluence of people. In all his sermonis, after his departure from Anguss, he forespake the schortnes of the tyme that he had to traval, and of his death, the day whairof he said approched neyar then any wold beleve.

In the hynder end of those dayis that ar called the Holy dayis of Yule, past he, by consent of the gentilmen, to Hadingtoun, whare it was supposed the greatast confluence of people should be, boyth be reassoun of the toune and of the countrey adjacent. The first day befoir nune the auditouris361361In MS. G, "audience." was reassonable, and yitt nothing in comparisone of that which used to be in that kyrk. Butt the after nune, and the nixt day following befoir nune, the auditure362362In MS. G, "auditors." was so selender, that many wondered. The cause was judged to137 have bein, that the Erle Bothwell, who in those boundis used to have great credite and obedience, by procurement of the Cardinall, had gevin inhibitioun, asweell unto the toune, as unto the countrey, that thei should nott hear him under the pane of his displeasur. The first nycht he lay within the toune with David Forress, now called the Generall,363363David Forres, or Forrest, is several times mentioned by Knox: he afterwards held the office of General of the Conzie House or Mint. ane man that long hes professed the trueth, and upoun whom many in that tyme depended. The secound nycht, he lay in Lethingtoun, the Lard364364Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington: see note [254.—The house of Lethington, being a massive old tower, with some modern additions, and now called Lennox Love, is rather more than a mile to the south of Haddington. whareof was ever civile, albeit not persuaded in religioun. The day following, befoir the said Maister George past to the sermoun, thare came to him a boy with ane letter from the West land, which receaved and red, he called for Johne Knox,365365This is the first occasion on which Knox introduces himself. who had awaited upoun him carefullie frome the tyme he came to Lotheane; with whome he began to enter in purpose, "that he weryed of the world:" for he perceaved that men begane to weary of God.366366In MS. G, the words after "world," are omitted. The caus of his complaint was, the gentilmen of the West had writtin unto him, that thei could nott keape dyet at Edinburgh. The said Johne Knox wondering that he desyred to keape any purpoise befoir sermoun, (for that was never his accustomed use befoir,) said, "Schir, the tyme of sermoun approches: I will leave yow for the present to your meditatioun;" and so took the bill conteanyng the purpose foirsaid, and left him. The said Maister George spaced up and doune behynd the hie altar more then half ane houre: his verray contenance and visage declared the greaf and alteratioun of his mynd. At last, he passed to the pulpett, but the auditure was small. He should have138 begune to have entreated the secound table of the Law; But thareof in that sermoun he spak verray litill, but begane on this maner; "O Lord, how long shall it be, that thy holy woord shalbe despysed, and men shall not regard thare awin salvatioun. I have heard of thee, Hadingtoun, that in thee wold have bein at ane vane Clerk play367367Clerk Plays was another name for those dramatic entertainments, which in France and England were known under the title of Mysteries, and which were usually founded on some passage of Scripture. two or three thowsand people; and now to hear the messinger of the Eternall God, of all thy toune nor parishe can not be nombred a hundreth personis. Sore and feirfull shall the plagues be that shall ensew this thy contempt: with fyre and sword thow shalt be plagued; yea, thow Haddingtoun, in speciall, strangearis shall possesse thee, and yow, the present inhabitantes shall eyther in bondage serve your ennemyes, or ellis ye shalbe chassed fra your awin habitationis; and that becaus ye have not knawin, nor will nott know the tyme of Goddis mercifull visitatioun." In such vehemency and threatnyng continewed that servand of God neyr ane hour and ane half, in the which he declared all the plagues that ensewed, as plainlie as after our eyes saw thame performed. In the end he said, "I have forgotten my self and the mater that I should have entraited; but lett these my last woordis as concernyng publict preaching, remane in your myndis, till that God send yow new conforte." Thairefter he maid a schorte paraphrasis upoun the Secound Table, with ane exhortatioun to patience, to the fear of God, and unto the werkis of mercy; and so putt end, as it war macking his last testament, as the ischew declaired, that the spreat of trewth and of trew judgement war both in his harte and mouth. For that same nycht was he apprehended, befoir mydnycht, in the house of Ormestoun, by the Erle Bothwell, made for money bucheour to the Cardinall.

The maner of his tackin was thus: departing frome the toune of139 Hadingtoun, he tuk his good nyght, as it war for ever, of all his acquentance, especiallie from Hew Dowglas of Langnudrye. Johne Knox preassing to have gone with the said Maister George, he said, "Nay, returne to your barnes, and God blisse yow. One is sufficient for one sacrifice." And so he caused a twa handed sweard, (which commonly was caiyed with the said Maister George,) be tackin fra the said Johnne Knox, who, albeit unwillinglie, obeyit, and returned with Hew Dowglass of Langnudrye.368368Long-Niddry is situated in the parish of Gladsmuir, East-Lothian, about four miles from Tranent, near the shore of the Firth. Maister George having to accompany him the Lard of Ormestoun, Johnne Sandelandis of Caldar youngar, the Lard of Brounestoun, and otheris, with thare servandis, passed upoun foote, (for it was a vehement frost,) to Ormestoun. After suppar he held confortable purpose of the death of Goddis chosen childrin, and mearely369369In MS. G, "mirrelie." said, "Methink that I desyre earnestlye to sleap;" and thairwith he said, "Will we sing a Psalme?" And so he appointed the 51st Psalme, which was put in Scotishe meter, and begane thus,—

Have mercy on me now, good Lord,
After thy great mercy, &c.:370370   These lines occur in a metrical version of some of the Psalms, visually, and no doubt correctly, attributed to John Wedderburn, Vicar of Dundee. Whether there was any printed edition so early as 1546, cannot be ascertained; but there was a large impression (1034 copies) of what was culled "the Dundee Psalms," printed in Scotland before 1603, in the stock of Robert Smyth, bookseller in Edinburgh.—(Bannatyne Miscellany, vol. ii. pp. 189, 234.) The collection of Psalms and Sacred Poems, known by the title of "The Gude and Godly Ballates," may have been the Psalms alluded to; and of this collection there still exist one copy at least of editions printed at Edinburgh, by John Ross, in 1578; by Robert Smyth, in 1600; and again by Andre Hart, in 1621.
   In this collection is found the version of the 51st Psalm, mentioned by Knox as having been sung by Wishart. It extends to 40 verses: the first four may serve as a specimen. The reader may consult Calderwood's History, vol. i. pp. 141-143, for an interesting account of the family of James Wedderburn, merchant in Dundee, his eldest son James, and another son, as well as John the translator of the Psalms, having distinguished themselves by their "good gifts of poesie."
Miserere mei Deus. Psal. 51. Have mercy on me, God of might, Of mercy Lord and King; For thy mercy is set full right Above all eirdly thing. Therefore I cry baith day and night, And with my hert sail sing: To thy mercy with thee will I go. Have mercy on me, (O gude Lord,) Efter thy greit mercy. My sinfull life does me remord, Quhilk sair hes grevit thee: Bot thy greit grace hes mee restord, Throw grace, to libertie: To thy mercy with thee will I go. Et secundum multitudinem. Gude Lord I knaw my wickednes, Contrair to thy command, Rebelland ay with cruelnes, And led me in ane band To Sathan, quha is merciles; Zit, Lord, heir me cryand: To thy mercy with thee will I go. Quhat king can tell the multitude, Lord, of thy greit mercy, Sen sinners hes thy celsitude Resisted cruellie. Zit na sinner will thou seclude, That this will cry to thee: To thy mercie with thee will I go.

Which being ended, he past to chalmer, and sonar then his commoun dyet was past to bed, with these wourdis, "God grant qwyet rest." Befoir mydnycht, the place was besett about that none could eschape to mack advertisment. The Erle Bothwell371371Patrick third Earl of Bothwell succeeded his father in 1513, when an infant. In 1543, he was Lord of Liddesdale, and Keeper of the Royal Castle of Hermitage. Sir Ralph Sadler, on the 5th of May that year, says of him, "As to the Earl of Bothwell, who, as ye know, hath the rule of Liddersdale, I think him the most vain and insolent man in the world, full of pride and folly, and here, I assure you, nothing at all esteemed."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 184.) At the time of Wishart's apprehension, he was High Sheriff of the county of Haddington. In Douglas and Wood's Peerage of Scotland, (vol. i. pp. 227-229,) will be found a detailed account of his subsequent fortunes. He died, probably in exile, in September 1550. came and called for the Lard, and declaired the purpose, and said, "that it was but vane to maik him to hold his house; for the Governour and the Cardinall with all thare power war cuming," (and indead the Cardinall was at Elphinstoun,372372Elphingstone Tower is situated in the parish of Tranent, about two miles from the village of that name. not a myle distant frome Ormestoun;) THE LORD BOTHWELLIS PROMESSE "butt and yf he wald deliver the man to him, he wold promeise upoun his honour, that he should be saif, and that it should pass the power of the Cardinall to do him any harme or141 skaith." Allured with these wordis, and tackin counsall with the said Maister George, (who at the first word said, "Open the yettis: the blissed will of my God be doun,") thei receaved in the Erle Bothwell him self, with some gentilmen with him, to whome Maister George said, MAISTER GEORGE HIS WOORDIS TO THE ERLE BOTHWELL "I praise my God that sa honorable a man as ye, my Lord, receavis me this nycht, in the presence of these noble men; for now, I am assured, that for your honouris saik, ye will suffer nothing to be done unto me besydis the ordour of law. I am nott ignorant, that thaire law is nothing but corruptioun, and a clock to sched the bloode of the sanctes; but yitt I lesse fear to dye openlye, then secreatlye to be murthered." The said Erle Bothwell ansured, "I shall not onlye preserve your body frome all violence, that shalbe purposed against yow without ordour of law, but also I promeisse, hear in the presence of these gentilmen, that neyther shall the Governour nor Cardinall have thare will of yow;373373In MS. G, "over you." but I shall reteane yow in my awin handis, and in my awin place, till that eyther I shall mack yow free, or ellis restoir yow in the same place whare I receave yow." The Lardis foirsaid said, "My Lord, yf ye will do as ye have spokin, and as we think your Lordship will do, then do we hear promesse unto your Lordschip, that not only we our selfis shall serve yow all the dayis of our lyiff, but also we shall procure the haill professouris within Lotheane to do the same. And upoun eyther the preservatioun374374In MS. G, "persuasion." of this our brother, or upoun his delyverie agane to our handis, we being reassonable advertissed to receave him, that we, in the name and behalf of our freindis, shall deliver to your Lordschip, or to any sufficient man, that shall deliver to us agane this servand of God, our band of manrent in manor foirsaid." As thus promesse maid in the presence of God, and handis stracked142 upon boith the parties, for observatioun of the premisses,375375In MS. G, "promeis." the said Maister George was delivered to the handis of the said Erle Bothwell, who immediatlye departing with him, came to Elphinstoun, whare the Cardinall was; who knowing that Caldar yongar and Brunestoun war with the Larde of Ormestoun, send back with expeditioun to apprehend thame also. The noyse of horsmen being hard, the servandis gave advertisment, that mo then departed, or that war thare befoir, war returned; and whill that thei disput, what should be the motive, the Cardinallis garison had ceased both the utter and the inner close. Thei called for the Larde, and for the Larde of Calder, who presenting thame selves, demanded what thare commissioun was. "To bring yow two," say thei, "and the Larde of Brunestoun to my Lord Governour." Thei war nothing content, (as thei had no cause,) and yitt thei maid fayr contenance, and entreated the gentilmen to tack a drynk, and to bate thare horse, till that thei mycht putt thame selves in redynes to ryd with thame. In this meantyme, Brunestoun convoyed him self, fyrst secreatlye, and then by spead of foote, to Ormestoun wood, and frome thense to Drundallon,376376This name Drundallon, or Dwndallon, is not very distinct in the MS., and no such place is now known. and so eschaped that danger. The other two war putt in the Castell of Edinburght, whare the one, to witt Caldar youngar, remaned whill his band of manrent to the Cardinall was the meanes of his deliverance, and the other, to witt Ormestoun, fread him self by leapping of the wall of the Castell, betuix ten houris and allevin befoir none; and so breakin ward,377377   John Cockburn of Ormiston.—In the Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 41, it is stated, that "Upoun the xvj day of Januar, the Governour and the Cardinall, to the nomber of 500 men, past to Ormestoun, [some words here omitted?] and the yong laird of Calder; they war all brocht and put in the Castell of Edinburgh; and the laird of Ormestoun, and the yong laird of Calder followand, was tane be the Capitane, callit James Hamiltoun of Stanehous." Wishart's name may have been omitted in this paragraph, but it fixes the date of his apprehension at Ormiston. The following entries occur in the Treasurer's Accounts, on the 10th of March 1545-6,—
    "Item, to Jhonne Patersoun, pursevant letters direct furth of Edinburgh to Ormistoun and Haddingtoun, to summond the Laird of Ormistoun to underly the law in Edinburgh the xiij day of Apprile nyxt to cum, for resetting of Maister George Wischeart, he being at the horne, etc. And for breking of the waird within the Castell of Edinburgh, etc. Togydder with ane other letter to arreist the saiddis Lairdis gudis, etc., x s."

    "Item, (7th of April,) with ane memoriall of the principall Lordis and Baronis namys of Est Louthiane, to summond thame to be in Edinburgh xiijth Aprilis instant, to pass upon the assiss of the Laird of Ormistoiin, quho was to thoill law that day for brekking of our Souerane Ladyis waird within the Castell of Edinburgh."
he eschaped preassone, which he injustlye sufferred.

The servand of God, Maister George Wisharte, was caryed first to143 Edinburgh; thareafter browght back, for the fassionis saik, to the hous of Hales378378Hailes Castle is situated in a secluded spot on the banks of the Tyne, in the parish of Prestonkirk, East Lothian. It belonged at this time to the Earl of Bothwell. The ruins still shew that it must have been of considerable extent and strength, like most buildings of the kind intended for a place of defence. agane, which was the principall place that then the Erle Bothwell had in Lotheane. But as gold and wemen have corrupted all wordlye and fleschlye men from the begynning, so did thei him. For the Cardinall gave gold, and that largelye, and the Quene, with whome the said Erle was then in the glondouris, promissed favouris in all his lauchfull suyttis to wemen, yf he wold deliver the said Maister George to be keap379379In MS. G, "keipit." in the Castell of Edinburgh. He made some resistance at the first, be reassone of his promesse:380380   The following is an Act of Council, obliging Bothwell to deliver to the Governor the person of George Wishart, on the 19th of January 1545-6,—
    "The quhilk day, in presens of my Lord Governour and Lords of Counsel, comperit Patrick Erle Bothuell, and hes bundin and oblist him to deliver Maister George Wischart to my Lord Governour, or ony utheris in his behalf, quham he will depute to ressave him betuix this and the penult day of Januar instant inclusive, and sal kepe him surelie, and answer for him in the meyn tyme, under all the hiest pane and charge that he may incur, giff he falzies herintill."—(Regist. Concil. fol. 25; Epist. Regum Scotorum, vol. ii. p. 342.)
IRONICE. butt ane effeminat man cane nott long withstand the assaultes of a gratious Quein. And so was the servand144 of God transported to Edinburgh Castell, whare he remaned nott many dayis. For that bloody wolfe the Cardinall, ever thrusting the blood of the servand of God, so travailled with the abused Governour, that he was content that Goddis servand should be delivered to the power of that tyranne. And so, small inversioun being maid, Pilate obeyed the petitioun of Cayiaphas and of his fellowis, and adjugeid Christ to be crucifeid. The servand of God delivered to the hande of that proude and mercyless tyranne, triumphe was maid by the preastis. The godly lamented, and accused the foolishnes of the Governour; for, by the reteanyng of the said Maister George, he mycht have caused Protestantis and Papistis, (rather proude Romanistis,) to have served, the ane to the end, That the lyef of thare preachear mycht have bene saved, the other, For fear that he should have sett him at libertie agane, to the confusioun of the Bischoppis. But where God is left, (as he had plainlie renunced him before,) what can counsall or judgement availl?

How the servand of God was entreated, and what he did frome the day that he entered within the Sea-tour of Sanctandrose, quhilk was in the end of Januare, in the year of God Jm. Vc. xlvj, unto the first of Merch381381There seems no reason to question the accuracy of these dates; although Spotiswood marks Wishart's execution as having taken place on the 2d of March 1546; and Mr. Tytler says the 28th, adopting an evident blunder in the "Diurnal of Occurrents," where the 28th of March, instead of the 28th of February, is given as the day when the Council was held for Wishart's trial and condemnation. His execution took place on the following day. I observe that at page 6 of the Miscellany of the Wodrow Society, I have fallen into the same mistake. the same year, when he sufferred, we can not certanelye382382This word is omitted in MS. G. tell, except we understand that he wrett somewhat being in preason; but that was suppressed by the ennemyes. The Cardinall delayed no tyme, but caused all Bischoppis, yea, all the cleargy that had any preheminance, to be convocat to Sanctandrose against the penult of Februare, that consultatioun mycht be had in145 that questioun, which in his mynd was no less resolved then Christis death was in the mynd of Caiaphas; butt that the rest should bear the lyek burdein with him, he wold that thei should befoir the world subscrive whatsoever he did.383383Pitscottie mentions, that the Cardinal having sent to the Governor for a "commissioun and ane Judge criminall to give doom on Maister George, if the Clergie fand him guiltie;" the Governor, upon the remonstrance of Sir David Hamilton, was persuaded to write to the Cardinal "to continue (or postpone) the accusatioun of Maister George Wisehart quhyll he and he spoke togidder; and if he wold not, his awin blood be upon his awin head, for he would not consent that any man sould suffer persecutioun at that tyme."—(Dalyell's edit., p. 454.) In that day was wrought no less a wonder than was at the accusatioun and death of Jesus Christ, when that Pilate and Herode, who befoir war ennemyes, war maid freindis, by consenting of thame boith to Christis condempnatioun, differris nothing, except that Pilate and Herode war brethrene under thare father the Devill, in the Estaite called Temporall, and these two, of whome we ar to speak, war brethren (sonnes of the same father the Devill) in the Estaite Ecclesiasticall. Yf we enterlase merynes with earnest materis, pardon us, goode Readar; for the fact is so notable that it deservith long memorye.


The Cardinall was knowin proude; and Dumbare, Archibischope of Glasgw, was knowin a glorious foole; and yitt, becaus sometymes he was called the Kingis Maister,384384   Gawin Dunbar was a younger son of Sir John Dunbar of Mochrun. He pursued his studies at Glasgow. In 1514 he was appointed Dean of Moray. In the following year obtained the Priory of Whithorn in Galloway; and was intrusted with the education of James the Fifth. In the Treasurer's Accounts, 1517, are the following entries:—
    "Item, xvjto Februarij [1516-17,] gevin to Maister Gawin Dunbar, the Kingis Maister, to by necessar thingis for the Kingis chamer, ix lib.

    "Item, (the 28th day of August,) to Maister Gawan Dunbar, the Kingis Maister, for expensis maid be him in reparaling of the chamer in the quhilk the King leris now, in the Castell, iij lib."

    On the translation of James Beaton to the Primacy, Dunbar was promoted to the See of Glasgow; and he continued to enjoy the favour of his royal pupil during the whole of his reign. He held the office of Lord Chancellor from 1528 to 1543; and died on the 30th of April 1547. A detailed account of this Prelate is given in Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice, pp. 1-5.
he was146 Chancelour of Scotland. The Cardinall cumis evin thus same year, in the end of harvest befoir, to Glasgw; upoun what purpose we omitt.385385See note 391.A QUESTION WORTHY OF SUCH TWO PRELATTIS. But whill they remane togither, the one in the toune, the other in the Castell,386386The Castle and Episcopal Palace of Glasgow stood a little to the westward of the Cathedral Church. The building, with its site and garden, having been vested in the Crown, when Episcopacy was abolished, were granted in the year 1791, for the purpose of erecting an Infirmary; and the ancient but ruinous building was then removed.—(Caledonia, vol. iii. p. 638.) questioun ryses for bearing of thare croces. The Cardinall alledgeid, by reassoun of his Cardinallschip, and that he was Legatus Natus, and Primat within Scotland, in the kingdom of Antichrist, that he should have the pre-eminence, and that his croce should not onlye go befoir, but that also it should onlye be borne, wharesoever he was. Good Gukstoun Glaikstour, the foirsaid Archibischop, lacked no reassonis, as he thowght, for mantenance of his glorie: He was ane Archibischope in his awin dioscy, and in his awin Cathedrall seat and Church, and tharefor awght to give place to no man: The power of the Cardinall was but begged from Rome, and apperteined but to his awin persone, and nott to his bischoprik; for it mycht be, that his successour should nott be Cardinall: Bot his dignitie was annexed with his office, and did apperteane to all that ever should be Bischoppis of Glasgw. Howsoever these dowbtis war resolved by the doctouris of divinitie of boith the Prelattis; yitt the decisioun was as ye shall hear. Cuming furth, (or going in, all is one,) att the qweir doore of Glasgw Kirk, begynnes stryving for state betuix the two croce beraris, so that from glowmyng thei come to schouldering; frome schouldering, thei go to buffettis, and from dry blawes, by neffis and neffelling; and then for cheriteis saik, thei crye, Dispersit, dedit pauperibus, and assayis quhilk of the croces war fynast mettall, which staf was strongast, and which berar could best defend his maisteris pre-eminence; and that thare should be no superioritie in that be147half, to the ground gois boyth the croces. And then begane no litill fray, but yitt a meary game; for rockettis war rent, typpetis war torne, crounis war knapped,387387In MS. G, "knypsed." and syd gounis mycht have bene sein wantonly wag from the one wall to the other: Many of thame lacked beardis, and that was the more pitie; and tharefore could not bukkill other by the byrse, as388388In MS. G, "as sum bold men." bold men wold haif doune. Butt fy on the jackmen that did nott thare dewitie; for had the one parte of thame reacontered the other, then had all gone rycht. But the sanctuarye, we suppose, saved the lyves of many. How mearelye389389In Vautr. edit. "merilie." that ever this be writtin, it was bitter bowrding390390In Vautr. edit. "bitter mirth." to the Cardinall and his courte. It was more then irregularitie; yea, it mycht weall have bene judged lease majestie to the sone of perdition, the Papes awin persone; and yitt the other in his foly, as proud as a packoke, wold lett the Cardinall know that he was a Bischop when the other was butt Betoun, befoir he gat Abirbrothok.391391This ludicrous but unbecoming contest seems to have taken place on the 4th of June 1545, when Mons. Lorge de Montgomery arrived from France with auxiliary troops: "Upon the same day, the Bischope of Glasgow pleit with the Cardinall about the bering of his croce in his dyocie, and boith thair croccis war brokin, in the Kirk of Glasgow, through thair stryving for the samin."—(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 39.) Bishop Lesley mentions it as having occurred at an earlier period, when the Patriarch of Venice, who was sent by the Pope, first came to Glasgow, when "the Cardinall and the principall Bischoppes come thair and ressaved him with gret honour. Bot in the meintyme, (he adds,) thair happinned ane suddane discord within the Kirk of Glasgw, betuix the Cardinall and Bischoppe of Glasgw, for thair pre-heminence of the bering of the Cardinallis crosse within that Kirk, quhair boith the Archebischoppes crosses was brokin, and diverse of thair gentill men and servandis wes hurt."—(Hist. p. 178.) Cornelius Le Brun, a Dutch traveller, describes a similar contest which took place, whilst he was at Rome during the Jubilee of 1675, between two processions meeting first in a narrow street, near Monte Cavallo, and afterwards in the Church of St. John, in Laterano, in which several persons were killed, to the great scandal of religion. But the Italians, he says, "qui sont plaisans de leur naturel et encline à la raillerie se mocquoient furieusement de cette avanture."—(Voyage en Levant, p. 6. Delft, 1700, folio.) This inemitie was judged mortall, and without all hope of reconsiliatioun.

Butt the blood of the innocent servand of God buryed in oblivioun all148 that braggine and boast. For the Archibischope of Glasgw was the first unto whome the Cardinall wraitt, signifeing unto him what was done, and earnestly craving of him, that he wold assist with his presence and counsall, how that such are ennemye unto thare estaite mycht be suppressed. And thareto was nott the other slow, but keapt tyme appointed, satt nixt to the Cardinall, voted and subscrivit first in the ranck, and lay ower the East blok-house392392This, according to tradition, was the Eastern tower or corner, and the place of Wishart's execution was nearly opposite, at the foot of what is called Castle Wynd. Spotiswood says, "A scaffold in the meantime erecting on the east part of the Castle towards the Abbey, with a great tree in the middest, in manner of a gibbet, into which the prisoner was to be tied.... The fore tower was hanged with tapestry, and rich cushions laid for case of the Cardinal and Prelates, who were to behold that spectacle."—(History, p. 81.) with the said Cardinall, till the Martyre of God was consumed by fyre. For this we man note, that as all thei beastis consented in harte to the slawchter of that innocent, so did thei approve it with thare presence, having the hole ordinance of the Castell of Sanctandrose bent towardis the place of executioun, which was ney to the said Castell, reddy to have schote yf any wold have maid defence, or reskew to Goddis servand.

The maner of his Accusatioun, Process, and Ansueris followis, as we have receaved the same frome the Book of the Martyres,393393As stated in note 45, "The Actes and Monumentes of Martyrs," by John Foxe, was originally printed at London, by John Daye, in 1564, in a large volume in folio. It was "newly recognized and enlarged by the Author," in 1570, when he incorporated a number of passages relating to Martyrs in Scotland, which he gives on this authority, "Ex Scripto Testimonio Scotorum." In many places of these additions, the details are more minute than the corresponding passages in Knox's History; yet there is such a coincidence in the information, that Foxe may possibly have been indebted for some of them to the Scotish Reformer. The account of Wishart, however, is copied from a printed book: see notes 397, 434. which, woord by woord, we have hear inserted, and that becaus the said book, for the great price thairof, is rare to be had.

[The Condemnation of M. George Wischeart, Gentleman, who suffered149 Martyrdome for the Fayth of Christ Jesus, at Saint Andrewes in Scotland, anno 1546, Marche 1; with the Articles objected against him, and his Answeres to the same.394394The title of the Accusation and the introductory paragraph, are not contained in Knox's MS., but are supplied from Foxe, edit. 1576.

With moste tender affection and unfayned hart consider, (gentle Reader,) the uncharitable maner of the Accusation of Maister George Wischart, made by the bloudye enemies of Christes fayth. Note also the Articles whereof he was accused, by order digested, and his meeke answeares, so farre as he had leave and leysure to speake. Finally, ponder with no dissemblyng spirite the furious rage, and tragicall cruelnes of the malignant Churche, in persecuting of this blessed man of God; and, of the contrarye, his humble, pacient, and most godly answeares, made to them sodaynely without al feare, not having respect to their glorious manasinges and boysterous threates, but charitably and without stop answearing: not movyng his countenance, nor changing his visage, as in his Accusation hereafter folowyng manifestly shal appeare.]

Upone the last of Februare, was send to the preason, quhare the servand of God lay, the Deane of the toune, by the commandiment of the Cardinall and his wicked counsall, and thai summoned the said Maister George, that he should upoun the morne following appeir befoir the Judge, then and thare to give accompt of his seditious and hereticall doctrine. To whome the said Maister George ansuered, "What needith, (said he,) my Lord Cardinall to summound me to ansuere for my doctrine oppinlie befoir him, under whose power and dominioun I am thus straitlie bound in irnes. May not my Lord compell me to ansuer to his extorte power? Or be150levith he that I am unprovided to rander accompt of my doctrine? To manifest your selves what men ye ar, it is weall done that ye keapt your old ceremonyes and constitutions maid by men."

Upoun the nixt morne, my Lord Cardinall caused his servandis to address thame selves in thare most warlyk array, with jack, knapscall, splent, speir, and axe, more semyng for the war, then for the preaching of the trew word of God. And when these armed campionis, marching in warlyk ordour, had conveyed the Bischoppis unto the Abbay Church, incontinentlye thei sent for Maistor George, who was conveyed unto the said churche by the Capitane of the Castell, and the nomber of ane hundreth men, addressed in maner foirsaid, lyik a lambe led thei him to sacrifice. As he entered in at the Abbay Church doore, there was a poore man lying vexed with great infirmities, asking of his almouse, to whome he flang his purse. And when he came befoir the Cardinall, by and by the Suppriour of the Abbay, called Dene Johne Wynreme,395395Dean John Wynrame was born in 1492, and educated at St. Andrews. In 1515, his name occurs among the Determinants in St. Salvator's College. The date of his appointment as Sub-Prior of the Monastery of St. Andrews has not been ascertained. But on the 10th of Nov. 1537, he is styled in the "Regist. Fac. Art.," Dominus Joh. Wynrame, Supr. Sancti Andree Coenobii. His name often occurs in Knox, in connexion with transactions of a later date. See MʻCrie's Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 424; Bannatyne Miscellany, vol. i. p. 241. stoode up in the pulpete, and maid a sermon to all the congregatioun there then assembled, taking his mater out of the xiij chaptour of Matthew; whose sermon was devided into four principall partes. The First was, a schorte and breaf declaratioun of the Evangelist. The Secound, of the interpretatioun of the good seid; and becaus he called the Word of God the Good seid, and Heresye the Evill seid, he declaired what Heresye wes, and how it should be knowin. BONA HÆRESEOS DEFINITIO He defyned it on this maner: "Heresye is a fals opinioun, defended with pertinacie, cleirlye repugning to the word of151 God." The Third parte of his sermoun was, the caus of Heresye within that realme, and all other realmes. "The caus of Heresie, (quod he,) is the ignorance of thame which have the cure of menis saules, to whome it necessarelie belongeth to have the trew understanding of the word of God, that thei may be able to wyn agane the fals doctouris of heresyes, with the sword of the Spreat, which is the word of God; and not only to wyne agane, bot also to owircum:—as saith396396In MS. G, "as sayis the Apostle Paull." Paule, 'A bischope most be faltles, as becumith the minister of God, not stubburne, not angrie, no drunkard, no feghtar, not gevin to filthy lucre; but harberous, one that loveth goodnes, sober mynded, rychteous, holy, temperat, and such as cleaveth unto the trew word of the doctrine, that he may be able to exhorte with holsome learning, and to improve that which thei say against him.'" The Fourte parte of his sermon was, how Heresyes should be knowin. "Heresyes (quod he) be knawin on this maner: As the goldsmyth knowith the fyne gold frome the unperfite, by the towch stone, so lyikwyise may we know heresye by the undowbted towch stone, that is, the trew, syncere, and undefyled worde of God." At the last, he added, "That heretikis should he putt down in this present lyef: To the which propositioun the Gospell appeired to repunge whilk he entreated of, 'Lett thame boith grow unto the harvist:' The harvest is the end of the world; nevertheles, he affirmed, that thei should be putt down by the Civile Magistrat and law."

And when he ended his Sermone, incontinent thei caused Maister George to ascend into the pulpet, there to heir his Accusatioun and Articles; for rycht against him stood up one of the fedd flok, a monstere,397397It will be observed that all these opprobrious terms applied to Lauder are copied from Foxe, or rather from the black-letter tract, printed by John Daye, of which Dr. MʻCrie has given a description in his Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 382. Johnne Lawder, ladin full152 of cursingis, writtin in paper, of the which he took out a roll boyth long and also full of cursingis,398398In MS. G, the words "writtin," &c., to "cursingis," are omitted. threatnynges, maledictionis, and wordis of devillesh spyte and malice, saying to the innocent Maister George so many cruell and abhominable wordis, and hit him so spytfullie with the Popis thunder, that the ignorant people dreded least the earth then wold have swallowed him up qwick. Nochtwythstanding, he stood still with great patience hearing thare sayingis, not ones moving or changeing his countenance. When that this fedd sow had red throwghout all his lying minasingis, his face runnyng doune with sweat, and frothing at the mouth lyik ane bayre, he399399   Mr. John Lauder, who acted as public accuser or prosecutor on other occasions, as well as this of Wishart, was educated at St. Andrews. His name occurs among the Licentiates "in Pedagogio," in the year 1508. In a Decree Arbitral, dated at St. Andrews, 16th October 1518, he thus designates himself: "Ego Johannes Lauder, artium magister, clericus Sancti Andreæ diocesis, publicus sacris Apostolica et Imperiali auctoritatibus notarius, ac in officio Scriptoris archivii Romane Curie matriculatus ac descriptus."—(Rental Book of St. Andrews, 1550.) From the Treasurer's Accounts we find that he was frequently employed in Ecclesiastical negotiations. Thus in 1533,—
    "Item, to Maister Johne Lauder, to pass to Rome in the Kingis erandis, maid in fynance vc [500] frankis, price of ilk frank x s. vi d., Scottis money, £262, 10s.

    "Item, gevin to him at his departing, to by him horse and other necessaris, £40.

    "Item, to Robene Bertoun, for the fraucht of ane litill schip, in the quhilk the said Maister Johne past in Flanderes, £25.

    "Item, dresses to his twa servandis," &c. Again, in 1534,—

    "Item, to Maister Johne Lauder, to performeis certaine the Kingis Grace's erandis in Rome, Jm [1000] frankis, Summa, £525."

    In July 1541,—

    "Item, to Maister Johnne Lauder, for his [laubours] in writing of directionis to the Courte of [Rome?] for promotioun of the Abbayis of Coldinghame, [Kelso, and] Melros, to the Kingis; Grace sonis."
spate at Maister George his face, saying, "What ansuerist thow to these sayingis, thow runnigat, tratour, theef, which we have dewlye proved by sufficient witnes against thee." Maister George hearing this, satt doune upoun his kneis in the pulpete, making his prayer to God. When he had ended his prayer, sweitlye and Christianelie he answered to thame all in this maner.

Maister George his Oratioun.


"Many and horrible sayingis unto me, a Christiane man, many wordis abhominable for to hear, ye haif spokin heir this day, which not only to teach, but also to think, I thowght it ever great abhominatioun. Wharefore, I pray your discretionis quietlie to hear me, that ye may know what war my sayingis, and the maner of my doctrin. This my petitioun, my Lordis, I desyre to be heard for three causes: The First is, Becaus throw preaching of the word of God, his glorie is maid manifest: it is ressonabill tharefoir, for the avanceing of the glorie of God, that ye heare me teaching treulye the pure and syncere worde of God, without any dissimulatioun. The Second reassone is, Becaus that your helth springeth of the worde of God, for he workith all thing by his word: it war tharefoir ane unrychteous thing, yf ye should stope your earis from me teiching trewlye the word of God. The Thrid reason is, Becaus your doctrine speaketh furth many pestilentious,400400In Foxe, "your doctrine uttereth many blasphemous," &c. blasphemous, and abhominable wordis, not cuming by the inspiratioun of God, bot of the devill, on401401In Foxe, "with." no less pearrell then my lyif: It is just tharefoir, and ressonable, your discreationis to know what my wordis and doctrine are, and what I have ever tawght in my tyme in this realme, that I perish not injustlye, to the great perrell of your soulles. Wharfoir, boyth for the glorie and honour of God, your awin health, and savegard of my lyef, I beseik your discretionis to hear me, and in the meantyme I sall recyte my doctrin without any cullour.

First, and cheiflie, since the tyme I came into this realme, I tawght nothing but the Ten Commandimentis of God, the Twelf Articles of the Fayth, and the Prayer of the Lord, in the mother toung. Moirovir, in Dundy, I tawcht the Epistill154 of Sanct Paule to the Romanes; and I shall schaw your discretionis faythfullie what fassion and maner I used when I tawcht, without any humane dread, so that your discretionis give me your earis benevolent and attent."

Suddanlie then, with ane heycht voce,402402In Foxe, "high voyce." cryed the Accusare, the fed sow, "Thow heretike, runnigate, tratour, and theif, it was not lauchfull for thee to preach. Thow hes tackin the power at thyne awin hand, without any autoritie of the Church. We forthink that thow hes bene a preachar so long." Then said all the hole congregatioun of the Prelattis, with thare complices, these woordis, "Yf we give him licience to preach, he is so craftie, and in Holy Scriptures so exercised, that he will perswaid the people to his opinioun, and rase them against us."

Maister George, seing thare maliciouse and wicked intent, appealed [from the Lord Cardinall to the Lord Governour, as403403The words inclosed in brackets, are omitted in Knox's MS., and in all the subsequent copies, such as MS. G, Vautr. edit., &c. They are however necessary for the context, and are supplied from Foxe.] to ane indifferent and equall judge.404404See note 383. To whome the Accusare, Johne Lauder foirsaid, with hoggish voce answered, "Is not my Lord Cardinall the secund persone within this realme, Chancellar of Scotland, Archibischope of Sanctandross, Bischope of Meropose, Commendatour of Abirbrothok, Legatus Natus, Legatus a Latere?" And so reciting as many titilles of his unworthy honouris405405See a subsequent note respecting Cardinal Beaton. as wold have lodin a schip, much sonare ane asse; "Is not he, (quod Johnne Lauder,) ane equall judge apparantlye to thee? Whome other desyrest thow to be thy judge?"

To whome this humble man answered, saying, "I refuise not my Lord Cardinall, but I desyre the word of God to be my judge, and the Temporall Estate, with some of your Lordschippis myne auditoures; becaus I am hear my Lord Gover155nouris presonar." Whareupone the pridefull and scornefull people that stood by, mocked him, saying, "Suche man, such judge," speaking seditious and reprochfull wordis aganis the Governour, and other the Nobles, meanyng thame also to be Heretykis. And incontinent, without all delay, thei wold have gevin sentence upoun Maister George, and that without farther process, had not certane men thare counselled my Lord Cardinall to reid agane the Articles, and to heir his ansueris thareupoun, that the people mycht nott complaine of his wrongfull condemnatioun.

And schortlie for to declair, these war the Articles following, with his Ansueris, as far as thei wold give him leave to speak; for when he intended to mitigate thare lesingis, and schaw the maner of his doctrine, by and by thei stoped his mouth with ane other Article.

The First Article.

Thow fals Heretyk, runiagate, tratour, and theif, deceavar of the people, dispysest the holy Churches, and in lyik case contemnest my Lord Governouris authoritie. And this we know for suyrtie, that when thow preached in Dundye, and was charged be my Lord Governouris authoritie to desist, nevertheles thow woldest not obey, but persevered in the same. And tharefoir the Bischope of Brechin curssed thee,406406The Bishop of Brechin (John Hepburn, see page 37) hearing that George Wishart taught the Greek New Testament in the School of Montrose, summoned him to appear on a charge of heresy, upon which Wishart fled the kingdom. This was in the year 1538. See Appendix, No. IX. and delivered thee into the Devillis handis, and gave thee in commandiment that thow souldest preach no more: Yitt nochtwythstanding, thow didest continew obstinatlye.

The Ansuer.

My Lordis, I have red in the Actes of the Apostles, that156 it is not lauchfull, for the threattis and minacinges of men, to desist from the preaching of the Evangell.407407In Foxe, and Vautr. edit., "Gospell." Tharefoir it is writtin, "We shall rather obey God then men." I have also red [in] the Propheit Malachie, "I shall curse your blissinges, and bliss your cursingis, sayeis the Lord:" beleving firmelie, that he wold turne your cursingis into blissinges.

The Secund Article.

Thow fals Heretike did say, that a preast standing at the altare saying Masse, was lyik a fox wagging his taill in Julie.

The Ansuer.

My Lordis, I said not so. These war my sayinges: The moving of the body outward, without the inward moving of the harte, is nocht ellis bott the playing of ane ape, and nott the trew serving of God; for God is a secreit searchare of menis hartes: Tharefoir, who will trewlye adorne and honour God, he must in spreit and veritie honour him.

Then the Accusatour stopped his mouth with ane other Article.

The Thrid Article.

Thow fals Heretik preachest aganis the Sacramentis, saying, That thare ar not Sevin Sacramentis.

The Answer.

My Lordis, if it408408In Knox's MS., and Vautr. edit., "it is." be your pleasuris, I tawght never of the nomber of the Sacramentis, whither thei war sevin, or ane ellevin. So many as ar instituted by Christ, and ar schawin to us by the Evangell, I professe opinlie. Except it be the word of God, I dar affirme nothing.

The Fourte Article.


Thow fals Heretike hes oppinlie tawght, that Auriculare Confessioun is not a blessed Sacrament; and thow sayest, that we should only confess us to God, and to no preast.

The Answer.

My Lordis, I say, that Auriculare Confessioun, seing that it hath no promeis of the Evangell,409409In Foxe, and Vautr. edit., "Gospell." tharefoir it can not be a Sacrament. Of the Confessioun to be maid to God, thare ar many testimonyes in Scripture; as when David sayeth, "I thowght that I wold knowledge my iniquitie against my self unto the Lord; and he forgave the trespasses410410In Foxe, "punishment;" in Vautr. edit. "trespasse." of my synnes." Heir, Confessioun signifieth the secreat knowledge of our synnes befoir God: when I exhorted the people on this maner, I reproved no maner of Confessioun. And farther, Sanct James sayith, "Knowledge your synnes411411Foxe gives the passage as follows: "Knowledge your faultes one to an other, and praye one for an other, that you may be healed." one to ane uther, and so lett yow to have peace amonge your selfes." Heir the Apostle meaneth nothing of Auriculare Confessioun, but that we should acknawledge and confesse our selfis to be synneris befoir our brethrene, and befoir the world, and not to esteame our selfis as the Gray Freiris dois, thinking thame selfis allreddy purgeid.412412The whole of this sentence, after the quotation from the Epistle of James, is omitted in Foxe, edit. 1576.—It may have been an explanatory remark by Knox.

When that he had said these wordis, the horned Bischopis and thare complices cryed, and girned413413In Foxe, "grynned;" and the word "horned" before "Bischopis," is omitted. In Vautr. edit. "gyrned." with thare teith, saying, "See ye not what colouris he hath in his speich, that he may begile us, and seduce us to his opinioun."

The Fyft Article.


Thow Heretike didest say openlye, that it was necessarie to everie man to know and understand his Baptisme, and that it was contrarie to Generall Counsallis, and the Estaites of Holy Churche.

The Answer.

My Lordis, I beleve thare be none so unwyse hear, that will mak merchandise with ane Frenche man, or any other unknawin stranger, except he know and understand first the conditioun or promeise maid by the French man or stranger. So lyikwyse I wold that we understood what thing we promeis in the name of the infante unto God in Baptisme: For this caus, I beleve, ye have Confirmatioun.

Then said Maister Bleiter,414414In Vautr. edit. "Bleitter Chaplin;" and in MS. G, "Blecter." Pitscottie has "Blaitter:" it may be only a term of reproach, and not the name of a person. chaplen, that he had the Devill within him, and the spreit of errour. Then answered him a cheild,415415In Vautr. edit. "child." Pitscottie, who introduces Wishart's Accusation, but somewhat condensed, in this place makes it, "Than answered ane yong scoller boy, 'It is a devillish taill to say so: for the Devill can not move a man to speik as yon man dois.'" saying, "The Devill cane not speik such wordis as yonder man doith speik."

The Saxt Article.

Thow fals Heretike, tratour, and theif, thow saidest that the Sacrament of the Altare was but a pece of bread, backin upon the asches, and no other thing elles; and all that is thare done, is but a superstitious ryte aganis the commandiment of God.

The Answer.

Oh Lord God! so manifest lyes and blasphemyes the Scrip159ture doith not so teach yow. As concernyng the Sacrament of the Altare, (my Lordis,) I never tawght any thing against the Scripture, the which I shall, (by Goddis grace,) mak manifest this day, I being ready tharefore to suffer death.

The lauchfull use of the Sacrament is most acceptable unto God: but the great abuse of it is verray detestable unto him. But what occasioun thei have to say such wordis of me, I sall schortlie schaw your Lordschippes. I once chanced to meitt with a Jew, when I was sailling upoun the watter of Rhene.416416Sailing on the Rhine. It may have been during this visit to Germany, and probably Switzerland, that Wishart employed himself in translating the first CONFESSION OF FAITH of the Helvetian Churches. This Confession was printed after Wishart's death, about the year 1548, and has been reprinted, for the first time, in the "Miscellany of the Wodrow Society," Vol. I. pp. 1-23. I did inqueir of him, what was the caus of his pertinacie, that he did not beleve that the trew Messias was come, considering that thei had sene all the prophecyes, which war speking of him, to be fulfilled: moreover, the prophecyes tackin away, and the Scepter of Juda. By many other testimonyes of the Scriptour, I vanquest him, and approved that Messias was come, the which thei called Jesus of Nazareth. This Jew answered agane unto me, "When Messias cumith, he shall restore all thingis, and he sall not abrogate the Law, which was gevin to our fatheris, as ye do. For why? we see the poore almost perish throw hunger amang yow, yitt yow ar nott moved with pitie towardis thame; butt among us Jewes, thowght we be puir, thare ar no beggares found. Secundarly, It is forbiddin by the Law, to faine any kynd of imagrie of thingis in heavin above, or in the erth beneth, or in the scy under the erth; but one God only to honour; but your sanctuaries and churches ar full of idolles. Thridly, A peice of braid backin upone the aschis, ye adore and wirschip, and say, that it is your God." I have rehersed hear but the sayingis of the Jew,417417In the MS. "Jew," and "Jewes," are written "Jow," and "Jowes." which I never affirmed to be trew.

Then the Bischoppis schooke thare headis, and spitted into the earth:160 And what he ment in this mater farther, thei wold nott heare.418418The concluding words of this sentence from "earth: And" &c., are omitted in the printing, by Vautroullier, at the foot of page 129, or the top of page 130. A similar omission occurs in MSS. I, A, and W: The two latter keeping out the words "and spitted into the."

The Sevint Article.

Thow fals Heretike did say, that Extreme Unctioun was not a Sacrament.

The Answer.

My Lord, forsuyth, I never tawght any thing of Extreme Unctioun in my doctrine, whetther it war a Sacrament or no.

The Eyght Article.

Thow fals Heretike saidest that the Holy Watter is no sa good as wasche, and suche lyik. Thow contempnest Conjuring, and sayest, that Holy Churches cursing availled nott.

The Answere.

My Lordis, as for Holy Watter, what strenth it is of, I tawght never in my doctrine. Conjuringes and Exorzismes, yf thei war conformable to the word of God, I wold commend thame. But in so far as thei ar not conformeable to the commandiment and worde of God, I reprove thame.

The Nynt Article.

Thow fals Heretike and runnagate hast said, that everie Layman is a Preast; and such lyik thow sayest, that the Pope hath no more power then any other man.

The Answere.

My Lordis, I tawght nothing but the worde of God. I161 remember that I have red in some places in Sanct Johnne and Sanct Petir, of the which one sayeth, "He hath made us kingis and preastis;" the other sayeth, "He hath made us the kinglye preasthode:" Wharefoir, I have affirmed, any man being cuning and perfite in the word of God, and the trew faith of Jesus Christ, to have his power gevin him frome God, and not by the power or violence of men, but by the vertew of the word of God, the which word is called the power of God, as witnesseth Sanct Paule evidentlie ynewgh. And agane, I say, any unlearned man, and not exercised in the woord of God, nor yit constant in his faith, whatsoever estaite or order he be of; I say, he hath no power to bynd or loose, seing he wanteth the instrument by the which he bindeth or looseth, that is to say, the word of God.

After that he had said these wordis, all the Bischoppes lawghed, and mocked him. When that he beheld thare lawghing, "Lawgh ye, (sayeth he,) my Lordis? Thowght that these my sayingis appeir scornefull and worthy of derisioun to your Lordschippis, nevertheless thei ar verray weightye to me, and of a great valow; becaus that thei stand not only upon my lyif, bot also the honour and glorie of God." In the meantyme many godly men, beholding the wodness and great crueltie of the Bischoppis, and the invincible patience of the said Maister George, did greatlie mourne and lament.

The Tent Article.

Thow fals Heretike saidst, that a man hath no Free Will; but is lyik to the Stoickis, which say, That it is nott in man's will to do any thing, but that all concupiscence and desyre cumith of God, of whatsoever kynd it be of.

The Answer.

My Lordis, I said nott so, trewlie: I say, that as many as162 beleve in Christ firmelie, unto thame is gevin libertie, conformable to the saying of Sanct Johnne, "If the Sone mak yow free, then shall ye verelie be free." Of the contrarie, as many as beleve not in Christ Jesus, thei ar bound servandis of synne: "He that synneth is bound to synne."

The Ellevint Article.

Thow fals Heretike sayest, It is as lawfull to eitt flesche upoun Fryday, as on Sonday.

The Answere.

Pleasith it your Lordschippis, I have redd in the Epistles of Sanct Paule, "That who is cleane, unto thame all thingis is cleane." Of the contrarie, "To the filthie men, all thingis ar uncleane." A faithfull man, cleane and holy, sanctifieth by the worde the creature of God; but the creature maketh no man acceptable unto God: so that a creature may not sanctifie any impure and unfaithfull man. But to the faythfull man, all thingis ar sanctifeid, by the prayer of the worde of God.

After these sayingis of Maister George, then said all the Bischoppes, with thare complices, "Quhat nedeth us any witnesse against him: hath he nott oppinlie hear spokin blasphemie?"

The Twelth Article.

Thow fals Heretike doest say, That we should nott pray to Sanctes, butt to God onlye: Say whetther thow hast said this or no: say schortlye.

The Answer.

For the weaknes and the infirmitie of the heararis, (he said,) without doubt plainelie, that Sanctis should not be honored nor incalled upone. My Lordis, (said he,) thare ar two163 thingis worthy of note: the one is certane, and the other uncertane. It is found plainlie and certane in Scriptures, that we should wirschipe and honour one God, according to the saying of the first Commandiment, "Thow sall onlie wirschip and honour thy Lord God with all thy harte." But as for praying to and honoring of Sanctes, thare is great dowbt amang many, whether thei hear or no invocatioun maid unto thame. Tharefoir, I exhorted all men equallye in my doctrine, that thei should laif the unsure way, and follow the way which was taught us by our Maister Christ:

He is onlye our Mediatour, and maketh intercessioun for us to God his Father:

He is the doore, by which we must enter in:

He that entereth not in by this doore, but clymeth ane other way, is a theif and a murtherare:

He is the Veritie and Lyef:

He that goeth out of this way, thare is no dowbt but he shall fall into the myre; yea, verrelye, he is fallin in to it all readdy. This is the fassioun of my doctrine, the which I have ever followed. Verrelie that which I have heard and redd in the woorde of God, I taught opinelye and in no cornerris, and now ye shall witness the same, yf your Lordschippis will hear me: Except it stand by the worde of God, I dar nott be so bold to affirme any thing. These sayingis he rehersed diverse tymes.

The xiii Article.

Thow fals Heretike has preached plainelie, saying, That thare is no Purgatorie, and that it is a fayned thing, any man, after this lyfe, to be punished in Purgatorie.

The Answere.

My Lordis, as I haif oftentymes said heirtofoir, without expresse witnes and testimonye of Scripture, I dar affirme164 nothing. I have oft and divers tymes redd ower the Bible, and yitt such a terme fand I never, nor yet any place of Scripture applicable thairunto. Tharefore, I was eschamed ever to teach of that thing, which I could nott fynd in Scripture.

Then said he to Maister Johnne Lauder, his accusare, "Yf yow have any testimonye of the Scripture, by the which ye may prove any such place, schew it now befoir this auditoure."419419In Foxe, "auditorie." But that dolt had not a worde to say for him self, but was as doume as a bitle420420In Foxe, "dumbe as a beetle." in that mater.

The xiiii Article.

Thow fals Heretyke hast taught plainelie against the vowis of Monkis, Freiris, Nonnes, and Preastis, saying, That whosoever was bound to such lyik vowis, thei vowed thame selves to the estate of damnatioun: Moreover, that it was lauchfull for Preastis to marye wyffis, and not to leve sole.

The Answer.

Of suth, my Lordis, I have redd in the Evangell, that thare ar three kynd of chast men: some ar gelded frome thare motheris wombe; some ar gelded by men; and some have gelded thame selfis for the kingdome of heavinis saik: verrelye, I say, these men ar blessed by the Scripture of God. But as many as have nott the gyft of Chastitie, nor yitt for the Evangell have nott owercome the concupiscence of the flesche, and have vowed chastitie, ye have experience, althowght I suld hold my toung,421421In Foxe, "hold my peace" to what inconvenience thei have vowed thame selfis.

When he had said these wordis, thei were all doume,422422In Foxe, "dumbe." thinking better to have ten concubynes, then one maryed wyfe.

The xv Article.


Thow fals Heretike and runnagate, sayest, That thow will not obey our Generall nor Principale423423As in Foxe, and in MS. G, &c., this evidently should be "Provinciall." Councellis.

The Answer.

My Lordis, what your Generall Counsallis ar, I know not: I was never exercised in thame; butt to the pure woord of God I gave my laubouris. Read hear your Generall Counsallis, or ellis give me a book, whairin thei ar conteaned, that I may reid thame: Yf that thei aggree with the word of God, I will not disagree.


Then the ravineyng wolves turned into madnes,424424In Foxe, "woodnes." and said, "Whareunto lett we him speak any further? Reid furth the rest of the Articles, and stay not upoun thame." Amonges these cruell tygres, thare was one fals hypocryte, a seducer of the people, called Johnne Scot,425425See some notices of Scot, at page 96.—In Foxe, "called Joh. Gray-finde Scot." standing behynd Johnne Lauderis back, hasting him to reid the rest of the Articles, and nott to tary upone his wittie and godlye ansueris; "For we may not abyde thame, (quod he,) no more then the Devill may abyde the sign of the croce, when it is named."

The xvi Article.

Thow Heretike sayest, That it is vane to buyld to the honour of God costlie Churches, seing that God remaneth not in Churches made by menis handis, nor yit can God be in so litill space, as betuix the Preastis handis.

The Answer.

My Lordis, Salomon sayith, "Yf that the heavin of heavinis can not comprehend thee, how much less this house that I166 have buylded." And Job consenteth to the same sentence, saying, "Seing that he is heychtar then the heavins, tharefor what can thow buyld unto him? He is deapar then the hell, then how sall thow know him? He is longar then the earth, and breadar then the sea." So that God can nott be comprehended into one space, becaus that he is infinite. These sayingis, nochtwithstanding, I said never that churches should be destroyed; bot of the contrarie, I affirmed ever, that churches should be susteaned and upholdin, that the people should be congregat in thame to hear the worde of God preached. Moreover, wharesoever is the trew preaching of the word of God, and the lauchfull use of the Sacramentes, undoubtedlye thare is God him self. So that both these sayingis ar trew together: God can nott be comprehended into any one place: And, "Wharesoever thare ar two or three gathered in his name, thare is he present in the myddest of thame." Then said he to his Accusar, "Yf thow thinkest any otherwyise then I say, schaw furth thy reasonis befoir this auditorie." Then he, without all reassone, was dome,426426In Foxe, "dumbe." and could not answer a worde.

The xvii Article.

Thow fals Heretike contemnest Fasting, and sayest, thow shouldest not fast.

The Answer.

My Lordis, I find that Fasting is commended in the Scripture; tharefor I war a sclanderar of the Gospell, yf I contemned fasting. And not so onlye, but I have learned by experience, that fasting is good for the health and conservatioun of the body. But God knowith onlye who fastith the trew fast.167

The xviii Article.

Thow fals Heretike hes preached opinlie, saying, That the Soulles of men shall sleip to the latter day of judgement, and shall not obtene lyfe immortale untill that day.

The Answer.

God, full of mercy and goodnes, forgeve thame that sayeth such thingis of me. I wote and know suirelie by the word of God, that he which hath begone to have the faith of Jesus Christ, and belevith fermelie in him, I know suirelie, that the sawll of that man shall never sleape, bot ever shall leve ane immortall lyef; the which lyef, frome day to day, is renewed in grace and augmented; nor yitt shall ever perish, or have ane end, but shall ever leve immortall with Christ thare heid: To the which lyfe all that beleve in him shall come, and rest in eternall glorie. Amen.

When that the Bischoppis, with thare complices, had accused this innocent man, in maner and forme afoirsaid, incontinentlie thei condemned him to be brynt as are Heretike, not having respect to his godly answeris and trew reassones which he alledged, nor yitt to thare awin consciences, thinking verelye, that thei should do to God good sacrifice, conformable to the sayingis of Jesus Christ in the Gospell of Sanct Johnne, chapter 16: "Thei shall excommunicat yow; yea, and the tyme shall come, that he which killeth yow shall think that he hath done to God good service."

The Prayer of Maister George.

"O Immortall God! how long sall thow suffer the woodnes and great crudelitie of the ungodlie to exercise thare furie upoun thy servandes, which do further thy word in this world, seing thei desyre to do the contrarie, that is, to chok168 and destroy thy trew doctrin and veritie, by the which thow hast schewed thee unto the world, which was all drouned in blyndness and mysknowledge of thy name. O Lord, we know suirlie, that thy trew servandes most neidis suffer, for thy names saik, persecutioun, afflictioun, and troubles in this present lyef, which is but a schaddow, as thow hast schewed to us, by thy Propheittis and Apostles. But yitt we desyre thee, (Mercyfull Father,) that thow conserve, defend, and help thy Congregatioun, which thow hast chosen befoir the begynning of the world, and give thame thy grace to hear thy word, and to be thy trew servandis in this present lyef."

Then, by and by, thei caused the commoun people to remove,427427In Foxe, "to voyde away." whose desyre was alwyise to hear that innocent speak. And the sonis of darknes pronunced thare sentence definitive, not having respect to the judgement of God. When all this was done and said, my Lord Cardinall caused his tormentares428428In Foxe, "warders." to pas agane with the meke lambe unto the Castell, untill such tyme the fyre was maid reddy. When he was come into the Castell, then thare came two Gray feindis, Freir Scott and his mate, saying, "Schir, ye must maik your confessioun unto us." He answered, and said, "I will mak no confessioun unto yow. Go fetch me yonder man that preached this day, and I will maik my confessioun unto him." Then thei sent for the Suppriour of the Abbay,429429Dean John Wynrame: see note 395. who came to him with all dilegence; but what he said in this confessioun, I can not schaw.430430David Buchanan has an interpolation in this place, (See Appendix, No. I.,) respecting Wishart's dispensing the Sacrament, on the morning of his execution, to the Captain of the Castle. It is nearly the same as in George Buchanan's History, and Pitscottie's Chronicle, but somewhat condensed.

When the fyre was maid reddy, and the gallowse, at the West parte of the Castell, neir to the Priorie, my Lord Cardinall, dreading that Maister George should have bene takin169 away by his freindis, tharefoir he commanded to bend all the ordinance of the Castell richit against the place of executioun, and commanded all his gunnaris to be readdy, and stand besyde thare gunnes, unto such tyme as he war burned. All this being done, thei bound Maister George's handis behind his back, and led him furth with thare soldeouris, from the Castell, to the place of thare cruell and wicked executioun. As he came furth of the Castell gate, thare mett him certane beggeris, asking of his almes, for Goddis saik. To whome he answered, "I want my handis, wharewith I wont to geve yow almes. But the mercyfull Lord, of his benignitie and aboundand grace, that fedith all men, votschafe to geve yow necessaries, boith unto your bodyes and soules." Then afterward mett him two fals feindis, (I should say, Freiris,) saying, "Maister George, pray to our Lady, that sche may be a mediatrix for yow to hir Sone." To whome he answered meiklie, "Cease: tempt me not, my brethrene." After this, he was led to the fyre, with a rope about his neck, and a chaine of irne about his myddill.

When that he came to the fyre, he sat doun upoun his knees, and rose agane; and thrise he said these wordis, "O thow Saviour of the warld, have mercy upon me: Father of heavin, I commend my spreit into thy holy handis." When he had maid this prayer, he turned him to the people, and said these wordis: "I beseik yow, Christiane brethrene and sisteris, that ye be nott offended att the word of God, for the afflictioun and tormentis which ye see already prepared for me. But I exhorte yow, that ye love the word of God, your salvatioun, and suffer patientlie, and with a confortable harte, for the wordis saik, which is your undoubted salvatioun and everlesting conforte. Moirover, I pray yow, shew my brethrene and sisteris, which have heard me oft befoir, that thei cease nott nor leve of to learne the word of God, which I taught unto thame, after the grace gevin unto me, for no170 persequutionis nor trubles in this world, which lestith nott. And schaw unto thame, that my doctrine was no wyffes fables, after the constitutions maid by men; and yf I had taught menis doctrin, I had gottin grettar thankis by men. Bot for the wordis saik, and trew Evangell, which was gevin to me by the grace of God, I suffer this day by men, not sorowfullie, but with a glaid harte and mynd. For this caus I was sent, that I should suffer this fyre for Christis saik. Considder and behold my visage, ye sall not see me change my cullour. This gryme fyre I fear nott; and so I pray yow for to do, yf that any persecutioun come unto yow for the wordis saik; and nott to fear thame that slay the body, and afterwarte have no power to slay the saule. Some have said of me, that I taught, that the saule of man should sleap untill the last day; but I know suirlie, and my faith is such, that my saule sail sowp431431In Foxe, "sup." with my Saviour this nycht, or it be sex houris, for whome I suffer this." Then he prayed for thame which accused him, saying, "I beseik the Father of Heavin to forgive thame that have of any ignorance, or ellis of any evill mynd, forged lyes upone me; I forgeve thame with all myne hearte: I beseik Christ to forgeve thame that have condemned me to death this day ignorantlye." And last of all, he said to the people on this maner, "I beseik yow, brethrene and sisteris, to exhorte your Prelattis to the learnyng of the word of God, that thei at the least may be eschamed to do evill, and learne to do good; and yf thei will not converte thame selves frome thare wicked errour, thare shall hastelie come upone thame the wrath of God,432432In Foxe, there is this marginal note: "M. George Wyscheart prophesieth of the death of the Cardinall, what followed after."—David Buchanan has here another interpolation, containing the alleged prediction by George Wishart of Cardinal Beaton's death. It was probably copied from George Buchanan: See the passage in Appendix, No. I.—Pitscottie also relates such a prediction, in the following words: "Captain, God forgive yon man that lies so glorious on yon wall-head; but within few days, he shall lye as shamefull as he lyis glorious now."—(Dalyell's edit. p. 481.) which thei sail not eschew."

Many faythfull wordis said he in the meane tyme, takin no head or cair171 of the cruell tormentis which war then prepared for him. Then, last of all, the hangman, that was his tormentour, sat doune upoun his kneis, and said, "Schir, I pray yow, forgive me, for I am nott guiltie of your death." To whome he answered, "Come hither to me." When he was come to him, he kissed his cheik, and said, "Lo! hear is a tokin that I forgeve thee: My harte, do thyn office." And then by and by, he was putt upoun the gibbet, and hanged, and there brynt to poulder.433433In Foxe's work is introduced a wood-cut representation of "The Martyrdome of M. George Wiseheart;" he is suspended on a gibbet, in the midst of flames. It is evidently an imaginary portrait. When that the people beheld the great tormenting of that innocent, thei mycht not withhold frome piteous morning and complaining of the innocent lambes slawchter.434434The account of Wishart, contained in Foxe's Martyrs, ends with the above words. It is followed by a paragraph, described in the margin as "The just judgment of God upon David Beaton, a bloudy murtherer of God's Saintes,"—which the reader will find copied into note 451. Foxe acknowledges that he followed a printed work, (Ex histor. impressa;) having in fact introduced a literal copy of the latter portion of a very rare tract, of which Dr. MʻCrie has given a description in his Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 382. The general title is, "The tragicall death of Dauid Beatō, Bishoppe of Sainct Andrewes in Scotland; Whereunto is joyned the Martyrdom of Maister George Wyseharte, gentleman, for whose sake the aforesayd Bishoppe was not long after slayne," &c. The preface of "Robert Burrant to the reader," extends to twelve leaves. Next follows Sir David Lyndesay's poem on the Cardinall's death; and then "The Accusation" of Wishart, which Foxe incorporates in his Martyrology, from whence Knox's copy is taken, as well as the abridged copy inserted in Pitscottie's Chronicle. The volume extends to signature F vi. in eights, black letter, without date, "Imprinted at London, by John Day and William Seres." Lyndesay's poem, under the title of "The Tragedy," &c., is included in all the subsequent editions of his poems. See it quoted in a subsequent page.


After the death of this blissed martyre of God, begane the people, in plaine speaking, to dampne and detest the crueltie172 that was used. Yea, men of great byrth, estimatioun, and honour, at open tables avowed, That the blood of the said Maister George should be revenged, or ellis thei should cost lyef for lyef. Amonges whome Johnne Leslye,435435John Lesley was the second son of William Lesley, who was killed at Floddon, along with his brother George second Earl of Rothes; William's eldest son, George, succeeding to the title in 1513, as third Earl. John Lesley is styled late of Parkhill in the summons of treason for the Cardinal's slaughter; and we find that John Lesley, Rector of Kynnore, and brother-german of George Earl of Rothes, had a charter of the King's lands of Parkhill in Fife, 24th March 1537. He also held some office at Court, as the Treasurer, in December 1533, paid "John Leslie, bruther to the Erle Rothwes, be the Kingis command, for his liveray," £30. Again on the 22d Oct. 1541, there was "gevin to Johnne Leslye, broder to my Lord of Rothes, to by him clathis to his mariage," £50. He was taken prisoner at Solway in 1542, and released 1st July 1543, upon payment of 200 merks sterling. Along with his nephew Norman Lesley, Master of Rothes, and the other conspirators, he was forfeited, 14th August 1546; and died without issue.—(Douglas and Wood's Peerage, vol. ii. p. 427.) brother to the Erle of Rothess, was the cheaf; for he, in all cumpanyes, spared not to say, "That same whingar, (schawin furth his dager,) and that same hand, should be preastis to the Cardinall." These bruytis came to the Cardinalles earis; but he thought him self stout yneuch for all Scotland; for in Babylon, that is, in his new blok-house, he was suyre, as he thought; and upoun the feildis, he was able to matche all his ennemies. And to wryte the trewth, the most parte of the Nobilitie of Scotland had ether gevin unto him thare bandis of manrent, or ellis war in confideracye, and promessed amitie with him. He onlye feared thame in whose handis God did deliver him, and for thame had he laid his neattis so secreatlie, (as that he maid a full compt,) that thare feit could not eschap, as we shall after heare; and something of his formare practises we man reacompt.

After the Pasche he came to Edinburgh, to hold the seinze,436436In Vautr. edit. "diet;" Seinzie, is Synod or Assembly.—A Provincial Council or Synod was appointed to be held in the Black Friars at Edinburgh, on the 13th January 1545-6. Knox says that the Cardinal came to attend it, "after the Pasche," or Easter, (25th April 1546;) the meeting, therefore, had probably been adjourned. The Archbishop of St. Andrews, as Lord Hailes remarks, "was, at that period, understood to be perpetual President in Provincial Councils.... This may be imputed to the title of Legate, which the Archbishops of St. Andrews had obtained from the Papal See."—(Histor. Memorials, p. 27.)173 (as the Papistes terme thare unhappy assemblie of Baallis schaven sorte.) It was bruyted that something was purposed against him, at that tyme, by the Erle of Anguss and his freindis, whome he mortally hated, and whose destructioun he sought. But it failled, and so returned he to his strenth; yea, to his God and only conforte, asweill in heavin as in earth. And thare he remaned without all fear of death, promissing unto him self no less pleasur, nor did the riche man, of whome mentioun is maid by our Maister in the Evangell; for he did nott onlie rejois and say, "Eitt and be glade, my saule, for thow hast great riches laid up in store for many dayis;" THE BRAGGYN OF THE CARDINALL A LITLE BEFOIR HIS DEATH bot also he said, "Tush, a feg for the fead, and a buttoun for the braggyne of all the heretikis and thare assistance in Scotland. Is nott my Lord Governour myne? Witness his eldast sone437437See note 459. thare pledge at my table? Have I not the Quene at my awin devotioun? (He ment of the mother to Mary that now myschevouslie regnes.) Is not France my freind, and I freind to France? What danger should I fear?" And thus, in vanitie, the carnall Cardinall delyted him self a lytill befoir his death. But yit he had devised to have cutt of such as he thought mycht cummer him; for he had appointed the haill gentilmen of Fyff to have mett him at Falkland, the Mononday after that he was slane upoun the Setterday. THE TREASOUN OF THE CARDINALL His treasonable purpoise was nott understand but by his secreat counsall; and it was this: That Normond Leslie, Schireff of Fyff,438438Norman Lesley, as heir apparent to his father, is here called Sheriff of Fife. His father, George Earl of Rothes, was constituted Hereditary Sheriff of the County, by James the Fifth, in the year 1531. and appearing air to his father, the Erle of Rothess; the said Johnne Leslye, father-brother to Normound; the Lardis of Grange, eldar and174 youngar; Schir James Lermound of Darsye,439439Sir James Leirmonth of Balcomy and Dairsye, in Fife, was the son of David Leirmonth of Clatta, who acquired the estate of Dairsye, in 1520. He was for many years Provost of St. Andrews, between 1532 and 1547. Patrick Leirmonth of Dairsye, was served heir of his father, Sir James Leirmonth of Balcomy, 13th March 1547-8.—(Retours, Fife, No. 7.) and Provest of Sanctandrose; and the faythfull Lard of Raith;440440Sir John Melville of Raith, Knight: see a subsequent note. should eyther have bene slane, or ellis tane, and after to have bene used at his pleasur. This interprise was disclosed after his slawchtter, partlye by letteris and memorialles found in his chalmer, butt playnlie affirmed by suche as war of the consall. Many purposes war devised, how that wicked man mycht have bene tackin away. But all failled, till Fryday, the xxviij of Maij, Anno 1546, when the foirsaid Normound came at nycht to Sanctandross; Williame Kirkcaldye of Grange youngar was in the toune befoir, awaitting upoun the purpoise; last came Johnne Leslye foirsaid, who was most suspected. What conclusion thei took that nycht, it was nott knawin, butt by the ischew which followed.


But airlie upoun the Setterday, in the mornyng, the 29. of Maij, war thei in syndree cumpanyes in the Abbay kirk-yard, not far distant frome the Castell. First, the yettis being oppin, and the draw-brig lettin doun, for receaving of lyme and stanes, and other thingis necessar for buylding, (for Babylon was almost finished,)—first, we say, assayed Williame Kirkcaldy of Grange youngar, and with him sex personis, and gottin enteress, held purpose with the portare, "Yf My Lord was walking?" who ansuered, "No." (And so it was in dead; for he had bene busy at his comptis with Maistres Marioun Ogilbye441441Marion Ogilvy was the daughter of Sir James Ogilvy, who was created Lord Ogilvy of Airly, in the year 1491, and who died about 1504. Her son, by Cardinal Beaton, was the ancestor of the Beatons, or Bethunes, of Nether Tarvet, (Nisbet's Heraldry, vol. i. p. 210;) and it was her daughter, Margaret Beaton, whose marriage with David Lindesay Master of Crawfurd, (and afterwards ninth Earl,) the Cardinal celebrated at Finhaven in Angus, almost immediately after Wishart's death.—On the 26th November 1549, letters were sent by a pursuevant, "chargeing Marioun Ogilby to find soverte to underly the lawis for interlyning of the Quenis Grace letteris." Marion Ogilvy, designed as Lady Melgund, died in June 1575. In her testament, mention is made of her son, David Betoun of Melgund, and Mr. Alexander Betoun, Archdene of Lothian. This Alexander, it is said, became a Protestant minister. that nycht, who was espyed to departe175 frome him by the previe posterne that morning; and tharefor qwyetness, after the reuillis of phisick, and a morne sleap442442In Vautr. edit. "a morning sleepe." was requisite for My Lord.) Whill the said Williame and the Portar talked, and his servandis maid thame to look the work and the workemen, approched Normound Leslye with his company; and becaus thei war in no great nomber, thei easilie gat entress. Thei address thame to the myddest of the close, and immediatlie came Johnne Leslye, somewhat rudlye, and four personis with him. The portar, fearing, wold have drawin the brig; but the said Johnne, being entered thairon, stayed, and lap in. And whill the portar maid him for defence, his head was brokin, the keyis tackin frome him, and he castin in the fowsea;443443In Vautr. edit. "into the foule sea;" in MS. G, "fowsie;" that is, the fosse, or ditch, which extended round the Castle, except towards the sea. and so the place was seased. The schowt arises:444444In MS. G, these three words are omitted. the workemen, to the nomber of mo then a hundreth, ran of the wallis, and war without hurte put furth at the wicked yett.445445In Vautr. edit. "the wicked gate;" in MS. G, "wickit yet." The first thing that ever was done, Williame Kirkcaldye took the garde of the prevey posterne, fearing that the fox should have eschaped. Then go the rest to the gentilmenis chalmeris, and without violence done to any man, thei put mo then fyftie personis to the yett: The nomber that interprised and did this, was but sextein personis. The Cardinall, awalkned with the schouttis, asked from his windo, What ment that noyse? It was answered, That Normound Leslye had tackin his Castell. Which understand, he ran to the posterne; but perceaving the passage to be keapt without, he returned qwicklye to his chalmer, took his twa176handed sword, and garte his chalmer child cast kystes, and other impedimentis to the doore. THE CARDINALLIS DEMAND In this meane tyme came Johnne Leslye unto it, and biddis open. The Cardinall askyne, "Who calles?" he answeris, "My name is Leslye." He re-demandis, "Is that Normond?" The other sayis, "Nay; my name is Johnne." "I will have Normound," sayis the Cardinall; "for he is my friend."446446Norman Lesley, Master of Rothes, usually considered as having been the principal actor in the Cardinal's slaughter, was the eldest son of George third Earl of Rothes. In June 1537, there was furnished a gown of black satin, lined with black velvet, a doublet of black velvet, hose of Paris black, a black bonnet, &c., "to Normond Leslie."—(Treasurer's Accounts.) And in August that year, at the King's command, the Treasurer paid him £40. In December 1539, dresses being also furnished to him, shews that he held some situation at Court. After his forfeiture, he entered the service of the King of France, and died of his wounds, in the year 1554, as will be related in a subsequent note. "Content your self with such as ar hear; for other shall ye gett nane." Thare war with the said Johnne, James Melven,447447In Vautr edit. "James Melvin;" in MS. G, "Melvell." a man familiarlie acquented with Maister George Wisharte, and Petir Caremichaell,448448In the summons of treason, he is styled Peter Carmichael of Balmadie. How long this "stout gentleman" survived, is uncertain; but he appears to have been succeeded by his brother. A charter of confirmation under the Great Seal was passed, "quondam Petro Carmichaell de Balmadie, Euphemiæ Wymes ejus conjugi, et quondam Jacobo Carmichaell de Balmadie suo fratri," of the lands of Kirkdrone, Easter Drone, Balmadie, and Quhelphill, in the shires of Perth and Lanark, 13th December 1593. The next in succession seems to have been David, who died before 1646: David Carmichael of Balmadie, on the 14th November 1646, having been served heir of his father, David Carmichael of Balmadie. Two years later, in another service, he is styled "Dom. David Carmichael de Balmadie miles."—(Retours, Fife, No. 575, 747; Perth, 557, 575.) The lands of Balmadie are in the lordship and regality of Abernethy. a stout gentilman. In this meanetyme, whill thei force at the doore, the Cardinall hydis a box of gold under coallis that war laide in a secreat cornar. At lenth he asked, "Will ye save my lyef?" The said Johnne answered, "It may be that we will." "Nay," sayis the Cardinall, "Swear unto me by Goddis woundis, and I will open unto yow." Then answered the said Johnne, "It that was said, is un177said;" and so cryed, "Fyre, fyre;" (for the doore was verray stark;) and so was brought ane chymlay full of burnyng coallis. Which perceaved, the Cardinall or his chalmer child, (it is uncertane,) opened the doore, and the Cardinall satt doune in a chyre, and cryed, THE CARDINALLIS CONFESSIOUN "I am a preast; I am a preast: ye will nott slay me." The said Johnne Leslye, (according to his formar vowes,) strook him first anes or twyse, and so did the said Petir. But James Melven, (a man of nature most gentill and most modest,449449In the summons of treason, he is called James Melville elder. See footnote, where Knox makes mention of his death, in France, under the year 1549.) perceaving thame boyth in cholere, withdrew thame, and said, "This worke and judgement of God, (althought it be secreit,) aught to be done with greattar gravitie;" and presenting unto him the point of the sweard, said, THE GODLY FACT AND WOORDIS OF JAMES MELVEN.450450 Knox must certainly be held responsible for this marginal note, which has given rise to so much abuse. But after all, this phrase, "the godly fact and words," applies to the manner of putting Beaton to death, as a just punishment inflicted on a persecutor of God's saints, rather than an express commendation of the act itself. "Repent thee of thy formar wicked lyef, but especiallie of the schedding of the blood of that notable instrument of God, Maister George Wisharte, which albeit the flame of fyre consumed befoir men; yitt cryes it, a vengeance upoun thee, and we from God ar sent to revenge it: For heir, befoir my God, I protest, that nether the hetterent of thy persone, the luif of thy riches, nor the fear of any truble thow could have done to me in particulare, moved, nor movis me to stryk thee; but only becaus thow hast bein, and remanes ane obstinat ennemye against Christ Jesus and his holy Evangell." And so he stroke him twyse or thrise trowght with a stog sweard; and so he fell, never word heard out of his mouth, but THE CARDINALLIS LAST WOORDIS "I am a preast, I am a preast: fy, fy: all is gone."451451David Beaton was a younger son of John Beaton of Balfour, in Fife. He was born in 1494, and his name occurs in the Registers of the University of St. Andrews in 1509, and of Glasgow, in 1511. He afterwards went to France, where he studied the Civil and Canon Law. His first preferment was the Rectorship of Campsie, in 1519, when he was designed "Clericus S. Andreæ Diocesis;" and in that year he was made Resident for Scotland in the Court of France. In 1523, his uncle, James Beaton, being made Primate of St. Andrews, resigned in his favour the Commendatory of Arbroath, or Aberbrothock, reserving to himself, during life, the half of its revenues. David Beaton sat, as Abbot of Arbroath, in the Parliament 1525. He was afterwards employed in public services abroad. In December 1537, he was consecrated Bishop of Mirepoix in Languedoc. The King of France contributed to Beaton's advancement to the Cardinalate, to which he was promoted by the title of "Sti. Stephani in Monte Coelio." In the same month he was made Coadjutor of St. Andrews, and declared future successor to his uncle, James Beaton.—(Keith's Catalogue of Bishops, p. 37; Senators of the College of Justice, p. 71.) In a letter, dated 29th March 1539, "the Abbot of Arbroath, now Bushope of Sanct Andrewes," is mentioned, his uncle having died in the beginning of 1539. On the 13th December 1543, the Cardinal Archbishop was created Lord High Chancellor. He was assassinated upon Saturday the 29th of May 1546.

Whill they war thus occupyed with the Cardinall, the fray rises in the178 toune. The Provest452452Sir James Leirmonth of Dairsye: see note [439. He had filled the office of Master of the Household in the reign of James the Fifth, (Holinshed's Chronicle, p. 448, edit. 1577,) and not Treasurer, as previously stated at page 102, and in Tytler's Scotland, vol. v. p. 270, when mentioned as one of the Commissioners sent to England in March 1543, to treat of the marriage of the infant Princess with Edward the Sixth. assembles the communitie, and cumis to the fowseis syd, crying, "What have ye done with my Lord Cardinall? Whare is my Lord Cardinall? Have ye slayne my Lord Cardinall? Lett us see my Lord Cardinall?" Thei that war within answered gentilye, "Best it war unto yow to returne to your awin houssis; for the man ye call the Cardinall has receaved his reward, and in his awin persone will truble the warld no more." But then more enraigedlye, thei cry, "We shall never departe till that we see him." And so was he brought to the East blok-house head, and schawen dead ower the wall to the faythless multitude, which wold not beleve bofoir it saw: How miserably lay David Betoun, cairfull Cardinall.453453These words, "How miserably," &c., are scored, as if deleted, and are omitted in all the other copies. And so thei departed, without Requiem æternam, and Requiescant in pace, song for his saule. Now, becaus the wether was hote, (for it was in Maij, as yo have heard,) and his funerallis could not sud179dandly be prepared, it was thowght best, to keap him frome styncking, to geve him great salt ynewcht, a cope of lead, and a nuk454454In Vautr. edit. "a corner;" in MS. G, "a neuk." in the boddome of the Sea-toore, (a place whare many of Goddis childrene had bein empreasoncd befoir,) to await what exequeis his brethrene the Bischoppes wold prepare for him.455455   The following paragraph is given by Foxe, in connexion with his account of Wishart's martyrdom, as mentioned in note 434:—
    "A note of the just punishment of God upon the cruell Cardinall Archbyshop of Saint Andrewes, named Beaton.

    "It was not long after the Martyrdome of the blessed man of God, M. George Wischeart aforesayd, who was put to death by David Beaton, the bloudy Archbyshop and Cardinall of Scotland, as is above specified, an. 1546, the first day of March, but the sayd Dauid Beaton, Archbyshop of S. Andrewes, by the just revenge of God's mighty judgement, was slayen within his own Castle of S. Andrewes, by the handes of one Lech [Leslie] and other gentlemen; who, by the Lord styrred vp, brake in sodeinly into his Castle upon him, and in his bed murthered him the same yeare, the last day of May, crying out, 'Alas, alas, slay me not, I am a Priest.' And so lyke a butcher he lyved, and like a butcher he dyed, and lay 7 monethes and more unburyed, and at last, like a carion, buryed in a dunghill. An. 1546, Maij ult. Ex historia impressa."—(Foxe, edit. 1576, p. 1235.) Sir David Lyndesay thus alludes to the Cardinal's fate, in his poem entitled "The Tragedie of the umquhyle maist reverend Father David, be the mercy of God, Cardinal, and Archebischop of Sanct Androis," &c.,—
"Quhen every man had judgit as him list, They saltit me, syne closit me in ane kist. I lay unburyit sevin monethis, and more Or I was borne, to closter, kirk, or queir, In are midding, quhilk pane bene to deplore, Without suffrage of chanoun, monk, or freir; All proud Prelatis at me may lessonis leir, Quhilk rang so lang, and so triumphantlye, Syne in the dust doung doun so dolefullye."
   Foxe's statement respecting the Cardinal's burial, is evidently incorrect. Sir James Balfour, in his MS. Account of the Bishops of St. Andrews, says of Cardinal Beaton, that "His corpse, after he had lyne salted in the bottom of the Sea-tower, within the Castell, was nine months thereafter taken from thence, and obscurely interred in the Convent of the Black Friars of St. Andrews, in anno 1547." Holinshed, in some measure, reconciles these apparent contradictions: After referring to what Knox has called "the coloured Appointment," (see page 183,) entered into by the Governor, in the view of having his son released, it is added, "They delivered also the dead bodye of the Cardinall, after it had layne buried in a dunghill, within the Castell, ever sithence the daye which they slew him."—(Chron. of Scotland, p. 466, edit. 1577.) This must have been either in December 1546, or in January 1546-7, immediately after the Governor had raised the siege of the Castle.


These thingis we wreat mearelie.456456In Vautr. edit. "merily." But we wold, that the Reader should observe Goddis just judgementis, and how that he can deprehend the worldly wyse in thare awin wisdome, mak thare table to be a snare to trape thare awin feit, and thare awin presupposed strenth to be thare awin destructioun. These ar the workis of our God, wharby he wold admonish the tyrantis of this earth, that in the end he will be revenged of thare crueltye, what strenth so ever thei mack in the contrare. But such is the blyndnes of man, (as David speakis,) "That the posteritie does ever follow the footsteppes of thare wicked fatheris, and principallie in thare impietie;" for how litill differres the cruelty of that bastarde, that yitt is called Bischope of Sanctandrois,457457John Hamilton: See note 331. Immediately after the quotation in the previous note, Foxe continues: "After this David Beaton, succeeded John Hamelton, Archbyshop of S. Andrewes, an. 1549; who to the extent that he would in no wayes appeare inferiour to his predecessour in augmentyng the number of the holy Martyrs of God, in the next yeare following called a certaine poore man to judgement, whose name was Adam Wallace. The order and maner of whose story here foloweth." (See note 611.) frome the crueltie of the formar, we will after heare.


The death of this foirsaid tyrant was dolorous to the preastis, dolorous to the Governour, most dolorous to the Quene Dowager;458458In Vautr. edit. and the later MSS., "dolorous to the Queen's daughter." for in him perished faythfulnes to France, and the conforte to all gentilwemen, and especiallie to wantoun wedowis: His death most be revenged. To the Courte agane repares the Erle of Anguss, and his brother Schir George. Laubour is maid for the Abbacy of Abirbrothok, and a grant was ones maid of the samyn, (in memorie whareof George Dowglas,459459George Douglas was a natural son of Archibald Earl of Angus. To qualify him for preferment in the Church, a letter of legitimation was passed under the Great Seal, 14th March 1542-3. On the death of Cardinal Beaton, in the contest for his several preferments, the Abbacy of Arberbrothick, (now Arbroath,) had been conferred on Douglas by the Governor. Hume of Godscroft, alluding to his title of Postulate of Aberbrothock, says, he "not only did postulate it, but apprehended it also, and used it as his own."—(Hist. of the House of Douglas and Angus, vol. ii. p. 63, edit. 1743.) Yet James Beaton obtained possession of the Abbacy, and retained it till 1551, when he was raised to the See of Glasgow. In the Treasurer's Accounts for November 1549, we find that "Maister James Betoun, Postulat of Aberbrothock," was ordered to find surety "to underly the lawis, for tressonable intercommunyng with Schir Jhonn Dudlie Inglisman, sumtyme Capitane of the Fort of Brochty;" and persons were sent "to Aberbrothok to requyre the place thairof to be gevin oure to my Lord Governouris Grace, becaus Maister James Betoun wes at the horne."—Douglas took an active share in devising the murder of Rizzio, in 1566. Upon the death of Patrick Hepburn, Bishop of Moray, Douglas became his successor, and was consecrated 5th February 1573-4. Keith says he was Bishop of Moray for sixteen years; and that he was buried in the church of Holyroodhouse. bastard sone to the said Erle, is yet called181 Postulat.) Butt it was more proper, (think the Hammyltonis,) for the Governouris keching, nor for reward to the Dowglasses. And yitt in esperance thairof, the saidis Erle and George his brother war the first that voted, that the Castell of Sanctandrois should he beseiged. The Bischope, to declair the zeall that he had to revenge the death of him that was his predecessour, (and yit for his wishe he wold nott haif had him leaving agane,) still blew the coallis. And first, he caused summound, then denunce accurssed, and then last, rebelles,460460The summons of treason against the conspirators in the Castle of St. Andrews, is contained in the Acts of Parliament. It was passed under the Great Seal on the 10th of June 1546, and it cited them to compear before the Parliament on the 30th of July, within the City of Edinburgh. On the 29th of July the Parliament met, and continued the summons until the 4th of August. On the same day, were "Letters direct to Fyf, chargeing all maner of man that nane of thame tak upone hande to molest, trouble, or mak onye impediment to Normound Leslie or his complicies, that thai may frelie cum to Edinburgh to the Parliament and allege thair defensis, and frelie to pas and repas," &c.—(Treasurer's Accounts.) Some overtures to Parliament for their remission having proved abortive, the persons referred to were declared guilty of high treason, and their lands and goods forfeited. The chief persons mentioned in the summons were—Norman Lesley, Fear of Rothes; Peter Carmichael of Balmadie; James Kirkaldy of the Grange; William Kirkaldy, his eldest son; David Kirkaldy, his brother; John, Patrick, and George Kirkaldy, brothers to the said James Kirkaldy of the Grange; John Leslie of Parkhill; Alexander Inglis; James Melville elder; John Melville, bastard son to the Laird of Raith; Alexander Melville; David Balfour, son to the Laird of Mountquhanny; William Guthrie; Sir John Auchinleck, Chaplain; and Sir John Young, Chaplain.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. pp. 467, 468.) not only the first interprisaris, but all such also as182 after did accumpany thame.461461Pitscottie, after stating that the conspirators at the end of six days were put to the horn, thus proceeds in his narrative:—"So they keipit still the Castle of Sanct Andros, and furnished it with all neccssar; and all sie as suspected thamselffis guiltie of the said slauchter, past into the said Castle for thair defence, to witt, the Laird of Grange, Maister Hendrie Prymros, [err. for Balnaves,] the Laird of Pitmillie, the old persone George Leslie, Sir Johne Auchinleck, with many utheris, who wer nocht at the slauchter, but suspected thamselffis to be borne at evill will; thairfoir they lap in to the Castle, and remained thair the space of halfe ane yeir, and would not obey the authoritie, nor yitt hear of no appoyntment nor offerris which was offerred unto thame be the authoritie. But still malignant aganis the Queine and Governour, thinked thamselffis strong enough againes thame both; and send thair messingeris to Ingland to seik support; but quhat they gott, I cannot tell."—(Dalyell's edit. p. 435.) Spotiswood is much more concise. He says, "Diverse persons, upon the news of the Cardinal's death, came and joyned with those that had killed him, especially Maister Henry Balnaves, the Melvilles of the house of Raith, and some gentlemen of Fife, to the number of seven score persons, who all entered into the Castle the day after the slaughter, and abode there during the term of the first siege. John Rough, he that had attended the Governour as Chaplain in the beginning of his regiment, came also thither, and became their preacher."—(History, p. 84.) And last of all, the seige was concluded, which begane in the end of August; (for the 23 day thairof departed the soldeouris from Edinburgh,) and continewed near to the end of Januare. At what tyme, becaus thei had no other hope of wynnyng of it butt by hounger; and thairof also thei war dispared; for thei within had brockin throwght the east wall, and maid a plaine passage, by ane yron yett to the sea, which greatly releaved the besegeid, and abased the beseagearis; for then thei saw that thei could nott stope thame of victualles, onless that thei should be maisteris of the sea, and that thei clearlie understood thei could not be; for the Engliss schippis had ones bein thare, and had browght Williame Kirkcaldy frome London, and with much difficultie, (becaus the said yett was nott then prepared,) and some loss of men, had randered him to the Castell agane, and had tackin with thame to the Courte of England, Johnne Lesly and Maister Henry Balnavis, for perfyting of all contractes betuix thame and King 183Harye, UPON WHAT CONDITIONIS KING HARY TOOK THE CASTELL OF SANCTANDROIS IN HIS PROTECTIOUN who promissed to tak thame in his protectioun, upoun conditioun onlye, that thei should keape the Governouris sone, my Lord of Errane,462462James Lord Hamilton, afterwards third Earl of Arran, and eldest son of the Governor, was kept as a hostage in the Castle of St. Andrews at the time of the Cardinal's slaughter. He was retained by the conspirators as a pledge for their own advantage. In the event of his being delivered to the English, the Parliament, on the 14th of August 1546, passed an Act, excluding Lord Hamilton from all right of succession to the family estates and the Crown, (being then regarded as presumptive heir to the Crown,) during the time of his captivity. and stand freindis to the contract of mariage, whareof befoir we have made mentioun. These thingis clearly understand, (we say,) by the Governour and his Counsall, the preastis and the schavin sorte, thei conclude to make ane Appointment, to the end, that under treuth thei mycht eyther gett the Castell betrayed, or elles some principall men of the cumpany tackin at unwarres. In the which head was the Abbot of Dumfermling463463This was George Durie. George, Abbot of Dunfermline, was present at the sentence against Patrick Hamilton in February 1527-8, yet it appears that his kinsman, James Beaton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, was actually Commemdator. Durie, however, who was Archdeacon of St. Andrews, styles himself Abbot in 1530, and continued to act as subordinate to Beaton during the Primate's Life. Beaton died in 1539; and Durie's appointment to the Abbacy of Dunfermline was confirmed by James the Fifth. He was nominated an Extraordinary Lord of Session, 2d July 1541. Durie continued to act as Commendator, or Abbot, till 1560, when he went to France, and died on the 27th January 1560-61: his successor on the bench took his seat on the 12th November that year. According to Dempster, two years after his death he was canonized by the Church of Rome.—(Senators of the College of Justice, p. 67; Keith's Hist. vol. i. p. 331; Registrum de Dunfermlyn, p. xvi.) principall; and for that purpose had the Lard of Monquhany,464464Montquhanie is in the parish of Kilmany, and was the seat of Sir Michael Balfour. (who was most familiar with those of the Castell,) laubored at foote and hand, and proceaded so in his trafique, that from entress upoun daylyght at his pleasur, he gat licience to come upoun the nycht whensoever it pleased him. But God had nott appointed so many to be betrayed, albeit that he wold that thei should be punished, and that justlye, as heirafter we will hear.

The Headis of the Coloured Appointment war:—


1. That thei should keap the Castell of Sanctandrois, ay and whill that the Governour, and the authoritie of Scotland, should gett unto thame ane sufficient absolutioun from the Pape, (Antichrist of Rome,) for the slawchtter of the Cardinall foirsaid.

2. That thei should deliver pledges for deliverie of that House, how sone the foirsaid absolutioun was delivered unto thame.

3. That thei, thare freindis, familiaris, servandes, and otheris to thame pertenyng, should never be persewed in the law, nor by the law,465465"Nor by the law," omitted in Vautr. edit. be the authoritie, for the slauchter foirsaid. But that thei should bruik466466In Vautr. edit. "enjoy." commodities spirituall or temporall, whatsoever thei possessed befoir the said slauchter, evin as yf it had never bein committed.

4. That thei of the Castell should keape the Erle of Errane,467467In MS. G, and other copies, "Arran:" see note 462. so long as thare pledges war keape.—And such lyik Articles, liberall yneuch; for thei never mynded to keape word of thame, as the ischew did declaire.

The Appointment maid, all the godly war glaid; for some esperance468468In Vautr. edit. "esperance", here and elsewhere, is rendered "hope." thei had, that thairby Goddis woord should somewhat bud, as in deid so it did. For Johnne Rowgh,469469See note 474. (who sone after the Cardinalles slawghter entered within the Castell, and had continewed with thame the hole seige,) begane to preach in Sanctandrois; and albeit he was nott the most learned, yit was his doctrin without corruptioun, and tharefoir weall lyiked of the people.

At the Pasche470470Pasche, or Easter. In 1547, this festival fell on the 10th of April. Thus it was upwards of ten months after the Cardinal's death before Knox took shelter in the Castle of St. Andrews. As this notice fixes the duration of Knox's abode within the Castle to less than four months, we may suppose that his vocation to the ministry, by John Rough, was in the end of May, or early in June 1547. The Castle had been besieged by the Governor, without any success, from the end of August till December 1546. But the French fleet, to assist the Governor in its reduction, arrived in June 1547, and the Castle being again invested both by sea and land, and receiving no expected aid from England, the besieged were forced to capitulate on the last of July that year. after, ANNO 1547.came to the Castell of185 Sanctandrois Johnne Knox, who, weareid of removing from place to place, be reassone of the persecutioun that came upoun him by this Bischope of Sanctandros, was determinat to have left Scotland, and to have vesitid the schooles of Germany, (of England then he had no pleasur, be reassone that the Paipes name being suppressed, his lawes and corruptionis remaned in full vigour.) But becaus he had the cair of some gentilmenes childrene, whome certane yearis he had nurished in godlynes, thare fatheris solisted him to go to Sanctandrois, that himself mycht have the benefite of the Castell, and thare childrene the benefite of his doctrine; and so, (we say,) came he the tyme foirsaid to the said place, and, having in his cumpanye Franciss Dowglass of Langnudrye, George his brother,471471Hugh Douglas of Long-Niddry, in the parish of Gladsmuir, East-Lothian, about four miles from Tranent. (See Patten's Expedition, sig. D ii. for a notice of his wife, when the English came "to Lang Nuddrey.") The mansion-house of Long-Niddry "is now known only by a circular mound, rising a few feet above the ground, containing the subterraneous vaults which were connected with the building."—(Stat. Acc. Haddington, p. 184.) Near it is the ruinous Chapel which still bears the name of John Knox's Kirk. Hugh Douglas, the father of Knox's pupils, Francis and George, was a cadet of the Douglasses of Dalkeith. He must have died before the year 1567; as his son, Francis Douglas of Langnudry, is named as third in the line of succession to James Earl of Morton, failing his lawful male issue, in the deed of ratification, dated 19th April 1567.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 564.) and Alexander Cockburne, eldast sone then to the Lard of Ormestoun,472472   Alexander Cockburn, Knox's pupil, according to the inscription on a brazen tablet, erected to his memory in the aisle of the old Church of Ormiston, was born in the year 1535-6.—(Collection of Epitaphs, &c., p. 342, Glasgow, 1834, 12mo; Stat. Acc. Haddington, p. 179.) The following is the inscription alluded to, as still extant at Ormiston:—
    "Hic conditur Mag. Alexander Cockburn, Primogenitus Joannis Domini Ormiston et Alisonæ Sandilands, ex preclara familia Calder, qui natus 13 Januarij 1535: Post insignem Linguarum Professionem, Obiit anno ætatis suæ 28, cal. Sept."

    As Cockburn was born in 1535-6, he must have died in 1564. The tablet referred to also contains Buchanan's lines. Omnia quæ longa, &c., celebrating his learning, and lamenting his premature fate. Dempster likewise quotes these lines and another elegy on his death, by Buchanan. (Opera, vol. ii. pp. 106, 120,) and says, that Alexander Cockburn, who had spent several years abroad, published various works, of which he had only seen three, the titles of which he specifies; but he mistakes the date of his death, in placing it in 1572, and his age, as 25.—(Hist. Eccles. p. 182.)
begane to exercise thame after his accustomed186 maner. Besydis thare grammare, and other humane authoris, he redd unto thame a catechisme, a compt whairof he caused thame geve publictlie in the parishe Kirk of Sanctandrois. He redd moreover unto thame the Evangell of Johnne, proceading whare he left at his departing from Langnudrye, whare befoir his residence was; and that lecture he redd in the chapell, within the Castell, at a certane hour. Thei of the place, but especiallie Maister Henry Balnaves and Johne Rowght, preachear, perceaving the manor of his doctrin, begane earnestlie to travaill with him, that he wold tack the preaching place upoun him. But he utterlie refuissed, alledgeing "That he wold nott ryne whare God had nott called him;" meanyng, that he wold do nothing without a lauchfull vocatioun.


Whareupone thei prively amonges thame selfis advising, having with thame in counsall473473In MS. G, "in cumpany." Schir David Lyndesay of the Mont, thei concluded, that thei wold geve a charge to the said Johnne, and that publictlie by the mouth of thare preachear. And so upoun a certane day, a sermone had of the electioun of ministeris, What power the congregatioun (how small that ever it was, passing the nomber of two or three) had above any man, in whome thei supposed and espyed the giftes of God to be, and how dangerous it was to refuise, and not to hear the voce of such as desyre to be instructed. These and187 other headis, (we say,) declaired, the said Johnne Rowght,474474   John Rough is said to have been born in 1510. It must have been previous to that date, as his name, "Johannes Rouch," occurs in the second class or division of persons who were Incorporated in St. Leonard's College, in the year 1521. He entered a monastery at Stirling, when only seventeen years of age. The reputation he had acquired as a preacher, induced the Governor to procure a dispensation for him to leave the monastery, and become one of his chaplains. In the Treasurer's Accounts, February 1512-3, he is called "Maister Johnne Ra, Chaplane to my Lord Governour," upon occasion of receaving "ane goun, doublet, hoiss, and bonet." Foxe mentions that Rough visited Rome twice, and was very much shocked with what he witnessed in that city, which he had been taught to regard as the fountain of sanctity. He entered the Castle of St. Andrews, as Knox states, soon after the Cardinal's slaughter; but he retired to England before the capitulation in 1547. (See Calderwood's account of him, vol. i. p. 251.) He continued to preach till the death of Edward the Sixth; when he crossed to Narden in Friesland. But having come over to London, he was informed against to Bishop Bonner, by whose orders he was committed to the flames at Smithfield, on the 22d of December 1557. "An account of his examination, and two of his letters, (says Dr. MʻCrie,) breathing the true spirit of a Christian Martyr, may be seen in Foxe, p. 1840-41."—(Life of Knox, vol. i. pp. 51, 52, 67.) Rough's fate is thus commemorated, in a rare poetical tract by Thomas Bryce, entitled "A Compendeous Register in Metre, conteigning the names and pacient suffryngs of the Membres of Jesus Christ; and the tormented and cruelly burned within England, since the death of our famous Kyng of immortal memory, Edwarde the Sixte," &c. London, 1559, 8vo.
When Jhon Roughe, a minister weke, And Margaret Mering, with corage died, Because Christ onely they did seeke, With fier of force they must bee fried; When these in Smithfield were put to death, We wishte for our Elizabeth.
prcachear, directed his wordis to the said Johne Knox, saying, "Brother, ye shall nott be offended, albeit that I speak unto yow that which I have in charge, evin from all those that ar hear present, which is this: In the name of God, and of his Sone Jesus Christ, and in the name of these that presentlie calles yow by my mouth, I charge yow, that ye refuise not this holy vocatioun, but that as ye tender the glorie of God, the encrease of Christ his kingdome, the edificatioun of your brethrene, and the conforte of me, whome ye understand weill yneuch to be oppressed by the multitude of laubouris, that ye tack upoun yow the publict office and charge of preaching, evin as ye looke to avoid Goddis heavye dis188pleasur, and desyre that he shall multiplye his graces with yow." And in the end, he said to those that war present, "Was not this your charge to me? And do ye not approve this vocatioun?" Thei answered, "It was; and we approve it." Whairat the said Johnne475475In Vautr. edit. "M. Iohne." abashed, byrst furth in moist abundand tearis, and withdrew him self to his chalmer. His conteanance and behaveour, fra that day till the day that he was compelled to present him self to the publict place of preaching, did sufficiently declair the greaf and truble of his hearte; for no man saw any sign of myrth of him, neyther yitt had he pleasur to accumpany any man, many dayis togetther.


The necessitie that caused him to enter in the publict place, besydis the vocatioun foirsaid, was: Dean476476In Vautr. edit. the name Annand having been omitted, he is spoken of as "Dean John." Johne Annane,477477Dean John Annand was an ecclesiastic of some note. In a decreet arbitral, dated 16th Oct. 1518, as well as in the sentence pronounced against Sir John Borthwick, in 1540, he is styled a Canon of the Metropolitan Church of St. Andrews. He became Principal of St. Leonard's College in 1544, and he held that office till 1550, when he was succeeded by John Law. (a rottin Papist,) had long trubled Johnne Rowght in his preaching: The said Johnne Knox had fortifeid the doctrine of the Preachear by his pen, and had beattin the said Dean Johne from all defences, that he was compelled to fly to his last refuge, that is, to the authoritie of the Church, "Which authoritie, (said he,) damned all Lutherianes and heretikes; and tharefoir he nedith no farther disputatioun." Johne Knox answered, "Befoir we hold our selfis, or that ye can prove us sufficientlie convict, we must defyne the Church, by the; rycht notes gevin to us in Goddis Scriptures of the trew Church. We must decerne the immaculat spous of Jesus Christ, frome the Mother of confusioun, spirituall Babylon, least that imprudentlie we embrase a harlote instead of the cheast spous; yea, to speak it in plaine wordes, least that189 we submitt our selves to Sathan, thinking that we submitt our selfis to Jesus Christ. For, as for your Romane Kirk, as it is now corrupted, and the authoritie thairof, whairin standis the hope of your victorie, I no more dowbt but that it is the synagog of Sathan, and the head thairof, called the Pape, to be that man of syne, of whome the Apostle speakis, then that I doubt that Jesus Christ suffurred by the procurement of the visible Kirk of Hierusalem. THE OFFER OF JOHNE KNOX FIRST AND LAST UNTO THE PAPISTIS Yea, I offer my selve, by woord or wryte, to prove the Romane Church this day farther degenerat from the puritie which was in the dayis of the Apostles, then was the Church of the Jewes from the ordinance gevin by Moses, when thei consented to the innocent death of Jesus Christ." These woordis war spokin in open audience, in the parishe Kirk of Sanctandrois, after that the said Dean Johne Annane had spokin what it pleasith him, and had refuissed to dispute. The people hearing the offer, cryed with one consent, "We can not all read your writtingis, butt we may all hear your preaching: Tharefore we requyre yow, in the name of God, that ye will lett us hear the probatioun of that which ye have affirmed; for yf it be trew, we have bene miserable deceaved."


And so the nixt Sounday was appointed to the said Johne, to expresse his mynd in the publict preaching place. Which day approching, the said Johne took the text writtin in Daniel, the sevint chapter, begynnyng thus: "And ane other king shall rise after thame, and he shall be unlyik unto the first, and he shall subdew three kinges, and shall speak wordis against the Most Heigh, and shall consome the sanctes of the Most Heigh, and think that he may change tymes and lawes, and thei shalbe gevin into his handis, untill a tyme, and tymes, and deviding of tymes."

1. In the begynnyng of his sermon, he schew the great luif of God towardis his Church, whome it pleaseth to foir190warne of dangeris to come so many yearis befoir thei come to pas. 2. He breavelie479479In Vautr. edit. "briefly." entraited the estait of the Israelitis, who thane war in bondage in Babylon, for the most parte; and maid a schorte discourse of the foure Impyres, the Babyloniane, the Persiane, that of the Greakis, and the fourte of the Romanes; in the destructioun whairof, rase up that last Beast, which he affirmed to be the Romane Church; for to none other power that ever has yitt bein, do all the notes that God hes schawin to the Propheit appertane, except to it allone; and unto it thei do so propirlie apperteane, that such as ar not more then blynd, may clearlie see thame. 3. But befoir he begane to opin the corruptionis of the Papistrie, he defyned the trew Kirk, schew the trew notes of it, whairupoun it was buylded, why it was the pillare of veritie, and why it could nott err, to witt, "Becaus it heard the voce of the awin pastor, Jesus Christ, wold not hear a strangere, nether yitt wold be caryed about with everie kynd of doctrin."

Every ane of these headis sufficientlie declared, he entered to the contrar; and upoun the notes gevin in his text, he schew that the Spreit of God in the New Testament gave to this king other names,480480In Vautr. edit. "other new names." to witt, "the Man of Syn," "the Antichrist," "the Hoore of Babylon." He schew, that this man of syn, or Antichrist, was not to be restreaned to the person of any one man onlie, no more then by the fourte beast was to be understand the persone of any one Emperour. But by sic meanes481481In MS. G, "names." the Spreat of God wold forewarne his chosyn of a body and a multitud, having a wicked head, which should not only be synefull him self, butt that also should be occasioun of syne to all that should be subject unto him, (as Christ Jesus is caus of justice to all the membres of his body;) and is called the Antichrist, that is to say, one contrare to191 Christ, becaus that he is contrare to him in lyeff, doctrin, lawes, and subjectes. And thane begane he to dissipher the lyves of diverse Papes, and the lyves of all the scheavelynges for the most parte; thare doctrine and lawes he plainelie proved to repugne directlye to the doctrin and lawes of God the Father, and of Christ Jesus his Sone. CONTRA DEI SPIRITUM AD GALATOS CA. 2. VERSU 16, ET 3, 11. This he proved by conferring the doctrin of justificatioun, expressed in the Scriptures, which teach that man is "justifyed by faith only;" "that the blood of Jesus Christ purges us from all our synnes;" and the doctrin of the Papistes, which attributeth justificatioun to the workis of the law, yea, to the workis of manis inventioun, as pilgremage, pardonis, and otheris sic baggage. That the Papisticall lawes repugned to the lawes of the Evangell, he proved by the lawis maid of observatioun of dayis, absteanyng from meattis, and frome mariage, which Christ Jesus maid free; and the forbidding whereof, Sanct Paule called "the doctrin of devillis." In handilling the notes of that Beast gevin in the text, he willed men to considder yf these notes, THE GREAT WOORDIS WHICH THE ANTICHRIST SPEAKITH "Thare shall ane arise unlyk to the other, heaving a mouth speaking great thinges and blasphemous," could be applyed to any other, but to the Pape and his kingdome; for "yf these, (said he,) be not great woordis and blasphemous, 'the Successor of Petir,' 'the Vicare of Christ,' 'the Head of the Kirk,' 'most holy,' 'most blessed,' 'that can not err;' that 'may maik rycht of wrong, and wrong of rycht;' that 'of nothing, may mak somewhat;' and that 'hath all veritie in the schryne of his breast;' yea, 'that hes power of all, and none power of him:' Nay, 'not to say that he dois wrong, althought he draw ten thowsand millioun of saules with him self to hell.' Yf these, (said he,) and many other, able to be schawin in his awin Cannone Law, be not great and blasphemous woordis, and such as never mortall man spak befoir, lett the world judge. And yitt, (said he,) is thare one most evident of all, to192 wit, Johnne, in his Revelatioun, sayis, 'That the merchandeise of that Babyloniane harlot, amonges otheris thingis, shalbe the bodyes and saules of men.' Now, lett the verray Papistes thame selfis judge, yf ever any befoir thame took upoun thame power to relax the paines of thame that war in Purgatorie, as thei affirme to the people that daily thei do, by the merites of thare Messe, and of thare other trifilles." In the end he said, "Yf any here, (and thare war present Maister Johne Mayre,482482Or Major: (see note 74.) He was born in 1469, and consequently at this time was far advanced in years. At the Provincial Council held in 1549, "M. Johannes Mayr, decanus facultatis theologicæ Universitatis Sancti Andrete, et Martinus Balfour, Doctores in theologia, annosi, grandævi, et debiles, comparuerunt per procuratores."—(Wilkins, Concil., vol. iv. p. 46.) He died in 1550. the Universitie, the Suppriour,483483John Wynrame: See note 395. and many Channonis, with some Freiris of boyth the ordouris,) that will say, That I have alledgeid Scripture, doctour, or historye, otherwyise then it is writtin, lett thame come unto me with sufficient witness, and by conference I shall lett thame see, not onlye the originall whare my testimonyes ar writtin, but I shall prove, that the wrettaris ment as I have spokin."

Of this sermon, which was the first that ever Johne Knox maid in publict, was thare diverse bruyttis. Some said, "Otheris sned484484In Vautr. edit. "others hewed;" in MS. G, "utheris hued." the branches of the Papistrie, but he stryekis at the roote, to destroy the hole." Otheris said, "Yf the doctouris, and Magistri nostri, defend nott now the Pape and his authoritie, which in thare awin presence is so manifestlie impugned, the Devill have my parte of him, and of his lawes boyth." Otheris said, "Maister George Wishart spak never so plainelye, and yitt he was brunt: evin so will he be." In the end, otheris said, "The tyranny of the Cardinall maid nott his cause the bettir, nether yitt the sufferring of Goddis servand maid his cause the worse. And tharefoir we wold counsall yow and thame, to provide bettir defenses then fyre and193 sweard; for it may be that ellis ye wilbe disapointed: men now have other eyes then thei had than." This answer gave the Lard of Nydie,485485In MS. G, "Nydre."—The person referred to was James Forsyth of Nydie, who had a charter of the salmon fishings pertaining to the King, in the water of Edyn, in Fyfe, 25th September 1541. The name of James Forsyth of Nydie in the regality of St. Andrews, between 1533 and 1552, occurs in an old Rental book belonging to the City of St. Andrews. One of his descendants was Alexander Forsyth, who was served heir of his father James Forsyth, in the lands of Nydie Easter, in the regality of St. Andrews, 16th April 1634.—(Retours, Fife, No. 142.) a man fervent and uprycht in religioun.

The bastard Bischope, who yit was not execrated, (consecrated486486John Hamilton, Abbot of Paisley, as already stated, was appointed High Treasurer in 1543, when Kirkaldy of Grange was superseded. The Abbot's Accounts, under his designation of Bishop of Dunkeld, were rendered on the 1st October 1546, having commenced 13th August 1543. In the title of his Accounts, commencing 1st October 1546, and rendered on the 16th of September 1550, he is styled Archbishop of St. Andrews. He may therefore have been promoted to the Primacy in October 1546; but he was not inducted until the year 1549. This date is fixed by the Archbishop himself, in a deed, 31st March 1558, as "the 12th year of our Consecration, and the 9th of our Translation to the Primacy."—(Lyons Hist. of St. Andrews, vol. ii. p. 262.) Keith has shown that Hamilton, who had been presented to the See of Dunkeld on the death of George Crichton, in January 1543-4, was not consecrated until 1545, or more probably the beginning of 1546. In like manner he continued to be styled John Bishop of Dunkeld, until the 14th June 1549; immediately after which date his translation to St. Andrews no doubt took place.—(Catal. of Bishops, pp. 38, 96.) thei call it,) wrait to the Suppriour of Sanctandrois, who (Sede vacante) was Vicare Generall, "That he wondered that he sufferred sic hereticall and schismaticall doctrin to be tawght, and nott to oppone him self to the same." Upoun this rebuck, was a conventioun of Gray Freiris and Blak feindis appointed, with the said Suppriour Dean Johnne Wynrame, in Sanct Leonardis yardis, whareunto was first called Johne Rowght, and certane Articles redd unto him; and thairafter was Johnne Knox called for. The caus of thare conventioun, and why that thei war called, was exponed; and the Articles war read, which war these:—

i. No mortall man can be the head of the Church.194

ii. The Pape is ane Antichrist, and so is no member of Christis misticall body.

iii. Man may nether maik nor devise a religioun that is acceptable to God: butt man is bound to observe and keap the religioun that fra God is receaved, without chopping or changeing thairof.

iv. The Sacramentis of the New Testament aucht to be ministred as thei war institut by Christ Jesus, and practised by his Apostles: nothing awght to be added unto thame; nothing awght to be diminished from thame.

v. The Messe is abominable idolatrie, blasphemous to the death of Christ, and a prophanatioun of the Lordis Suppar.

vi. Thare is no Purgatorie, in the which the saules of men can eyther be pyned or purged after this lyef: butt heavin restis to the faythfull, and hell to the reprobat and unthankfull.487487In MS. G, "unfaythfull."

vii. Praying for the dead is vane, and to the dead is idolatrie.

viii. Thare is no Bischoppes, except thei preach evin by thame selfis, without any substitut.

ix. The teindis by Goddis law do not apperteane of necessitie to the Kirkmen.

"The strangeness, (said the Suppriour,) of these Articles, which ar gaddered furth of your doctrin, have moved us to call for you, to hear your awin answeres." John Knox said, "I, for my parte, praise my God that I see so honorable, and appearandlye so modest and qwyet are auditure. But becaus it is long since that I have heard, that ye ar one that is not ignorant of the treuth, I man crave of yow, in the name of God, yea, and I appell your conscience befoir that Suppreme Judge, that yf ye think any Article thare expressed contrarious unto the treuth of God, that ye oppone your self195 plainelie unto it, and suffer nott the people to be tharewith deceaved. But, and yf in your conscience ye knaw the doctrin to be trew, then will I crave your patrocinye thareto; that, by your authoritie, the people may be moved the rather to beleve the trewth, whareof many dowbtes be reassone of our yowght."488488That is, as in MS. G, &c., "our youth;" Vautr. edit. has "your thoughtes."

The Suppriour answered, "I came nott hear as a judge, but only familiarlie to talk; and tharefore, I will nether allow nor condempne; butt yf ye list, I will reassone. Why may nott the Kirk, (said he,) for good causes, devise Ceremonies to decore the Sacramentis, and other Goddis service?"

Johne Knox.

"Becaus the Kirk awght to do nothing, butt in fayth, and awght not to go befoir; but is bound to follow the voce of the trew Pastor."

The Suppriour.

"It is in fayth that the ceremonyes ar commanded, and thei have proper significationis to help our fayth; as the hardis in Baptisme signifie the rowchnes of the law, and the oyle the softnes of Goddis mercy; and lyikwyese, everie ane of the ceremonyes has a godly significatioun, and tharefoir thei boyth procead frome fayth, and ar done into faith."

Johne Knox.

"It is not yneucht that man invent a ceremonye, and then geve it a significatioun, according to his pleasur. For so mycht the ceremonyes of the Gentiles, and this day the ceremonyes of Mahomeit, be manteaned. But yf that any thing procead frome fayth, it man have the word of God for the assurance; for ye ar nott ignorant, 'That fayth cumis by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.' Now, yf ye will prove that your ceremonyes procead from fayth, and do pleas God, ye man prove that God in expressed wordis hes com196manded thame: Or ellis shall ye never prove, That thei proceid from fayth, nor yitt that thei please God; but that thei ar synne, and do displease him, according to the wordis of the Apostill, 'Whatsoever is nott of fayth is synne.'"

The Suppriour.

"Will ye bynd us so strait, that we may do nothing without the expresse word of God? What! and I ask a drynk? think ye that I synne? and yitt I have nott Goddis word for me."

This answer gave he, as mycht appear, to schift ower the argument upon the Freare, as that he did.

Johne Knox.

"I wald we should not jest in so grave a mater; nether wold I that ye should begyn to illud the trewth with sophistrie; and yf ye do, I will defend me the best that I can. And first, to your drinking, I say, that yf ye eyther eat or drynk without assurance of Goddis worde, that in so doing ye displease God, and ye synne into your verray eatting and drynking. For sayis nott the Apostle, speaking evin of meatt and drynk, 'That the creatures ar sanctifeid unto man, evin by the word and by prayer.' The word is this: 'All thingis ar clean to the clean,' &c. Now, let me hear thus much of your ceremonyes, and I sall geve you the argument; bot I wonder that ye compare thingis prophane and holy thingis so indiscreatlie togetther. The questioun wes not, nor is nott of meat or drynk, whairinto the kingdome of God consistis nott; butt the questioun is of Goddis trew wirschiping, without the quhilk we can have no societie with God. And, hear it is dowbted, yf we may tack the same fredome in the using of Christis Sacramentis, that we may do in eatting and drynking. One meat I may eatt, another I may refuise, and that without scrupill of conscience. I may change ane with ane other, evin as oft as I please. Whither may we do the same in materis of religioun? May we cast away what we197 please, and reteane what we please? Yf I be weill remembred, Moses, in the name of God, sayis to the people of Israell, 'All that the Lord thy God commandis thee to do, that do thow to the Lord thy God: add nothing to it; diminyshe nothing from it.' Be this rewill, think I, that the Kirk of Christ will measur Goddis religioun, and not by that which seames good in thare awin eis."

The Suppriour.

"Forgeve me: I spak it but in mowes, and I was dry. And now, Father, (said he to the Freir,) follow the argument. Ye have heard what I have said, and what is answered unto me agane."

Arbuckill Gray-Freir.489489This Friar may probably be identified with Alexander Arbuckylle, whose name appears in the list of Determinants, in the fourth class (4tus actus) "in Pedagogio," at St. Andrews, in 1525. There was a Franciscan Monastery of Observantines at St. Andrews, to which he doubtless belonged.

"I shall prove plainlye that Ceremonyes ar ordeyned by God."

Johne Knox.

"Such as God hes ordeyned we allow, and with reverence we use thame. But the questioun is of those that God hes nott ordeyned, such as, in Baptisme, ar spattill, salt, candill, cuide, (except it be to keap the barne from cald,) hardis, oyle, and the rest of the Papisticall inventionis."


"I will evin prove these that ye dampne to be ordeyned of God."

Johne Knox.

"The pruif thareof I wald glaidly hear."


"Sayis not Sanct Paule, 'That another fundatioun then198 Jesus Christ may no man lay.' But upone this fundatioun some buyld, gold, silver, and precious stones; some hay, stuble, and wood. The gold, sylver, and precious stones, ar the Ceremonyes of the Church, which do abyd the fyre, and consumes nott away.' This place of Scripture is most plaine," (sayis the foolish Feind.)

Johne Knox.

"I prayse my God, throwght Jesus Christ, for I fynd his promeis suyre, trew, and stable. Christ Jesus biddis us 'Nott fear, when we shalbe called befoir men, to geve confessioun of his trewth;' for he promisses, 'that it salbe gevin unto us in that hour, what we shall speak.' Yf I had sowght the hole Scripturis, I could not have produced a place more propir for my purpose, nor more potent to confound yow. Now to your argument: The Ceremonyes of the Kirk, (say ye,) ar gold, silver, and pretious stonis, becaus thei ar able to abyd the fyre; but, I wold learne of yow, what fyre is it which your Ceremonies does abyd? And in the meantyme, till that ye be advised to answer, I will schaw my mynd, and make ane argument against youris, upoun the same text. And first, I say, that I have heard this text adduced, for a pruf of Purgatorie; but for defence of Ceremonies, I never heard, nor yitt red it. But omitting whetther ye understand the mynd of the Apostill or nott, I maik my argument, and say, That which may abyd the fyre, may abyd the word of God: But your Ceremonies may not abyd the word of God: Ergo, Thei may not abyd the fyre; and yf they may not abyd the fyre, then ar they not gold, silver, nor precious stones. Now, yf ye find any ambiguitie in this terme, Fyre, which I interpret to be the woord, fynd ye me ane other fyre, by the which thingis buylded upoun Christ Jesus should be tryed then God and his woord, which both in the Scriptures ar called fyre, and I shall correct my argument."199


"I stand nott thairupoun; but I deny your Minor, to wit, that our Ceremonies may not abyd the tryall of Goddis woord."

Johne Knox.


"I prove, that abydis not the tryall of Goddis word, which Goddis word condempnes But Goddis word condempnes your Ceremonies: Therefor thei do not abyd the tryall thairof. But as the theaf abydis the tryall of the inqueist, and tharby is condempned to be hanged, evin so may your ceremonies abyd the tryall of Goddis word; but not ellis. And now, in few wordis to maik plane that wharein ye may seme to dowbt, to wit, That Goddis woord damnes your Ceremonies, it is evident; for the plaine and strate commandiment of God is, 'Not that thing which appearis good in thy eis, shalt thow do to the Lord thy God, but what the Lord thy God hes commanded thee, that do thow: add nothing to it; diminish nothing from it'. DEUTE. 4 Now onless that ye be able to prove that God hes commanded your Ceremonies, this his formar commandiment will dampne boyth yow and thame."

The Freir, somewhat abased490490In MS. G, and in Vautr. edit., "abashed." what first to answer, whill he wanderis about in the myst, he falles in a fowll myre; for alledgeing that we may nott be so bound to the woord, he affirmed, "That the Apostles had not receaved the Holy Ghost, when thei did wryte thare Epistles; but after, thei receaved him, and then thei did ordeyn the Ceremonies." (Few wold have thought, that so learned a man wold have gevin so foolishe ane answer; and yitt it is evin as trew as he bayre a gray cowll.) Johne Knox, hearing the answer, starte, and said, "Yf that be trew, I have long bein in ane errour, and I think I shall dye thairintill." The Suppriour200 said to him, "Father, what say ye? God forbide that ye affirme that; for then fayre weall the ground of our fayth." The Freir astonyed, made the best schift that he could to correct his fall;491491In MS. G, "his fault." but it wold not be. Johne Knox brought him oft agane to the ground of the argument: but he wold never answer directlie, but ever fled to the authoritie of the Kyrk. Whairto the said Johnne answered ofter then ones, "That the spous of Christ had nether power nor authoritie against the word of God." Then said the Freir, "Yf so be, ye will leave us na Kirk." "Indead, (said the other,) in David I read that thare is a church of the malignantis, for he sayis, Odi ecclesiam malignantium. That church ye may have, without the word, and doing many thingis directly feghtting against the word of God. Of that church yf ye wilbe, I can not impead492492In Vautr. edit. "hinder." yow. Bott as for me, I wilbe of none other church, except of that which hath Christ Jesus to be pastor, which hearis his voce, and will nott hear a strangeir."


In this Disputatioun many other thingis war merealy skooft ower;493493In Vautr. edit. "were merily skoft ower." for the Freir, after his fall, could speak nothing to a purpose. For Purgatorie he had no better pruf, but the authoritie of Vergile in his sext Æneidos; and the panes thareof to him was ane evill wyff. How Johne Knox answered that, and many other thingis, him self did witness in a treatise that he wrate in the gallayis, conteanyng the some of his doctrin, and Confessioun of his fayth,494494The Treatise which Knox wrote on board the French galley, containing a Confession of his Faith, and which he sent to his friends in Scotland, is not known to be preserved. The substance of it was probably embodied in some of his subsequent writings. Knox might, however, have had some reference to the Epistle which he addressed to his brethren in Scotland, in 1548, in connexion with Balnaves's Confession, or treatise on Justification, (see note 575.) and send it to his familiaris in Scotland; with his exhortatioun, that thei201 should continew in the trewth, which thei had professed, nochtwithstanding any worldly adversitie that mycht ensew thareof. THE CAUS OF THE INSERTING OF THIS DISPUTATIOUN. Thus much of that Disputatioun have we inserted hear, to the intent that men may see, how that Sathan ever travellis to obscure the lyght; and yitt how God by his power, in his weak veschellis, confoundis his craft, and discloses his darkness.


After this, the Papistes nor Frearis had not great heart of farther disputatioun or reassonyng; butt invented ane other schift, which appeared to proceid frome godlynes; and it was this. Everie learned man in the Abbay, and in the Universitie, should preach in the parishe kirk his Sonday about. The Suppriour began, followed the Officiall called Spittall,495495Mr. John Spittal, Official Principal of St. Andrews, held the office of Rector of the University, from 1547 to 1550. In the "Liber Officialis S. Andree Principalis," from which extracts were printed for the Abbotsford Club, Edinb. 1845, 4to, his name occasionally occurs: thus, "Joannes Spittal a Niuibus rector, in utroque Jure Licentiatus, Officialis Sancti Andree Principalis," &c., 24 Aprilis 1547; and on the 20th February 1548-9, he has the additional title of Provost of the Collegiate Church of St. Mary in the Fields, near Edinburgh—"Prepositus Ecclesie Collegiate diui Virginis Marie de Campis prope Edinburgh," (pp. 97, 101, 112; Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iv. p. 46.) (sermones penned to offend no man,) followed all the rest in thare ranckes. And so Johne Knox smelled out the craft, and in his sermonis, which he maid upone the Weak dayis, he prayed to God, that thei should be als busye in preaching when thare should be more myster of it, then thare was then. THE PROTESTATIOUN OF JOHNE KNOX "Allwyise, (said he,) I praise God, that Christ Jesus is preached, and nothing is said publictlie against the doctrin ye have heard. Yf in my absence thei shall speak any thing, which in my presence thei do nott, I protest that ye suspend your judgement till that it please God ye hear me agane."


God so assisted his weak soldeour, and so blessed his laubouris, that not onlye all those of the Castell, but also a great nomber of the toune, openlie professed, by participatioun of the Lordis Table, in the same puritie that now it is202 ministrat in the churches of Scotland, wyth that same doctrin, that he had taught unto thame. Amongis whome was he that now eyther rewillis, or ellis misrewillis Scotland, to wit, Schir James Balfour, (sometymes called Maister James,496496Sir James Balfour of Pittendreich, eldest son of Balfour of Montquhanie, (see before, p. 183,) is styled by Principal Robertson, and not unjustly, us "the most corrupt man of his age." Having joined the conspirators at St. Andrews, he was, when the Castle was surrendered to the French, sent on board the same galley with Knox. According to Spotiswood, he obtained his freedom before the other prisoners were released, by abjuring his profession; and upon his return to Scotland, he was appointed Official of Lothian, by the Archbishop of St. Andrews.—(Hist. p. 90.) At a subsequent time, when raised to the bench, he took his seat under the title of Parson of Flisk.) the cheaf and principall Protestant that then was to be found in this realme. This we wryte, becaus we have heard that the said Maister James alledgeis, that he was never of this our religioun; but that he was brought up in Martine's497497That is, Martin Luther's. opinioun of the Sacrament, and tharefoir he can nott communicat with us. But his awin conscience, and two hundreth witness besydes, know that he lyes; and that he was ane of the cheaff, (yf he had not bein after Coppis,) that wold have gevin his lyef, yf men mycht credite his wordis, for defence of the doctrin that the said Johnne Knox tawght. But albeit, that those that never war of us, (as none of Monquhanye's sones have schawin thame selfis to be,) departe from us, it is no great wonder; for it is propir and naturall that the children follow the father; and lett the godly levar of that rase and progeny be schawen;498498In MS. G, "lat the godlie bewar of that race and progeny." So in Vautr. edit., with this addition, "progenie by eschewing." The obvious meaning of the words is, "let the person of that race who lives godly be shown." for yf in thame be eather fear of God, or luf of vertew, farther then the present commoditie persuades thame, men of judgement ar deceaved. Butt to returne to our Historye.


The Preastis and Bischoppis, enraged at these proceadingis, that war in Sanctandrois, ran now upoun the Governour, now203 upoun the Quene, now upoun the hole Counsall, and thare mycht have been hard complainetes and cryes, "What ar we doing? Shall ye suffer this hole realme to be infected with pernicious doctrin? Fy upoun yow, and fy upoun us." The Quein and Monsieur Dosell,499499Sir James Balfour of Pittendreich, eldest son of Balfour of Montquhanie, (see before, p. 183,) is styled by Principal Robertson, and not unjustly, us "the most corrupt man of his age." Having joined the conspirators at St. Andrews, he was, when the Castle was surrendered to the French, sent on board the same galley with Knox. According to Spotiswood, he obtained his freedom before the other prisoners were released, by abjuring his profession; and upon his return to Scotland, he was appointed Official of Lothian, by the Archbishop of St. Andrews.—(Hist. p. 90.) At a subsequent time, when raised to the bench, he took his seat under the title of Parson of Flisk. (who then was a secretis mulierum in the Courte,) conforted thame, and willed thame to be quyet, for thei should see remeady or it was long. THE FIRST CUMING OF THE GALAYES ANNO 1547 And so was provin in dead; for upoun the penult day of Junij, appeared in the sight of the Castell of Sanctandrois twenty ane Frenche galayis, with a skeife of an army,500500That is, Martin Luther's. the lyik whairof was never sein in that Fyrth befoir. THE TREASONABLE FACT OF THE GOVERNOUR AND THE QUEIN DOWAGER This treassonable meane had the Governour, the Bischope, the Quein, and Monsieur Dosell, under the Appointment drawin. Bot to excuse thare treasone, viij dayis befoir, thei had presented ane absolutioun unto thame, as sent from Rome, conteanyng, after the aggravatioun of the cryme, this clause, Remittimus Irremissibile, that is, We remitt the cryme that can nott be remitted. Which considdered by the worst of the company501501In MS. G, "lat the godlie bewar of that race and progeny." So in Vautr. edit., with this addition, "progenie by eschewing." The obvious meaning of the words is, "let the person of that race who lives godly be shown." that was in the Castell, answer was gevin, THE ANSWER GEVIN TO THE GOVERNOUR WHEN THE CASTELL OF SANCTANDROIS WAS REQUIRED TO BE DELIVERED "That the Governour and Counsall of the Realme had promissed unto thame a sufficient and assured absolutioun, which that appeared nott to be; and tharefor could thei nott deliver the house, nether thought thei that any reassonable man wald requyre thame so to do, considering that promeis was nott keapt unto thame." The nixt day, after that the galayis arryved, thei summoned the hous, which being denyed, (becaus thei knew thame no magistrattis in Scotland,) thei prepared for seage. And, first thei begane to assalt by sey, and schote two dayis. Bott204 thairof thei nether gat advantage nor honour; for thei dang the sclattis of houssis, but neyther slew man, nor did harme to any wall. THE GUNNARRIS GODDESS But the Castell handilled thame so, that Sancta Barbara, (the gunnaris goddess,) helped thame nothing; for thei lost many of thare rowaris, men chained in the galayis, and some soldeouris, bayth by sea and land. And farther, a galay that approched neyar then the rest, was so doung with the cannoun and other ordinance, that she was stopped under watter, and so almost drowned, and so had bein, war nott that the rest gave hir succourse in tyme, and drew hir first to the west sandis, without the schot of the Castell, and thaireftir to Dondye, whare thei remaned, till that the Governour, who then was at the seige of Langhope,502502Langhope, a castle on the Borders, belonging to Lord Maxwell, which the English had obtained possession of. came unto thame, with the rest of the French factioun. The seige by land was confirmed about the Castell of Sanctandrois, the xviiij day of Julij. The trenchess war cast; ordinance was planted upoun the Abbay Kirk, and upoun Sanct Salvatouris Colledge, and yitt was the steaple thairof brunt; which so noyed the Castell, that neyther could thei keape thare blok-houssis, the Sea-tour head, nor the west wall; for in all these places war men slaine by great ordinance. Yea, thei monted the ordinance so height upoun the Abbay Kirk, that thei mycht discover the ground of the close503503In Vautr. edit. "court." in diverse places. Moreover, within the Castell was the pest,504504In Vautr. edit. "plague." (and diverse thairin dyed,) which more effrayed some that was thairin, then did the externall force without. THE SENTENCE OF JOHNE KNOX TO THE CASTELL OF SANCTANDROIS BEFOIR IT WAS WON But Johne Knox was of ane other judgement, for he ever said, "That thare corrupt lyef could nott eschape punishment of God;" and that was his continuall advertisment, fra the tyme that he was called to preache. When thei triumphed of thare victorie, (the first twenty dayis thei had many prosperous chances,) he lamented, and ever said, "Thei205 saw not what he saw." When thei bragged of the force and thicknes of thare walles, he said, "Thei should be butt eggeschellis."505505In the MS. "age." When thei vanted, "England will reskew us," he said, "Ye shall not see thame; but ye shalbe delivered in your ennemyis handis, and shalbe caryed to ane strange countrey."


Upone the penult of Julij,506506In Vautr. edit. "The xxix of July." at nycht, was the ordinance planted for the battery; xiiij cannons, whareof four was cannons royall, called double cannons, besydis other peices. The battery begane att iiij houris in the mornyng, and befoir ten houris of the day, the haill sowth qwarter, betuix the foir tour and the East blok-house, was maid saltable. The lawer transe was condempned, diverse slane into it, and the East blok-house was schote of fra the rest of the place, betuix ten houris and ellevin. Thare fell a schour of rane, that continewed neir ane hour, the lyek wharof had seldom bein sein: It was so vehement, that no man myeht abyd without a house: The cannounes war left allone. Some within the Castell war of judgement, that men should have ished, and putt all in the handis of God. But becaus that Williame Kirkcaldy was commonyng507507In Vautr. edit. "comming with the Priour," &c. with the Priour of Cappua,508508Leon Strozzi, a Knight of Malta, Prior of Capua, and Captain-General of the galleys of France. His brother, Peter Strozzi, was Captain of the French galleys which came to Scotland in 1549. who had the commissioun of that jorney from the King of France, nothing was interprysed. And so was appointment maid, and the Castell randered upone Setterday, the last of Julij.


The headis of the Appointment war; "That the lyefis of all within the Castell should be saved, alsweall Engliss as Scottish; That thei should be saiflie transported to France; and in case that, upoun conditionis that by the King of France should be offerred unto thame, thei could nott be content to remane in service and fredome thare, thei should, upoun the206 King of France expenssis, be saiflie conveyed to what contrey thei wold requyre, other then Scotland." Wyth the Governour thei wold have nothing ado, neyther yitt with any Scottishe man; for thei had all tratorouslye betrayed them, "Which," said the Lard of Grange eldar, (a man sempill, and of most stout corage,) "I am assured God shall revenge it, or it be long."


The galayes, weall furnessed with the spoyle of the Castell foirsaid, after certane dayis, returned to France; and eschaping a great danger, (for upon the back of the sandis thei all schopped,) thei arryved first at Fekcam,509509In MS. G, Vautr. edit., &c., "Felcam."—That is, the vessels arrived at Fecamp, a sea-port of Normandy, about half-way between Dieppe and Havre. and thareafter past up the watter of Sequane,510510The water of Sequane, or the river Seine, is one of the four great rivers of France. It rises in Burgundy, and passing the cities of Paris and Rouen, (called by Knox, Rowane,) flows into the English Channel at Havre. and lay befoir Rowane; whare the principall gentilmen, who looked for fredome, war dispersed and putt in syndrie preasonis. The rest war left in the galayis, and thare miserable entreated, amonges whome the foirsaid Maister James Balfour was, with his two brethrein, David and Gilbert, men without God. Which we wryt, becaus that we hear, that the said Maister James, principall mysgydar now of Scotland, denyes that he had any thing to do with the Castell of Sanctandrois, or yet that ever he was in the galayis. Then was the joy of the Papistis boyth of Scotland and France evin in full perfectioun; for this was thare song of triumphe:—

Preastis content yow now; Preastis content yow now;
For Normond and his cumpany hes filled the galayis fow.

The Pope wrote his letters to the King of France, and so did he to the Governour of Scotland, thanking thame hartlie for the tacking panes to revenge the death of his kynd creature, the Cardinall of Scotland; desyring thame to continew in207 thare begune severitie, that such thingis after should not be attemptat. And so war all these that war deprehended in the Castell dampned to perpetuall preasone; and so judged the ungodly, that after that in Scotland should Christ Jesus never have triumphed. One thing we can not pass by: From Scotland was send a famous clerk, (lawghe not, readar,) Maister Johnne Hammyltoun of Mylburne,511511   This John Hamilton of Milburn is not mentioned by the Historian of the Hamiltons. The earliest of the family mentioned is Matthew, in 1549. His name, however, is correctly given by Knox, as we find in the Treasurer's Accounts, these three payments:—
    1545, January. "Item, be my Lord Governouris precept deliverit to my Lord Cardinale, quhilk he lent to Maister Jhonn Hammyltoun of Mylburne, to set furth the artailze at Birgen raid, £600."

    1547, November. "Item, to Maister Jhonn Hammyltoun of Mylburn, Maister of Wark for the tyme to the Quenys Grace's bigingis, quhilk he debursit upoun hir Grace's warkis befoir his departing towart France, as his tiket of compt, heir present to schaw, beris, £1238, 17s. 6d."

    "Item, to Maister Jhonn Hammyltoun of Mylburne, direct to the Kingis Grace of France, in the effaris of this Realme, £400."

    That Knox is also correct in regard to the time of his death, may be inferred from the date of these payments, and from the circumstance that (his son, no doubt) Matthew Hamilton of Mylburn, had a charter under the Great Seal of the lands of Houston in Linlithgowshire, dated in 1549. This Matthew had another charter of the same lands to himself, and to Agnes Livingstone his spouse, and to Henry Hamilton his son and heir apparent, 20th November 1553. His son predeceased him, and the property came to Robert, fratri quondam Mathæi Hamilton de Melburne. See Anderson's House of Hamilton, p. 323*.
with credite to the King of France, and unto the Cardinall of Lorane, (and yitt he nether had French nor Latine, and some say his Scottishe toung was nott verray good.) The sume of all his negotiatioun was, That those of the Castell should be scharplie handilled. In which suyt, he was heard with favouris, and was dispatched fra the Courte of France with letteris, and great credyte, which that famouse clark foryett by the way; for passing up to the craig512512In Vautr. edit. "mountain." Craig, a rock, is in other passages also erroneously made mountain. of Dumbertane, befoir his letteris war delyvered, he brack his nek; and so God took away a proude ignorant ennemye. Butt now to our Historie.


These thingis against promeissis, (but Princes have no fidelitie farther then for thare awin advantage,) done at Rowane,513513The city of Rouen, in Normandy. the galayes departed to Nantes, in Bartainzie, whare upone the watter of Lore514514Nantes in Bartanze, or Britanny, the large commercial city in the west of France. It is situated in the department of the Loire Inferieure, about twenty-seven miles from the mouth of the river Loire. thei lay the hole wyntar.

In Scotland, that somer, was nothing but myrth; for all yead515515In MS. G, and Vautr. edit., "went." with the preastis eavin at thare awin pleasur. The Castell of Sanctandrois was rased to the ground,516516The Castle and Episcopal Palace of St. Andrews is now in ruins. It stands on a detached point of land to the north of the town, and is bounded on two sides by the sea. It entered from the south side by a drawbridge, across a deep fosse or ditch, which being now removed and filled up with rubbish, very much injures the picturesque appearance of the Castle. After its surrender, on the last of July 1547, the Castle was ordered by an Act of Council to be rased to the ground. The fortress and "block-houses" were no doubt partially demolished, but the building itself was speedily repaired and inhabited by Archbishop Hamilton, whose arms cut in stone still remain over one of the windows at the south-east corner. The north-west corner or keep was surmounted by a tower, and is the place mentioned by Knox at pages 53, 179, as "the Sea-tower." On entering it, after descending a few steps, the dungeon is shewn to visitors by letting down a light, till it nearly reaches the bottom, at about 20 feet. The diameter at the top may be 7 feet, and after a descent of 7 or 8 feet, it gradually widens to 18 or 20 feet diameter, cut out of the solid rock. There is no appearance of any similar excavation at the north-east corner. The Castle, when surrendered, was abundantly supplied with provisions, and it contained the Cardinal's money and furniture, to the value, it is said, of £100,000; and also the property of other persons, which had been brought hither as to a place of security. the block houssis thairof cast doune, and the walles round about demolissed. Whitther this was to fulfill thare law, which commandis places whare Cartlinalles ar slane so to be used; or ellis for fear that England should have takin it, as after thei did Broughty Crage, we remitt to the judgement of such as was of counsall.


This same year, in the begynnyng of September, entered in Scotland ane army of ten thowsand men from England, by land, some schippes with ordinance came by sea.209 The Governour and the Bischope, heirof advertissed, gathered togetther the forces of Scotland, and assembled at Edinburgh. The Protectour of England,517517The Earl of Hertford, created Duke of Somerset, was Lord Protector of England. Of his Expedition into Scotland, there was published at the time a minute and interesting account. See note 535. with the Erle of Warwik, and thare army, remaned at Preastoun, and about Preastoun Pannes:518518Preston is near the village of Prestonpans, in the parish of that name, being about eight miles east from Edinburgh. for thei had certane offerres to have bein proponed unto the Nobilitie of Scotland, concernyng the promeissis befoir maid by thame, unto the which King Hary befoir his death gentillye required thame to stand fast; and yf thei so wald do, of him nor of his Realme thei should have no truble, but the helpe and the conforte that he could maike thame in all thingis lauchfull. And heirupoun was thare a letter direct to the Governour and Counsall;519519In this place in the MS., half a page on the reverse of fol. 70, and nearly as much at the top of the next leaf, are left blank, us if for the purpose of afterwards inserting the letter here mentioned.—There is still preserved among the "State Papers, in the reign of Henry the Eighth," a letter addressed by that Monarch to the Governor and Council of Scotland, on the 20th December 1546, (vol. v. p. 576.) It expresses his desire for peace and tranquillity; but stipulates that the siege of St. Andrews shall be relinquished, as he formerly had made promise to the gentlemen in the Castle "to helpe them in their necessities." The English Monarch died on the 28th of January 1546-7; and it is scarcely necessary to add, that the expected aid was not sent. which cuming to the handis of the Bischope of Sanctandros, he thought it could nott be for his advantage that it should be divulgat, and thairfoir by his craft it was suppressed.


Upone the Fryday, the [ixth520520In all the copies, "Friday the 7th."] of September, the Engliss army marched towardis Leyth, and the Scottishe army marched from Edinburgh to Enresk.521521Or Inveresk. The hole Scottishe army was nott assembled, and yitt the skirmissing begane; for nothing was concluded but victorie without strok. The Protectour, the Erle of Warwik, the Lord Gray, and all the Engliss Capitanes, war played522522In MS. G, "playand;" in Vautr. edit., "playing." at the dyce. No men war stowttar then the210 Preastis and Channounes, with thare schaven crownes and blak jackis. FRYDAYIS CHASE The Erle of Warwik and the Lord Gray, who had the cheaf charge of the horsmen, perecaving the host to be molested with the Scotishe preakaris,523523In Vautr. edit. "preachers." and knowing that the multitud war nether under ordour nor obedience, (for thei war devided fra the great army,) sent furth certane troupes horsmen, and some of thare Borderaris, eyther to feght thame, or ellis to putt thame out of thare syght, so that thei mycht not annoy the host. The skarmuch grewe hote, and at lenth the Scottishmen gave back, and fled without gane turne. The chase continewed far, bayth towardis the East and towardis the Weast; in the which many war slayne, and he that now is Lord Home was tane, which was the occasioun, that the Castell of Home524524Hume Castle, in Roxburghshire, in the united parishes of Stitchell and Hume, was a celebrated border fortress, often besieged by the English.—Alexander fifth Lord Home, succeeded his father in 1547, a few days after the battle of Pinkie. It was in order to save his life, he being then a prisoner, that his mother, Lady Home, was influenced to surrender the Castle to the English, 20th September 1547; from whom it was recovered by stratagem, in 1548, as minutely detailed by Beaugué, in his History of the Campaigns, &c., pp. 77-82. Lord Home was appointed Warden of the East Marches; and was a supporter of the Reformation. He died in 1575. was after randered to the Engliss men. BRAGGIS The lose of these men neyther moved the Governour, nor yitt the Bischope, his bastard brother: Thei should revenge the mater weall yneuch upoun the morne; for thei war handis ynew, (no word of God;) the Engliss heretyckis had no faces; thei wald not abyd.


Upone the Setterday, the armyis of boyth sydis past to array. The Engliss army tackis the mydd parte of Fawsyd hill,525525Falside hill or bray, is in the parish of Inveresk, near Carberry hill. having thare ordinance planted befoir thame, and having thare schippes and two galayis brought as neir the land as watter wald serve. The Scottishe army stood first in ane ressonable strenth and good ordour, having betuix thame and the Engliss army the Watter of Esk, (otherwyese called Mus211silburgh Watter;) butt at length a charge was gevin in the Governouris behalf, with sound of trumpett, that all men should merche fordwarte, and go ower the watter.526526The battle of Pinkie took place in a field to the east of Musselburgh, and adjacent to Pinkie house. Some say, that this was procured by the Abbote of Dumfermeling,527527George Durie, Abbot of Dunfermline: see note 463. and Maister Hew Rig,528528Hugh Rigg of Carberry: see note 165. Buchanan mentions him as one of the persons by whose advice the Governor suppressed the Duke of Somerset's letters; and calls him "a lawyer, more remarkable for his large body and personal strength, than for any knowledge of military affairs." for preservatioun of Carbarry. Men of judgement lyeked not the jorney; for thei thought it no wisdome to leave thare strenth. But commandiment upoun commandiment, and charge upoun charge, was gevin, which urged thame so, that unwillinglie thei obeyed. The Erle of Anguss,529529Archibald Douglas seventh Earl of Angus, succeeded his grandfather, the sixth Earl, who was slain at Floddon, along with his son George Master of Angus. He married Margaret, the Queen Dowager, mother of James the Fifth, and during the King's minority he obtained and exercised great power; but was banished when James had assumed the Royal authority. His daughter, Lady Margaret Douglas, by the Queen Dowager, became Countess of Lennox, and mother of Darnley. The Earl of Angus died at Tantallon Castle in the year 1556. being in the vantgard, had in his cumpany the gentilmen of Fyfe, of Anguss, Mernes, and the Westland, with many otheris that of luif resorted to him, and especiallie those that war professouris of the Evangell; for thei supposed, that England wold not have maid gret persuyt of him. He passed first throwght the watter, and arrayed his host direct befoir the ennemies. Followed the Erle of Huntlie, with his Northland men. Last came the Duke, having in his cumpany the Erle of Ergyle,530530Archibald Campbell, fifth Earl of Argyle: see a subsequent note near the end of Book First. with his awin freindis, and the body of the realme. The Englesmen perceaving the danger, and how that the Scottishe men intended to have tane the tope of the hill, maid hast to prevent the perrell. The Lord Gray was commanded to geve the charge with his212 men of armes, which he did, albeit the hasard531531MS. G, has "the armie." was verray unliklye; for the Erle of Anguss host532532The word "host," omitted in the MS., is supplied from MS. G. stood evin as a wall, and receaved the first assaultairis upon the pointis of thare spearis, (which war longar then those of the Englismen,) so ruidlye, that fyftie horse and men of the first rank lay dead at ones, without any hurte done to the Scottishe army, except that the spearis of the formar two rankis war brokin. Which discomfitur receaved, the rest of the hors men fled; yea, some passed beyound Fawsyd hill. The Lord Gray him self was hurte in the mouth, and plainelie denyed to charge agane; for he said, "it was alyik as to ryne against a wall." The galayis and the schippes, and so did the ordinance planted upoun the mydd hill, schote terriblye. But the ordinance of the galayis schooting longis the Scotish army effrayed thame wonderuslye.533533In MS. G, "frayed thame grettumlie." Vautr. edit. has, "affraied them wonderouslie." And whill that everie man laubouris to draw from the north, whense the danger appeired, thei begyne to reyll, and with that war the Engliss foot men marching fordwarte, albeit that some of thare horsmen war upoun the flight. The Erle of Anguss army stood still, looking that eyther Huntlie534534In MS. G, "the Erle of Huntlie." or the Duke should have recountered the nixt battell; but thei had decreid that the favoraris of England, and the Heretickis, (as the Preastis called thame,) and the Englismen should parte it betuix thame for the day.

The fear ryses, and at ane instant thei, which befoir war victouris, and war nott yitt assaulted with any force, (except with ordinance, as said is,) cast frome thame thare spearis and fled. So that Goddis power was so evidentlie sein, that in one moment, yea, at one instant tyme, boyth the armyes war fleing. The schout came from the hill frome those that hoped no victorie upone the Engliss parte; the schout ryses,213 (we say,) "Thei flye, thei flie;" but at the first it could nott be beleved, till at the last it was clearlie sein, that all had gevin backis, and then begane a cruell slawchtter, (which was the greattar be reassone of the lait displeasur of the men of armes.) The chase and slaughter lasted till ney Edinburght, upoun the one parte, and be-west Dalkeith, upon the other.535535   Dr. Patrick Anderson, in his MS. History of Scotland, in describing the disastrous flight at Pinkie, says, "it was owing more to lack of good and prudent government, than by any manhood of the enemie. For it was plainly reported, that some were traitors amongst us, and that they received gold from England; whereupon the following distich was said, It was your gold, and our traitors wanne The field of Pinkie, and noe Englishman."
   The date of this calamitous defeat at Pinkie, near Musselburgh, was the 10th of September 1547. The English forces were accompanied by William Patten, who, from his notes or diary, published his curious and interesting work, intituled, "The Expedicion into Scotlande of the most woorthely fortunate prince Edward, Duke of Soomerset, vncle vnto our most noble souereign lord the kinges Maiestie Edvvard the VI. Goouernour of hys hyghnes persone, and Protectour of hys graces Realmes, dominions, & subiectes: made in the first yere of his Maiesties most prosperous reign, and set out by way of diarie, by W. Patten, Londoner. Vivat Victor."—Colophon, "Imprinted in London, by Richard Grafton, &c., m.d.xlviii." Small 8vo, bl. 1.
The number of the slane upoun the Scotishe syd war judged ney ten thowsand men. The Erle of Huntley was tackin, and caryed to London; but he releved him self, being suyrtie for many ransonis, honestlie or unhonestlie536536In MS. G, "many ransomes;" in Vautr. edit., "many reasons, Honestie or unhonestie." we know nott; but, as the bruyt past, he used pollicye with England. In that same battell was slane the Maister of Erskin,537537Robert Master of Erskine, eldest son of John fourth Lord Erskine, (and fifth Earl of Mar, who died in 1552.) As stated in the text, he was slain at Pinkie, 10th September 1547; and leaving no issue, his next brother Thomas, Master of Erskine, having also predeceased his father, John Erskine, originally intended for the Church, became sixth Earl of Mar, in 1552. deirlie beloved of the Quein, for whome she maid great lamentatioun, and bayre his death many dayis in mind. When the certaintie of the disconfiture came, sche was in Edinburgh abyding upon tydinges; but with expeditioun she posted that same nycht to Stryveling, with Monsieur Dosell, who was214 als fleyed as "a fox when his hole is smoked." And thus did God tak the secound revenge upoun the perjured Governour, with such as assisted him to defend ane injust qwerrell; albeit that many innocentis fell amonges the myddest of the wicked. The Engliss army came to Leyth, and thare tackin ordour with thare preasonaris and spoile, thei returned with this victorie, (which thei looked nott for,) to England.

That wynter following was great heirschippes maid upoun all the Bordouris of Scotland. Browghty crag538538   In Vautr. edit. craig is rendered "mountains."—Broughty Craig, now known as Broughty Ferry, at the mouth of the river Tay, four miles below Dundee. The old Castle, now in ruins, forms a conspicuous object from the opposite side of the river.—Among other disbursements for "resisting of our old enemies," are the following:—
    "Item, (Jan. 1547-8,) at my Lord of Argilys passing to Dunde, Lieutenant for the tyme, for the recovering of the said toun and fort of Brochty furth of the Inglismennis bandis, rasit ane band of Jo [100 men] of weyr, send with him, and put under the governance of Duncan Dundass; and to the said men of weyr, ... iijm lib."

    "Item, (Feb. 1548-9,) to summound Alexander Quhitlaw of New Grange, to underly the law for his tressonable art, part, and counsale geving to the putting of the House of Brouchtye in the Englische mennis handis, continewall remanying with thame, conveying of thame to the byrnyng of Dunde and Forfair, rydand and gangand with thame in all thair dedis and heir-schippis upoun our Souerane Ladyis landis and subjectis, etc."
was tane by the Englismen, beseiged by the Governour, but still keapt; and at it was slane Gawen, the best of the Hammyltonis,539539   Probably in January or February 1547-8. Bishop Lesley mentioning Gawin Hamilton's death, calls him "Gubernatoris cognato," (De Rebus, &c., p. 489,) and "awin tender kynisman" of the Governor.—(Hist. p. 203.) We may therefore suppose he was the same person with Gawin Hamilton of Orbiston, who was named in the settlement of the Hamilton estates in 1540.—(Anderson's House of Hamilton, p. 271.) In October 1547, the Treasurer repaid "to Maister Gawyne Hammyltoun, quhilk he debursit in the Castle of Edinburgh, the tyme of the field (of Pynkeclouch) xxvi lib." He had previously been engaged in conducting the siege of St. Andrews, as in December 1547, "The Compttar, (or Treasurer,) discharges him in this moneth, quhairwith he sowld have been dischargeit in the moneth of December, in Anno 1546, quhilk was deliverit to Jc lxxx culvering men, under the governaunce of Capitane Gawyne Hammylton and Robert Lindesay, parson of Covingtoun; quhilk band was rasit for recovering of the Castell of Sanctandrois, and indurit v monethis, to ilkane of thir culvering men in the moneth, iiij lib. Summa to the said space, ... iijm vjc lib." (£3600.)
    "Item, the samyne tyme, under the governaunce of the saidis Capitanis Jc xx pikmen, quhilkis alsua remanit the tyme of the said assege, to every ane of thame in the moneth, iij lib. x s. Summa be the said space, ... ijm lib." (£2000.)

    "Item, to the saidis twa Capitanis, for thair awin feis, thair hand-seinze lieutenant, provest, clerk, and officiaris of band, ilkane of the said Capitanis in the moneth, Jc lib. Summa in the saidis v monethis, Jm lib." (£1000.)
and215 the ordinance left. Whareupon, the Englismen encouraged, begane to fortifie upoun the hill above Broughty hous, which was called the Forte of Broughty, and was verray noysome to Dondy, which it brunt and laid waist; and so did it the moist parte of Anguss, which was not assured, and under freindschipe with thame.

That Lentran540540In Vautr. edit. "That Lent." following, 1548 was Haddingtoun fortified by the Engliss men. The maist parte of Lothiane, from Edinburgh east, was eyther assured or laid wast. Thus did God plague in everie qwarter; butt men war blynd, and wald nott, nor could nott, considder the cause. The Lardes Ormestoun541541John Cockburn, (who has been already noticed, and will be again met with under the year 1559,) was forfeited 14th December 1548. and Brunestoun542542Alexander Crichton of Brunstone was a leading agent in the English schemes for assassinating Cardinal Beaton, although eventually accomplished without his aid. From his connexion with George Wishart, some fruitless attempts have been made to implicate Wishart in such schemes. See Appendix, No. IX.—The situation of Brunstone, in the barony of Pennycuik, is already noticed at page 135. A charter under the Great Seal of the lands of Gilberton, was granted to Alexander Creichtoun of Burnstoun, and John Creichtoun his son and heir, 19th November 1542. On the 8th November 1545, there was paid, "be my Lord Governouris speciall command, to the Laird of Brounstoun, in support of his expensis maid in tyme of his being in Ingland, lauborand for redres of certane Scottis schippis tane be the Inglische men, &c., 44 lib." He was forfeited, and escaped from Scotland in the year 1548. His death must have taken place before the 5th December 1558, as on that day the process of forfeiture against him was reduced by the Scotish Parliament, at the instance of John Creichton, eldest lawful son and heir of umquhile Alexander Creichton of Burnstane.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 520.) On the 26th February 1564-5, John Creichton of Brunstone, had a charter of confirmation of the lands of Gilbertoun; and another, on the 12th February 1565-6, of the lands of Stanyhill, in the shire of Edinburgh. In the Retours we find the names of James Creichton junior, as heir of his brother John, of lands in the barony of Pennycuik, 30th May 1604; and James Creichton, as heir of John Creichton of Brunstone, his father, of the lands of Brunstone, &c., in the barony of Pennycuik, 17th May 1608. war banissed, and after forfalted,543543In Vautr. edit. "after sore assalted." and so war216 all those of the Castell of Sanctandrois. The suyre knowledge of the trubles of Scotland cuming to France, thare was prepared a navy and army. The navy was such as never was sein to come fra France, for the supporte of Scotland; for besydis the galayis, being twenty twa then in nomber, thei had threscoir great schippis, besydis vittallaris. Howsone soever thei took the playne seas, the read lyoun of Scotland was displayed, and thei holdin as rebelles unto France, (such pollicye is no falsett in Princes,) for good peax stoode betuix France and England, and the King of France approved nothing that thei did. The cheaf men, to whome the conducting of that army was committed, war Monsieur Dandelot, Monsieur de Termes, and Peir de Strois. In thare jorney thei maid some hereschepe upoun the coast of England; but it was nott great. 1549 They arryved in Scotland in Maij, anno 1549.544544Knox has evidently mistaken the year. Mons. de Dessé, Mons. Dandelot, and Pierre Strozzi, Captain of the galleys, arrived in Scotland, about June 1548; and Mons. de Térmes, in the year following: see note [555. Bishop Lesley has given a detailed account of their proceedings.—(History, p. 206, &c.) See also "L'Histoire de la Guerre d'Escosse, traitant comme le Royaume fut assailly, & en grand' partie occupé par les Anglois, & depuis rendu paisible à sa Reyne, & reduit en son ancien estat & dignité, Par Ian de Beaugué, gentilhomme François. A Paris, 1556," 8vo. A translation of this work, ascribed to Dr. P. Abercromby, was published at Edinburgh in 1707, 8vo, with an historical preface. A MS. note by the celebrated Dr. Archibald Pitcairne, in a copy in my possession, asserts that the preface was written by Crawford the Historiographer, although claimed by the translator as his own; "but poor Crawford," he adds, was then dead. The galayis did visitt the forte of Browghty, but did no more at that tyme. Preparationis war maid for the seig of Hadyngtoun; but it was ane other thing that thei ment, as the ischew declared. THE PARLIAMENT ATT HADINGTOUN The hole body of the realme assembled, the forme of a Parliament was sett to be holdin thare, to witt, in the Abbay of Haddingtoun.545545This meeting of Parliament referred to, was "holdin at the Abbay of Hadingtoun," on the 7th July 1548; of which the only proceedings recorded are the "Propositioun by the maist Christian King of France; and the determinatioun of the Three Estatis, concerning the mariage of our Soverane Lady with the Dolphin of France."—(Acta Parl. Scot., vol. ii. p. 481.) The principall head217 was the mariage of the Princess (by thame befoir contracted to King Edwarte,) to the King of France, and of hir present deliverie, be reassone of the danger that she stood into, by the invasioun of our old ennemies of England. Some war corrupted with buddis, some deceaved by flattering promessis, and some for fear war compelled to consent; for the French soldartis war the officiaris of armes in that Parliament. The Lard of Balclewcht,546546Sir Walter Scott of Branxholm, was served heir of his father, Sir Walter, in October 1517. He was slain in Edinburgh by Sir Walter Ker of Cessfurd, and Andrew Kerr of Fernyhurst, in October 1552.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 461.) In the Diurnal of Occurrents, the writer noticing his slaughter, calls him "ane valzeand guid Knycht," (p. 51.) Knox simply styles him "a bloody man."—(See Douglas and Wood's Peerage, vol. i. p. 240; and Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel.) a bloody man, with many Goddis woundis, sware, "Thei that wold nott consent should do war." The Governour gat the Duchry of Chattellerawlt,547547The proposed alliance between Queen Mary and the Dauphin of France having been agreed to at Stirling, on the 8th February 1547-8, the same day, the Governor, James Earl of Arran, was created Duke of Chatellerault, by the King of France and the letters patent of his nomination were registered by the Parliament of France, on the 22d of April. with the Ordour of the Cokill, and a full discharge of all intromissionis with King James the Fyft his treasure and substance whatsoever, with possessioun of the Castell of Dumbertane, till that ischew should be sein of the Quenis body. THE DUKIS FACT, AND WHAT APPEARIS TO FOLLOW THAREOF With these, and other conditionis, stood he content to sell his Soverane furth of his awin handis, which in the end wilbe his destructioun; God thairby punishing his formar wickedness, (yf speady reapentance prevent not Goddis judgementis, which we hartly wishe.) Huntley, Ergyle, and Anguss, was lykwiese maid Knyghtis of the Cockill;548548The Order of St. Michael was instituted by Louis XI., King of France, in 1469. The number of Knights was limited to thirty-six. It received the name of the Cockle, from the escalop-shells of gold with which the collar of the Order was ornamented.—In September 1548, is this payment by the Treasurer, "Item, for paintting of my Lord Governoures armes setting furth of the Collar that day that my Lord of Angus and Argyle had ressavit the Ordour, xlv s." From the date, we might have concluded that this referred to the Order of the Cockle, had it not been that three years previously mention is made, in a letter from one of the English "espialles," in Scotland, (communicated to Lord Wharton, on the 12th June 1545,) that "the Order of the Cocle," with a collar of gold, had then been sent from France to the Earl of Angus.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 460.) and for that and other218 good deid receaved, thei sold also thare parte. EXPERIENCE HES TAWGHT, AND FARTHER WILL DECLAIR Schortlie, none was found to resist that injust demand; and so was she sold to go to France, to the end that in hir youth she should drynk of that lycour, that should remane with hir all hir lyfetyme, for a plague to this realme, and for hir finall destructioun. And tharefoir, albeit that now a fyre cumes out frome hir, that consumes many, lett no man wonder, she is Goddis hand, in his displeasur punishing our formare ingratitude. PERFICE QUOD CEPISTI ME DEUS PROPTER TUI NOMINIS GLORIAM. 15 JUNIJ 1567.549549In the MS. this marginal note is scored through, as if to be deleted; but this seems to have been done by a later hand. A few of the letters are cut away by the binder, but the note itself occurs in Vautrollier's edition, p. 176; which does not contain the marginal words that follow, marking the precise time when this portion of the History was written. It is worthy of notice, that on the 15th June 1567, Bothwell having escaped to Dunbar, Queen Mary surrendered herself to the Nobles at Carberry Hill, and two days later, she was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle. The marginal words, therefore, to this purport, "Finish what thou hast begun, O my God, for the glory of thy name: 15th June 1567," may be regarded as if the author had viewed that event as being a partial accomplishment of his prediction which he states to have been written in April 1566. But the language here used by Knox, it is impossible to vindicate. Lett men patientlie abyd, and turne unto thare God, and then shall he eyther destroy that hoore in hir hurdome, or ellis he shall putt it in the harttis of a multitude, to tak the same vengeance upoun hir, that hes bein tane of Jesabell and Athalia, yea, and of otheris, of whome prophane historyis mak mentioun; for greattar abominatioun was never in the nature of any woman, then is in hir, whareof we have but sein only the buddis; butt we will after taist of the rype frutt of hir impietie, yf God cutt not hir dayis schorte. WRITTIN THE—— OF APRILE, ANNO 1566 But to returne to our Historie.


This conclusioun tackin, that our Quein, (butt farther delay,) should be delivered to France, the seig continewis, great schooting, but no assaulting; and yitt thei had fair occasioun219 offered unto thame. For the Englismen approching to the toune, for the conforting of the beseiged, with powder, vittalles, and men, lost ane army of sax thowsand men. TUESDAYIS CHASE Schir Robert Bowes550550On the 26th November 1549, a pursuevant was sent to Stirling "with letters to the Maister of Arskine, charging him to keip Sir Robert Bowes, Inglisman, untransportit hame in his awin cuntré, quhill my Lord Governour and Counsale be farder avisit."—(Treasurer's Accounts.) so was tane, and the most parte of the Borderaris war eyther tackin or slane. And so mycht the Toune justlye have dispared of any farther succourse to have bein loked for; butt yit it held good; for the stout corage and prudent governement of Schir James Wolfurd,551551Sir James Wilford was taken prisoner by the French at Dunbar, in the year 1549: See Holinshed's Chronicles, England, vol. ii. p. 996; Scotland, p. 349, edit. 1586. generall, who did so encorage the hole capitanes and soldartis, that thei determined to dye upon thare wallis. But from the tyme that the Frenche men had gottin the bone for the which the dog barked, the persuyt of the toune was slow. The seig was rased, and she was convoyed by the Weast seas to France,552552   Prince Alexander Labanoff, in his collection of the Letters of Mary Queen of Scots, states, that at the end of July 1548, M. de Brézé, who arrived for that end, and Villegaignon, commander of the French squadron, received the young Queen and her suite, at Dumbarton. On the 13th August, he adds, Mary Stuart disembarked at the port of Brest, and was immediately conducted to St. Germain-en-Laye, where she was educated as one of the Royal family.—(Lettres de Marie Stuart, &c., vol. i.)
    The following entries from the Treasurer's Accounts, as relating to the young Queen, are not devoid of interest, in connexion with the similar payments quoted in note 287,—

    "Item, (March 1548,) the Comptar dischargis him, gevyn to my Lord Erskyn and Lord Levingstoun, to ane compte of thair feyes restand awyn thame for keping of the Quenis Grace persoun, the sowme of Jc lxxvi lib. vi s. viij d.

    "Item, mair to thame, in compleit pament of all feyes restand awyn thame for the causis forsaid, (fra the last day of November in the zeir of God 1545 zeris,) unto the last day of Februar, in the zeir of God Jm Vc and fortye sevyn zeris, [1547-8,] quhilk was the day of thair departing with the Quenis Grace to Dumbartane, and sa dischargit the sowme of ijm (2000) lib.

    "Item, (July 1548,) to Johnne Patersoun, to pas for marinaris to be pylattis, and to pas about in the galayes to the Vest seyes, that past to France with the Quenis Grace, xxij s."
with four galayis, and some schippis; and so the Cardinall220 of Lorane gatt hir in his keping, a morsall, assuyre yow,553553In MS. G, and Vautr. edit., "I assure yow." meit for his awin mouth.

We omitt many thingis that, occurred in this tyme; as the sitting doun of the schip called the Cardinall, (the farest schip in France,) betuix Sanct Colmes Inch and Crawmond,554554Cramond, a village on the south side of the Frith of Forth, five or six miles higher up than Leith. without any occasioun, except negligence, for the day was fair, and the wetther calme; but God wold schaw, that the countrie of Scotland can bear no Cardinallis. In this tyme also, was thare a combate betuix the galayis and the Engliss schippis; thei schote fracklie a whill. Ane Engliss schip took fyre, or ellis the galayis had come schorte hame, and, as it was, thei fled without mercy, till that thei war abuf Sanct Colmes Inch.555555In October 1547, a messenger was directed "to charge the maister capitane, quarter maisterris, and skippares of the schip callit the Schallop, chargeing thame to prepair and mak hir reddye for the recovering of Sanct Colmys Inche."—(Treasurer's Accounts.) St. Colme's Inch is a small island in the Frith of Forth, within two miles of the shore from Aberdour. There are still some remains of fortifications of a recent date. The island of Inch-Colme is chiefly remarkable for the ruins of an Abbey founded by King Alexander the First, about the year 1123, and dedicated to St. Columba. The inmates were Canon-Regulars of St. Augustine. The Capitanes left the galayes, and took a forte maid upoun the Inch for thare defence. But the Engliss schippis maid no persuyt, (except that thei brunt the Cardinall whare that she lay,) and so the galayis and the galay-men did boyth eschape.

Ordoure was lackin, that nixt September, that some galayes should remane in Scotland, and that the rest should returne to France; as that thei did all, except one that was tackin by ane Engliss schip, (by one Engliss schip onlye, we say,) as that thei war passing betuix Dover and Calice.

That wynter remaned Monsieur De Arfe556556Although the name is apparently "De Arfe" in the MS., it might be read "De Aese." But the name "De Arfe" is found in Vautr. edit., and in MSS. A, E, I, and W. MS. L 2, has "De Anfe." In the MS. as originally written it stood, "That wynter remaned Monsieur de Termes in Scotland," &c. This name was afterwards deleted, and that of "De Arfe" interlined; and it so appears in the copies above specified. But in MS. G, the original words are retained, thus indicating that the intermediate MS. from which MS. G was transcribed, may have been made previously to the correction of the name.—On the 12th June 1548, £4. 10s. was paid by the Treasurer "to Alexander Ross, pursevante, to attend upoun Monsieur Darse and the Frenche bande." The name, however, should be Mons. de Dessé, who continued in command of the French troops in Scotland, during 1548. Mons. de Termes arrived at Dumbarton with reinforcements, early in 1549, when Dessé returned to France.—(Beaugué, Histoire, fol. 107, 119.) in Scotland,221 with the bandis of French men. Thei fortified Enresk, to stay that the Engliss should not invaid Edinburgh and Leyth. Some skarmessis557557In Vautr. edit. "scarcenesse." thare war betuix the one and the other, butt no notable thing done, except that the French had almost tackin Hadingtoun; the occasioun whareof was this.

The French men thinking thame selfis moir then maisteris in all partes of Scotland, and in Edinburgh principallie, thought that thei could do no wrong to no Scottishe man; for a certane French man delivred a coulvering to George Tod, Scottisman, to be stocked, who bringing it throwght the streat, ane other French man clamed it, and wold have reft it from the said George; but he resisted, alledgeing that the Frenche man did wronge. And so begane parties to assemble, asweall to the Scottishman, as to the French; so that two of the French men war stryckin doune, and the rest chassed from the Croce to Nudrye's Wynd head.558558Niddry's Wynd, is now called Niddry Street, its former character of a wynd or close having been changed, when the houses at the top of it were removed in 1785, and the street called South Bridge was built, which connects the Old Town of Edinburgh with the Southern districts. The Provost being upoun the streat, apprehended two of the French, and was carying thame to the Tolbuyth; but from Monsieur de Essie's loodgeing and close isched furth French men, to the nomber of threscoir persones, with drawin sweardis, and resisted the said Provest. But yitt the toune assembling repulsed thame, till that thei222 came to the Nether Bow;559559The Nether bow Port or gate was a large building, with houses on each side, dividing or forming a barrier between the High Street of Edinburgh, and the street in continuation still known as the Canongate, where the French troops were quartered during the Winter 1548-9. The building alluded to was removed as an obstruction to the street, in the year 1764. and thare Monsieur La Chapell, with the hole bandis of French men enarmed, rencontered the said Provest, and560560In MS. G, and Vautr. edit., "violentlie repulsit him." repulsed him, (for the toune war without weapones, for the maist parte,) and so maid invasioun upoun all that thei mett. THE SLAUGHTER OF THE CAPITANE OF THE CASTELL OF EDINBURGH And first, in the throt of the Bow, war slane David Kirk and David Barbour, (being at the Provostes back,) and thareafter war slane the said Provest himself, being Lard of Stannoss, and Capitane of the Castell,561561James Hamilton, Laird of Stenhouse, already alluded to at page 124, was Provost of the City as well as Captain of the Castle. Bishop Lesley says the occurrence which led to his death, took place early in October 1548. It must have been on or before the first of that month, as Sir William Hamilton of Sanquhar was on that day appointed Captain of the Castle of Edinburgh, with the salary of £533, 6s. 8d.—(Treasurer's Accounts.) James Hammyltoun his sone,562562James Hamilton was his father's deputy as Captain of the Castle; and was also Director of the Chancery. Williame Chapman, a godly man, Maister Williame Stewarte,563563In MS. G, "Mr. Walter Stewart." Williame Purvess, and a woman, named Elizabeth Stewarte; and thareafter taryed within the toune, by force, from fyve houris, till after sevin at nycht, and then reteared to the Cannogat, as to thare receptackle and refuge.


The hole Toun, yea, the Governour and Nobilitie commoved at the unwoorthynes of this bold attemptat, craved justice upoun the malefactouris, or ellis thei wold tack justice of the hole. The Quein, crafty yneweht, Monsieur de Essye, and Monsieur Dosel, laubored for pacificatioun, and did promeise, "That onless the French men, by thame selfis allone, should do such ane act, as mycht recompense the wrong that thei had done, that then thei should not refuise, but that justice should be executed to the rigour." These fayre woordis pleased our223 foollis, and so war the Frenche bandis the nixt nycht direct to Hadingtoun,564564The town of Haddington was strongly garrisoned by Lord Grey of Wilton and the English forces, in April 1548; and was soon after besieged by the French auxiliaries, and likewise in the following year, but on both occasions without success. The Friar Kirk belonged to the Franciscan or Gray Friars; the choir of which, from its beautiful structure, was called Lucerna Laudoniæ, (the Lamp of Lothian.) Notwithstanding all the changes this church has undergone in the course of five or six centuries, it still exhibits the outlines of an imposing building, about 210 feet long, surmounted by a handsome square tower. No traces are now preserved of St. Catherine's Chapel. to the which thei approched a lytill after mydnycht, so secreatlye, that thei war never espyed, till that the formar war within the basse courte, and the haill cumpany in the church yard, nott two payre of boot lenthis distant frome the toune. The soldartis, Englishmen, war all a sleape, exceapt the watch, the which was sklender, and yitt the schowt arises, "Bowes and billes: Bowes and billes;" which is significatioun of extreame defence, to avoid the present danger, in all tounes of warr. The effrayed aryses: weapones that first come to hand serve for the nead. One565565According to Beaugué, this was a French soldier "corrupted by the enemy," who had served them as a spy. amongis many cumes to the East porte, whare lay two great pieces of ordinance, and whare the ennemies war knowin to be, and cryed to his fellowes that war at the yett macking defence, "Ware befoir;" and so fyres a great peace, and thareafter another, which God so conducted, that after thame was no farther persuyt maid; for the bullates redounded fra the wall of the Freir Kirk, to the wall of Sanct Katherine's Chapell, which stood direct foiranent it, and fra the wall of the said Chapell to the said Kirk wall agane, so oft, that thare fell mo then ane hundreth of the French, att those two schottis only. Thei schott oft, but the French reteired with diligence, and returned to Edinburgh, without harme done, except the destructioun of some drynkin bear, which lay in the saidis Chappell and Kirk. And this was satisfactioun more then224 yneuht,566566In other copies, "aneughe,"—"enough." for the slawchter of the said Capitane and Provest, and for the slawghter of such as war slane with him. This was the begynnyng of the French fruittis.


This wynter, in the tyme of Christen Masse, was the Castell of Home recovered from the Engliss, by the negligence of the Capitane named Dudley.567567See note 524.—Bishop Lesley says, the Castle, which had been left in charge of Sir Edward Dudley, was recovered on St. Stephen's night, (26th December,) 1548.—(Hist. pp. 201, 222.)


This wynter also did the Lard of Rayth most innocentlie suffer, and after was forfalted, becaus that he wrait a bill to his sone, Johne Melvin,568568The Laird of Raith was Sir John Melville, Knight. Charters of the lands of Murdocairney, in Fife, were granted to him and his wife Helen Napier, in 1536 and 1542. James the Fifth, who conferred on him the honour of knighthood, appointed him Captain of the Castle of Dunbar. He was accused of heresy by Cardinal Beaton; but was not convicted. It may have been in reference to this charge that he obtained from the King a remission "for all crimes, excepting treason," which he may have committed prior to the 15th August 1538.—(Pitcairn's Crim. Trials, vol. i. p. 250*.) Subsequently being in favour of the English alliance, when all correspondence with England had been interdicted, an intercepted letter, addressed by Sir John Melville to his son, was laid hold of, and formed the ground of accusation for treason. On the 3d December 1548, writings were sent from Edinburgh "to all the lairdis and gentilmen of Fyfe to be heir Dec. 5to. upoun the Laird of Rathis assise;" and on that day, the Treasurer paid 34s. "to Adame MʻCullo, pursewant, send agane to Fyfe to summond ane assiss to the Laird of Raith; and to execute summoundis of tressoun upoun the Laird of Petmille, and Maister Henry Balnavis, to the xxj day of Februar [1548-9.]" He was accordingly tried and executed in 1548-9, and his forfeited estates were bestowed on David Hamilton, youngest son of the Governor.—(Buchan. Hist. lib. xv. c. 65.) The forfeited estates, however, were restored by Queen Mary to his eldest son John Melville, by a special gift dated 12th Feb. 1562-3.—(Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. 341*.) He survived till the 13th July 1583. who then was in England, which was alleged to have bein found in the house of Ormestoun; but many suspected the pauckis569569In Vautr. edit. "prankes." and craft of Ringzen Cockburne, (now called Capitane Ringzeane,570570Ninian Cockburn, called Captain Ringan. In Vautr. edit. "Reingzein," and "Rengzeane," being a common or vulgar pronunciation of the name Ninian.) to whome the said letter was delivered. Butt howsoever it was, thei cruell beastis, the Bischope of Sanctandrois and Abbot of Dum225fermling, ceassed nott, till that the head of the said noble man was strickin from him; especiallie becaus that he was knawin to be ane that unfeanedlie favored the treuth of Goddis word, and was a great freind to those that war in the Castell of Sanctandrois; of whose deliverance, and of Goddis wonderouse wyrking with thame during the tyme of thare bondage, we man now speak, least that in suppressing of so notable a wark of God, we mycht justlie be accused of ingratitude.


And, first, the principalles being putt in severall houssis, as befoir we have said, great laubouris was maid to mack thame have a good opinioun of the Messe. But cheaflie travail was takin upoun Normond Leslye,571571In order not to crowd the pages unnecessarily, some further particulars respecting Norman Lesley are reserved for the Appendix, No. XI. the Lard of Grange, and the Lard of Petmyllie,572572Monypenny of Pitmilly, in the parish of Kingsbarns, in Fife, is a family of old standing. The mother of Cardinal Beaton was Isabell Monypenny of Pitmilly. David Monypenny, heir apparent of Petmillie, had a charter under the Great Seal, dated 30th March 1549. It is noticed at note 568, that summons of treason upon the Laird of Petmille, to the 21st February 1548-9, had been served on the 5th December 1548. But one of his daughters, as well as the "Laird," was implicated in countenancing the conspirators. On the last of November 1546, "a messinger was sent with ane letter direct to summound Jonet Monypenie, douchtor to the Laird of Petmylle, for hir remanyng in the Castell of Sanctandrois, and intercommonyng and assistance gevin be hir to Normound Leslie and his complices, slaares of my Lord Cardinall."—(Treasurer's Accounts.) who war in the Castell of Scherisburgh,573573Sherisburg, is evidently Cherburg or Cherbourg, a well known sea-port in France, in Lower Normandy, (near Cape La Hogue.) that thei wold come to the Messe with the Capitane: Who answered, "That the Capitane had commandiment to keape thare bodyes, but he had no power to command thare conscience." The Capitane replyed, "That he had power to command and to compell thame to go whare he yead." Thei answered, "That to go to any lauchfull place with him, thei wold nott refuise; but to do any thing that was against thare conscience thei wold not, nether for him, nor yitt for the226 King." The Capitane said, "Will ye nott go to the Messe?" Thai answered, "No; and yf ye wald compell us, yitt will we displease yow farther; for we will so use our selfis thare, that all those that ar present shall knaw that we dispite it." These same answeris, (and somewhat scharpar,) Williame Kirkcaldye, Petir Carmichaell, and such as war with thame in Mont Sanct Michaell, gave to thare Capitane; for thei said, "Thei wold nott only hear Messe everie day, but that thei wold help to say it, provided that thei mycht stick the preastis, or ellis thei wold nott." Maister Henry Balnaves,574574Henry Balnaves of Halhill raised himself to distinction by his talents and application. After pursuing his studies abroad for several years, he returned to Scotland, and was admitted an Advocate in November 1537. In July 1538, he was appointed a Lord of Session; and survived till the year 1570. A more minute account of his history will be given in Vol. III., in connexion with extracts from the Treatise mentioned in the following note, to which Knox prefixed an Epistle, in the year 1548. who was in the Castell of Rowane, was most sharplie assaulted of all; for becaus he was judged learned, (as he was, and is, in deid,) tharefoir learned men war appointed to trawall with him, with whome he had many conflictes; but God so ever assisted him, that thei departed confounded, and he, by the power of Goddis Spreit, remaned constant in the trewth and profession of the same, without any wavering or declynyng to idolatrie. In the preasone he wrait a most profitable Treatise of Justificatioun,575575   This treatise on Justification, of which Knox, we are informed, had expressed an earnest desire, as almost nothing more, that it should be diligently sought after, and preserved from perishing, was discovered in MS. at Ormiston, subsequently to the death both of Knox and the Author. Yet David Buchanan, instead of these words, makes Knox to say, "which is extant to this day." It was first published under the following title:—
    "The Confession of Faith, conteining how the troubled man should seeke refuge at his God, thereto led by Faith: with the Declaration of the article of Justification at length, &c. Compiled by M. Henry Balnaves of Halhill, and one of the Lords of Session and Counsell of Scotland, being a prisoner within the old Pallaice of Roane: In the year of our Lord 1548. Imprinted at Edinburgh, by Thomas Vautrollier. 1584." Small 8vo.
and of the workis and conversatioun of a227 justifeid man: but how it is suppressed, we know nott. These that war in the galayis war threatned with tormentis, yf thei wold not geve reverence to the Messe, (for at certane tymes the Messe was said in the galay, or ellis heard upoun the schoar, in576576In Vautr. edit. the words, "the Messe was said in the gallay, or ellis heard upoun the schoar, in," are omitted by the printer, at the foot of page 181. The words are likewise omitted in MSS. L2 and 1. presence of the forsaris;) butt thei could never mack the poorest of that cumpanye to geve reverence to that idole. Yea, when upoun the Setterday at nycht, thei song thare Salve Regina, the hole Scottishmen putt on thare cappes, thare hoodis, or such thing as thei had to cover thare headis; and when that otheris war compelled to kyss a paynted brod, (which thei called "Nostre Dame,") thei war not preassed after ones; for this was the chance. MEARY FACT Sone after the arrivall at Nances,577577The City of Nantes: see note 514. thare great Salve was song, and a glorious painted Lady was brought in to be kissed, and, amongis otheris, was presented to one of the Scotishmen then cheyned. He gentillye said, "Truble me nott; such ane idole578578MS. G reads correctly, "such an idolle;" but Vautr. edit. has, "such a jewell is accursed;" and this blunder is retained in MSS. A, E, I, ("javel,") L2, and W.—Although no name is given in regard to the incident alluded to, this "merry fact" evidently happened to Knox himself. is accurssed; and tharefoir I will not tuich it." The Patron and the Arguesyn, with two officeris, having the cheaf charge of all such materis, said, "Thow salt handill it;" and so thei violentlie thrust it to his face, and putt it betuix his handis; who seing the extremitie, tooke the idole, and advisitlie looking about, he caist it in the rivare, and said, "Lett our Lady now saif hir self: sche is lycht aneuch; lett hir learne to swyme." After that was no Scotish man urged with that idolatrie.

These ar thingis that appear to be of no great importance; and yit yf we do rychtlie considder, thei expresse the same228 obedience that God requyred of his people Israell, when that thei should be caryed to Babylon; for he gave charge unto thame, that when thei should see the Babylonians wirschipe thare goddis of gold, silver, mettall, and woid, that thei should say, JERE. 10 "The goddis that have nott maid the heavin and the earth shall perish frome the heavin, and out of the earth." That confessioun gave that hole nomber, during the tyme of thare bondage: in the which, wald God thei had continewed in thare fredome; for then had nott Maister James Balfour bein Officiall,579579Official of Lothian: see notes 496 and 603. neyther yitt borne a cope580580In MS. G, "a kape." for pleasur of the Bischope. But to proceid. The said Maister James and Johne Knox being intill one galay, and being wounderous familiare with him, wold often tymes ask his judgement, "Yf he thought that ever thei should be delivered?" Whose answer was ever, fra the day that thei entered in the galayis, "That God wald deliver thame from that bondage, to his glorie, evin in this lyef." QUÆVIS MULTA SINT JUSTORUM MALA. And lyeing betuix Dundye and Sanctandrois, the secound tyme581581Probably in June 1548. that the galayis returned to Scotland, the said Johne being so extreamlye seak, that few hoped his lyeff, the said Maister James willed him to look to the land, and asked yf he knew it? Who answered, "Yes: I knaw it weall; for I see the stepill of that place, whare God first in publict opened my mouth to his glorie, and I am fullie persuaded, how weak that ever I now appear, that I shall nott departe this lyif, till that my toung shall glorifie his godlie name in the same place." This reported the said Maister James in presence of many famous witness, many zearis befoir that ever the said Johne sett his futt in Scotland, this last tyme, to preache.


Williame Kirkcaldy, then of Grange, youngar, Petir Carmichaell, Robert and Williame Leslyes, who war altogetther229 in Mont Sanct Michaell,582582Mont St. Michel is a Benedictine Abbey, with a village strongly fortified, on a rocky island, surrounded with quicksands, and only accessible at low water. It is sixteen miles S.W. of Avranches, in Normandy. Its situation is highly picturesque; and many chivalrous associations are connected with the place; which, during the fifteenth century, had often been besieged, but unsuccessfully, by the English. From its strong and isolated position, it had probably been chosen for that purpose, and it still continues to be used for a State prison. wrait to the said Johnne, asking his counsall, "Yf thei mycht with saif conscience break thare preasone?" Whose answer was, "That yf without the blood of any sched of spilt by thame for thare deliverance, thei mycht sett thame selfis at fredome, that thei mycht saiflye tak it: but to sched any manes bloode for thare fredome, thairto wold he never consent." Adding farther, "That he was assured that God wold deliver thame, and the rest of that cumpany, evin in the eis583583In MS. G, "eyes." of the world; but not by such meanes as we had looked for, that was by the force of freindis, or by thare other labouris." By such meanes he affirmed thei should nott be delivered, but that God wold so wirk in the deliverance of thame, that the praise thairof should redound to his glorie onlye. He willed, tharefoir, everie one to tack the occasioun that God offerred unto thame, providing that thei committed nothing against Goddis expresse commandiment, for deliverance of thame selves. He was the more earnest in geving his counsall, becaus that the old Larde of Grange,584584See note 202. and otheris, repugned to thare purpoise, fearing least that the eschaping of the otheris should be ane occasioun of thare warse entreatment. Whareunto the said Johnne answered, "That such fear proceided nott from Goddis Spreat, but only from ane blynd luif of the self; and tharefor, that no good purpoise was to be stayed for thingis that war in the handis and power of God." And added, "That in one instant God delivered all that cumpany in the handis of unfaythfull men, but so wald he nott releave thame. But some wald he230 deliver by one meanes, and at one tyme, and otheris must abyd for a season upon his good pleasur." This counsall in the end embrased, upoun the Kinges Evin,585585The King's Even, is evidently meant for the Eve of Epiphany, and the King of the Bean: see footnote to page 51. David Buchanan, aware of this allusion, from his long residence in France, has this marginal illustration: "Le jour de Roys au soir, quand ils crient 'Le Roy boit.'" The mention of this fête may show, that Kirkaldy and his companions had made their escape on the 5th of January, and in the year 1549-50. when French men commonlie use to drynk liberallie, the foirsaid four personis, having the helpe and conducting of a boy of the house, band all those that war in the Castell, putt thame in syndrie houssis, locked the doores upon thame, took the keyis from the Capitane, and departed, without harme done to the persone of any, or without tueching of any thing that apparteaned to the King, the Capitane, or the house.


Great search was maid throweh the hole countrey for thame.586586Sir John Masone, Ambassador for England at the French Court, on the 14th June 1550, says, "Touching the Scots at St. Andrews, he (the Constable of France) told me that the Lord Grange and his brother are flown he wist not whither, and two others were already set at liberty; and that the rest, at the King (Edward VI.) my master's contentation, should out of hand be put at large."—(Tytler's Edward VI., &c., vol. i. p. 295.) But it was Goddis gud pleasur so to conduct thame, that thei eschaped the handis of the faithless, albeit it was with long travaill, and grait pane and povertie susteaned; for the French boy left thame, and took with him the small poise that thei had; and so nether having money, nor knawledge of the countrey, and farther fearing that the boy should discrive thame, (as that in verray dead he did,) thei took purpose587587In Vautr. edit. "they purposed." to devid thame selfis, to change thare garmentis, and to go in sindrie partes. The two brethrein, Williame and Robert Leslyes,588588The names of these brethren are very much overlooked by the different Peerage writers of Scotland, in their pedigrees of the Rothes family. The first marriage of George Earl of Rothes with Margaret Crichton, daughter of William Lord Crichton, was declared before 1524 to be uncanonical. But by this lady, "his affidate spouse," he had four sons: the eldest was George, who died unmarried; the others were Norman, William, and Robert. The reader may be referred to the Appendix of Nisbet's Heraldry, vol. ii. p. 141, to explain the grounds upon which the two latter, as heirs-male, were passed over in the succession, at their father's death, in 1558, when Andrew Lesley, the eldest son by subsequent marriage, and who had married a niece of the Governor the Earl of Arran, became Earl of Rothes. Of these two brethren, William is styled in Macfarlane's Genealogical Collections, "Laird of Cairnie, and, (it is added,) as some say, he died without succession." Bishop Lesley, in noticing the death of Norman Lesley in France, in 1554, says, "The King of France, for recompence of his service, received his eldest brodir William in favour, and maid him gentill man of his chalmer."—(History, p. 249.) Knox's words in the text imply that he was alive in 1566. The other brother Robert, is perhaps the same who was admitted an Advocate in the Court of Session, in May 1537. He settled in Morayshire, in the parish of Spynie, and became founder of the Fendrassie family. He married Janet Elphingstone, a daughter of Robert Lord Elphingstone, and left three sons and two daughters. An inscription, in Latin verse, in the Cathedral Church of Elgin, while it commemorates their virtues and attachment, records that he and his wife were interred in the same grave.—(Monteith's Theatre of Mortality, p. 222, Edinb., 1713, 8vo.) (who now ar become, the said Robert espe231ciall, ennemies to Christ Jesus and to all vertew,) came to Rowane. Williame Kirkcaldy and Petir Carmichael, in beggaris garment, came to Conqwet,589589Le Conquet, a small town of Britanny, with a good harbour, opposite the island of Ushant, sixteen miles west of Brest. and by the space of twelf or threttein weakis, thei travalled as poore marinaris, frome porte to porte, till at lenth thei gat a French schipe, and landed in the Weast, and from thense came to England, whare thei mett befoir thame the said Johne Knox, who that same wynter was delivered, and Alexander Clerk590590He was probably the same person with Alexander Clark of Balbirnie, who became Lord Provost of Edinburgh from 1579 to 1583 inclusive. in his cumpany.

The said Johne591591In this paragraph Knox sums up briefly his own history between February 1548-9, when he was delivered from the French galley, and his first return to Scotland, in the end of harvest 1555. was first appointed preachar to Berwik, then to Newcastell; last he was called to London, and to the sowth partes of England, whare he remaned to the death of King Edwart the Sext.592592Edward died on the 6th July 1553. When he left England, then he passed to Geneva, and thare remaned at his privat study, till that he was called by the Engliss593593The word "English" is omitted in Vautr. edit. congregatioun, that then232 was assembled at Franctfoorde, to be preachear to thame: Which vocatioun he obeyed, (albeit unwillinglye,) at the commandiment of that notable servand of God, Johne Calvyne. At Franctfoord he remaned, till that some of the learned, (whose names we suppress,) moir gevin to unprofitable ceremonies,594594Knox has abstained from entering upon any statement of the disputes which took place in the English congregation at Francfort, in 1554, in consequence of the introduction, by Dr. Coxe and others, of the Book of Common Prayer, and the use of various ceremonies. A short paper by Knox himself, connected with the charge brought against him before the Magistrates of Francfort, has been preserved by Calderwood, (Hist., vol. i. p. 120,) and will naturally fall to be included in Vol. III. of the present work. But a detailed account of the transactions at that time was drawn up and published anonymously, three years after Knox's death, by one of the Nonconformists. It is entitled, "A Brieff Discours off the Troubles begunne at Franckford in Germany, Anno Domini 1554. Abowte the booke off Common Prayer and Ceremonies, and continued by the Englishe men theyre, to thame off Q. Maries Reigne," and was originally published (at Geneva) in 1575, 4to. There is an accurate reprint of it at London, by John Petheram, 1846, 8vo, in which it is suggested, by the Rev. Thomas MʻCrie, with great probability, the author may have been Dr. William Whittingham. then to synceritie of religioun, began to qwerrall with the said Johnne; and becaus thei dispared to prevaill befoir the Magistrat thare, for the establissing of thare corruptionis, thei accused him of treasone committed against the Emperour, and against thare Soverane Quein Marie, that in his Admonitioun to England,595595There were two editions of Knox's Admonition printed in 1554, within a few months of each other, under a fictitious imprint, and both of them abroad, as will be fully described in Vol. III. he called the one lytill inferiour to Nero, and the other more cruell then Jezabell. The Magistrat perceaving thare malice, and fearing that the said Johnne should fall in the handis of his accusatouris, by one meane or by other, gave advertisment secreatlie to him to departe thare citie; for thei could not saif him yf he ware required by the Emperour, or by the Quein of England in the Emperouris name; and so the said Johne returned to Geneva, from thense to Deape, and thairafter to Scotland, as we shall after hear.

The tyme and that wynter that the galayes remaned in Scotland, war233 delivered Maister James Balfour, his twa brethrein, David and Gilbert, Johne Auchinlek, Johnne Sibbald, Johne Gray, William Gutthery, and Stevin Bell.596596In printing these names, Vautr. edit. is very incorrect; instead of John Sibbald, John Gray, William Guthrie, &c., it has "John Sibbard, John Gray, within gathered, and Stevin Bell." Yet this unintelligible nonsense is literally copied in MSS. L 2 and 1. MSS. A, W, and E, have "Sibbard," but give Guthry's name correctly. In the summons of treason against the conspirators, John Sibbald is called "brother of the Laird of Cukiston;" and Auchinleck is styled Sir John Auchinleck, chaplain. For mention of Guthrey, in connexion with an indignity offered to the Cardinal's body, the reader may be referred to Pitscottie. In the Treasurer's Accounts, we find 10s. was paid to a messenger, sent on the 3d of December 1547, with "Letters to serche and seik the gudes of Maister Jhonne Gray, persoun of Sanct Nycholace Kirk, beside Cowper, quhilkis pertenis to our Souerane Lady be resoun of eschete, throu the said Maister Jhonnis being fugitive fra the lawes for art and part of the slauchter of the Cardinall."—Gray's name, however, is not included in the list of persons forfeited by the Parliament on the 14th August 1546. The gentilmen that remaned in preasonis war, by the procurement of the Quein Dowager, to the Cardinall of Lorane and to the King of France, sett at libertie in the moneth of Julij, Anno 1550; who schorte tharefter war called to Scotland,597597From the above paragraph in Knox, it appears that the prisoners were liberated at different periods between the Winter of 1548-9, and July 1550. thare peax proclamed, and thei thame selfis restored to thare landis, in dyspite of thare ennemies. And that was done in hatterent of the Duck, becaus that then France begane to thrist to have the regiment of Scotland in thare awin handis. How soever it was, God maid the heartis of thare ennemyes to sett thame at libertie and fredome. Thare rested a nomber of commoun servandis yitt in the galayes, who war all delivered upoun the contract of peace that was maid betuix France and England, after the tackin of Bullon; and so was the haill cumpany sett at libertie, none perishing,598598This statement of Knox, written in 1566, or twenty years after the event, is certainly very much opposed to assertions which are easier made than proved, that all the persons concerned in Cardinal Beaton's assassination came to a violent death. There is no doubt that Bishop Lesley says, "Cædis ujus auctores violenta morte Deo vindice mulctantur;" (De Rebus Gestis, &c., p. 482;) but he passes this over in silence, in his English History. Dempster also asserts "Nam nullus nefariorum percussorum non violenta morte extinctus est."—(Hist. Eccles. p. 89.) "So, 'tis observed by the Protestants, that there was not one of his (Beaton's) murderers but afterwards died a violent, and, for the most part, an ignominious death."—(Preface to Beaugué's History, p. 50.) It is not necessary to quote similar assertions reiterated by writers of the present day. James Melville died, it is true, during his imprisonment, in 1548 or 1549, but certainly not a violent death. Norman Lesley died of his wounds, but in no inglorious manner, in 1554; and nineteen years later, in August 1573, Sir William Kirkaldy of Grange, after his gallant defence of the Castle of Edinburgh, suffered an ignominious death. Any other instance of a violent death remains to be proven. (no nott befoir the world,)234 except James Melvin, who departed from the miserie of this lyif in the Castell of Byrst in Bartainzea.599599James Melvin or Melville. See note 449. Spotiswood says he was "one of the house of Carnbee." In this way, we may conjecture he was brother of John Mailvile of Carnbee, who had charters of the lands of Granton, 21st February 1508-9, and to his wife Margaret Leirmonth, 26th May 1513. Their son, John Mailvile of Carnbee junior, and his wife Janet Inglis, had a charter of half of these lands, 26th June 1509. The person who acted such a prominent part in Cardinal Beaton's murder, was called Senior, probably to distinguish him from James, "naturali et legitimo filio" of John Mailvile of Carnbee, who had a charter of half the lands of Carnbee, 15th November 1528.—Brist in Bartanzea, is the same as Brest, the well known sea-port of France, one of the best harbours in Europe, on the west coast of Britanny.


This we wryte to lett the posteriteis to come understand, how potentlye God wrought in preserving and delivering of these that had butt a small knowledge of his trewth, and for the luif of the same hasarded all; that yf that eyther we now in our dayis, having grettar lycht, or our posteriteis that shall follow us, shall see ane fearfull dispersioun of such as oppone thame selfis to impietie, or tack upoun thame to punishe the same, otherwiese then lawis of men will permite: yf, (we say,) we or thei600600MS. G, "Gif we, I say, or they." shall see such left of men, yea, as it war, dispyssed and punished of God; yit lett us nott dampne the personis that punish vice, (and that for just caussis;) nor yitt dispare, butt that the same God that dejectes, (for causes unknawin to us,) will raise up agane the personis dejected,235 to his glorye and thare conforte. And to lett the world understand in plane termes what we meane, that great abusar of this commoun wealth, that pultron and vyle knave Davie, was justlie punished, the nynt of Merch, in the year of God601601In Vautr. edit. "yeare of our Lord." Jm. Vc. threscore fyve, for abusing of the commoun wealth, and for his other villany,602602In Vautr. edit. the word villain was mistaken for the name of a person, and thus we have "his other William;" and in the marginal note, "The slaughter of that Williame Davie."—The date of this event, so memorable in Scotish history, from its relation to Queen Mary, was the 9th of March 1565-6. which we list nott to express, by the counsall and handis of James Dowglas, Erle of Morton, Patrik Lord Lyndesay, and the Lord Ruthven, with otheris assistaris in thare cumpany, who all, for thare just act, and most worthy of all praise, ar now unworthely left of thare brethrein, and suffer the bitterness of banishement and exyle. But this is our hope in the mercyes of our God, that this same blynd generatioun, whither it will or nott, shalbe compelled to see that he will have respect to thame that ar injustlye persewed; that he will apardoun thare formar offenses; that he will restore thame to the libertie of thare countrey and common wealth agane; and that he will punish, (in dispyte of man,) the head and the taill, that now trubles the just, and manteanes impietie. THE REULARIS OF MARY, ANNO 1566, AND THAIRE PREDICTIOUN The head is knawin: the taill hes two branches; the temporall Lordis that manteane hir abhominationis, and hir flattering counsallouris, blasphemous Balfour, now called Clerk of Register,603603Balfour, as stated at page 202, was Official of Lothian, and he still retained his ecclesiastical denomination, Parson of Flisk, when raised to the bench, 12th November 1561. Immediately after Rizzio's murder, in March 1566, he was knighted, and appointed Lord Clerk-Register, in place of Mr. James Macgill, one of the conspirators. And on the 6th December 1567, Balfour became Lord President, by the title of Pettendreich. Sinclar Deane of Restalrige and Bischope of Brechin, blynd of ane eie in the body, but of boithe in his saule,604604John Sinclair, Bishop of Brechin, died in April 1560: see subsequent note. upoun whome God schortlie236 after took vengeance; [John605605The person here referred to, and whose baptismal name is left blank in the MS., and in all the later copies, was John Lesley, Bishop of Ross. This eminent and learned Prelate, whom Knox calls "a priest's gett," or illegitimate child, was the natural son of Gawin Lesley, parson of Kingussie, as Keith, in his Catalogue of Bishops, has shown from original documents. Lesley's several preferments will afterwards be noticed. He survived till the year 1596.] Leslye, preastis gett,606606In Vautr. edit. "gate;" MS. G, "geitt." Abbot of Londorse and Bischope of Ross, Symon Preastoun of Craigmyllare,607607Sir Symon Preston of Craigmillar: see note 322. a right epicureane, whose end wilbe, or it be long, according to thare warkis. Butt now to returne to our Historye.

Haddingtoun being keapt,608608In the MS. "keape." and much hearschipe done about in the countrey, (for what the Engliss men destroyed nott, that was consumed by the French,) God begynnis to feght for Schotland; for in the toun he send a peast so contagious, that with great difficultie could thei have thare dead buryed. Thei war oft refresched with new men, but all was in vane. Hunger and pest within, and the persuyt of the ennemy with a campe volant lay about thame, and intercepted all victuallis, (except when thei war brought by ane convoy from Berwik,) so constrayned thame that the Counsall of England was compelled in spring tyme to call thare forses from that place; and so spuilzeing and burnyng some parte of the toune, thei left it to be occupyed to such as first should tack possessioun,—and those war the Frenchmen, with a meane nomber of the ancient inhabitantis. And so did God performe the woordis and threatnyng of his servand, Maister George Wisharte, who said, "That for thare contempt of Goddis messinger, thei should be visited with sweard and fyre, with pestilence, strangearis, and famyne;" which all thei fand in such perfectioun, that to this day yitt, that toune hes neyther re237covered the formar beautie, nor yit men of such wisdome and habilitie, as then did inhabite it.

Hearafter was Peace contracted betuix France and England and Scotland;609609A treaty of peace between England and France, comprising Scotland, was concluded at Boulogne, on the 24th March, and proclaimed at Edinburgh in April 1550. yea, a severall Peace was contracted betuix Scotland and Flanderis, togetther with all the Easterlingis; so that Scotland had peace with the world.610610There was concluded a commercial treaty between France and the Low Countries, 26th April 1550; and a treaty of peace between the Emperor Charles the Fifth and Mary Queen of Scots, 15th December 1550. Butt yitt wold thare Bischopcs maik warr against God; for how sone that ever thei gat any qwyetness, thei apprehended Adame Wallace,611611From Foxe's account, of Wallace's trial, we learn that he was a native of Fail, in Ayrshire; and there was a family of Wallace of Feale. Fail, or Failford, in the parish of Torbolton, was the site of a Monastery founded in 1252, which belonged to the Red Friars. (See the notices in New Stat. Account, Ayrshire, p. 748, &c.) The manner in which Knox speaks of Wallace as "a simple man without learning," may mean, without much pretension to learning, or not having enjoyed a learned education. Yet we find two persons of the same name, Adam Wallace, incorporated at Glasgow in 1536 and 1539.—His trial and execution took place in 1550; yet in the Latin verses by John Johnston of St. Andrews, on the Scotish Martyrs, the date given is 17th July 1549. ("Constantissime demum pro testimonio Christi mortuus, Edinburgi xvii Julij 1549.") alias Fean, a sempill man, without great learnyng, but ane that was zelous in godlynes and of ane uprycht lyeff. He, with his wyif Beatrice Levingstoun, frequented the cumpany of the Lady Ormestoun,612612The wife of John Cockburn of Ormiston, called in those days Lady Ormiston, was Alison Sandilands, daughter of Sir James Sandilands of Calder. Her son Alexander, was Knox's pupil: see note [472. She was still alive in 1584, when Vautrollier dedicated "To the Honourable and vertuous Ladie Alison Sandilands, Lady of Hormiston," the treatise called "The Confession of Faith," by Henry Balnaves, (see note [575,) the MS. of which had been fortunately discovered at Ormiston, by Richard Bannatyne, Knox's Secretary. for instructioun of hir childrein, during the truble of hir husband, who then was banissed. This bastard, called Bischope of Sanctandrois, took the said Adame furth of the place of Wyntoun,613613Winton Castle, in the parish of Pencaitland, East Lothian, about five miles west from Haddington, appears to have been a place of great splendour, according to the glowing description of it by Sir Richard Maitland, in his "Historie and Cronicle of the House of Seyton," p. 35. Winton House or Castle, "biggit, with the yard and garding thereof," by George second Lord Seaton, we are informed, was burned, and the policy destroyed, "by the English of old;" but the house was re-edified by George tenth Lord Seaton, and third Earl of Winton, in 1620. (men supposed that238 thei thowght to have apprehended the Lard,) and caryed him to Edinburgh; whare, after certane dayis, he was presented to judgement in the Kirk of the Blak thevis alias Freiris,614614The monastery of the Dominican or Black Friars was one of the largest establishments in Edinburgh, with extensive gardens, occupying the site of the building which formerly was the High School, on the rising ground to the south of the Cowgate. The close, or "le Venelle," still known as the Blackfriars Wynd, formed a connexion between the Monastery and the High Street, and had been granted to the Friars by Alexander the Second. The Convent was burned to the ground by a sudden fire, on the 25th April 1528, and had only been partially rebuilt at the time of the Reformation. befoir the Duik, the Erle of Huntley, and diverse otheris besydis, the Bischoppes and thare rable. Thei begyn to accuse him, (Maister Johnne Lauder615615To the notices at page 152, respecting John Lauder, it may be added, that being one of the Auditors of the Chamberlain's Accounts for the Archbishoprick of St. Andrews, from 1540 to 1549, he is styled Archdeacon of Teviotdale.—(MS. Rental Book, Advocates Library.) In Foxe's account of the trial of Adam Wallace, 1550, Lauder is called Parson of Morebattle. In February 1551, he is styled Archidene of Teviotdale, and Notary Public of St. Andrews.—(Acta Parl. Scot., vol. ii. p. 489.) In the same year, Lauder signs a deed as "Secretarius" of Archbishop Hamilton, (MS. Rental Book, at St. Andrews;) as the deed referred to was cancelled, and reconfirmed in 1556, without any notice of Lauder's name, it may be conjectured that he had died during that interval. was Accusatour,) THE ACCUSATIOUN OF ADAME WALLACE AND HIS ANSWERIS "That he took upoun him to preach." He answered, "That he never judged himself worthy of sa excellent a vocatioun, and tharefoir he never took upoun him to preach; but he wold not deny, butt sometymes at the table, and sometymes in other prevey places, he wald reid, and had red the Scriptures, and had gevin such exhortatioun as God pleaseth to geve to him, to such as pleased to hear him." THE PAPISTICALL MANER OF ACCUSATIOUN "Knave, (quod ane,) what have ye to do to medle with the Scriptures?" "I think, (said he,) it is the dewitie of everie Christiane to seak the will of his God, and the assurance of239 his salvatioun, whare it is to be found, and that is within his Old and New Testament." "What then, (said ane other,) shall we leave to the Bischoppis and Kirkmen to do, yf everie man shalbe a babler upoun the Byble?" "It becumith616616In MS. G, "bindeth." yow, (said he,) to speak more reverentlie of God, and of his blessed worde: Yf the judge war uncorrupt, he wald punish yow for your blasphemye. But to your questioun, I answer, That albeit ye and I, and other fyve thowsand within this realme, should read the Byble, and speak of it what God should geve us to speak, yitt left we more to the Bischoppes to do, nor eyther thei will or yit can weill do; for we leave to thame publictly to preach the Evangell of Jesus Christ, and to fead the flock, which he hath redeamed by his awin bloode, and hes commanded the same to the cayre of all trew pastouris. And when we leave this unto thame, me think we leave to thame a heavy burdein; and that we do unto thame na wrong, althowght we search our awin salvatioun whare it is to be found, considdering that thei ar but dum doggis, and unsavery salt, that hes altogither lost the seasson." The Bischoppes heirat offended, said, "What pratting is this? Lett his accusatioun be redd."

And than was begun, "False tratour, heretik, thow baptised thy awin barne: Thow said, thare is no Purgatorie: Thow said, that to pray to Sanctes and for the dead is idolatrie and a vane superstitioun, &c. What sayis thow of these thinges?" He answered, "Yf I should be bound to answer, I wold requyre an uprycht and indifferent judge." The Erle of Hunteley617617George Gordon, fourth Earl of Huntley, succeeded his grandfather in the year 1524. In 1546, after Cardinal Beaton's death, he became Lord High Chancellor. His subsequent history is well known; and he was killed fighting against the Earl of Murray, at Corrichie, about twelve miles from Aberdeen, 28th October 1562.—(Douglas and Wood's Peerage, vol. i. p. 648; Senators of the College of Justice, p. 83-87.) disdanefullie said, "Foolishe man,240 wilt thow desyre ane uther judge nor my Lorde Dukis Grace, great Governour of Scotland, and my Lordis the Bischoppes, and the Clargy hear present?" Whairto he answered, "The Bischoppes can be no judges to me; for thei ar oppen ennemyes to me and to the doctrin that I professe. And as for my Lord Duck, I can not tell yf he hes the knowledge that should be in him that should judge and decerne betuix lyes and the trewth, the inventionis of men and the trew wirschipping of God. I desyre Goddis word (and with that he produced the Byble) to be judge betuix the Bischoppes and me, and I am content that ye all hear, and yf by this book, I salbe convict to have tawght, spokin, or done, in materis of religioun, any thing that repugnes to Goddis will, I refuise not to dye; but yf I can nott be convict, (as I am assured by Goddis woord I sall nott,) then I in Goddis name desyre your assistance, that malicious men execut not upoun me injust tyranny." The Erle of Hunteley said, "What a babling foole is this? Thow shalt gett none other judges then those that sitt heir." Wharunto the said Adam ansured, "The good will of God be done. But be ye assured, my Lord, with sic measur as ye mett to otheris, with the same measur it shalbe mett to yow agane. I know that I shall dye, but be ye assured, that my blood shalbe requyred of your handis."


Alexander Erle of Glencarne,618618See note 173. yitt alyve, said to the Bischope of Orknay,619619Robert Reid: see subsequent note. and otheris that satt ney him, "Tack yow yon, my Lordis of the Clargye;620620In Vautr. edit. "Take yon all, my Lordis, of the clergie." for hear I protest, for my parte, that I consent nott to his death." And so, without fear, prepared the said Adam to answer. And first, to the baptising of his awin child, he said, "It was and is als lauchfull to me, for lack of a trew minister, to baptise241 my awin child, as that it was to Abraham to circumcise his sone Ismael and his familie. And as for Purgatorie, praying to Sanctes, and for the dead, I have oft redd, (said he,) boith the New and Old Testamentis, but I nether could find mentioun nor assurance of thame; and tharefoir, I beleve, that thei ar but mear inventionis of men, devised for covetousnes saik." "Weall, (quod the Bischope,) ye hear this, my Lordis." "What sayis thow of the Messe?" spearis the Erle of Huntley. He ansuered, "I say, my Lord, as my master Jesus Christ sayis, 'That which is in greatast estimatioun befoir men, is abomination befoir God.'" LUCÆ. [16.] Then all cryed out, "Heresye! heresye!" And so was the sempill servand of God adjudged to the fyre; which he patientlie susteaned that same day, at after nune, upoun the Castell-hill.621621Foxe, in his Book of Martyrs, as already noticed in note 457, has given a minute account of the trial and execution of Adam Wallace. It will be inserted as No. XII. in the Appendix to this volume, every contemporary narrative of such proceedings, at this early period, being possessed of more than ordinary interest.

And so began thei agane to pollute the land, which God had laitlie plagued; for yitt thare iniquitie was nott come to so full rypnes, as that God wold that thei should be manifested to this hole realme, (as this day thei ar,) to be faggottis prepared for the everlesting fyre, and to be men whome nether plagues may correct, nor the light of Goddis woorde converte from thare darknes and impietie.

The Peace, as said is, contracted, the Quein Dowager past by sea to France, with galayes,622622The Queen Dowager of Scotland embarked at Leith on the 7th, reached Dieppe on the 19th, and Rouen on the 25th September 1550. In this visit to her daughter in France, she was absent for upwards of twelve months. On her return, she landed at Portsmouth, about the middle of October 1551, and proceeded to London, where she was welcomed by Edward the Sixth and the English Court. See note 627. that for that purpose war prepared, and took with hir diverse of the nobilitie of Scotland, to witt, the Erles Huntley, Glencarne, Marschell, Cassilles, the Lordis Maxwell, Fleyming, Schir George Dowglass,242 togither with all the Kinges Sonnes, and diverse baronis and gentillmen of ecclesiasticall estait, the Bischope of Galloway, and many otheris, with promisses that thei should be richely rewarded for thare good service. What thei receaved we can nott tell; but few maid ruse at thare returnyng. The Dowager had to practise somewhat with hir brethrein, the Duck of Gueise, and the Cardinall of Lorane, the weght wharof the Governour after felt: for schortly after hir returnyng, was the Governour deposed of the governement, (justly by God, but most injustly by men,) and she maid Regent in the year of God Jm. Vc. fyfty four;623623In December 1553, Henry the Second, King of France, wrote to the Duke of Chatelherault, to induce him to resign the Regency of Scotland in favour of the Queen Dowager; and on the 22d March 1553-4, the young Queen addressed an order to the Duke to that effect. This led to his resignation, and on the 12th April 1554, Mary of Guise, Queen Dowager, was proclaimed Regent of Scotland, with great solemnity and public rejoicings. and a croune putt upone hir head, als seimlye a sight, (yf men had eis,) as to putt a sadill upoun the back of ane unrewly kow. And so began she to practise practise upoun practise, how France mycht be advanced, hir freindis maid riche, and sche brought to immortall glorie: for that was hir commoun talk, "So that I may procure the wealth and honour of my freindis, and a good fame unto my self, I regard nott what God do after with me." And in verray deid, in deap dissimulatioun, to bring hir awin purpose to effect, sche passed the commoun sorte of wemen, as we will after heare. Butt yit God, to whose Evangell she declared hir self ennemye, in the end frustrat hir of all hir devises.


Thus did light and darknes stryve within the realme of Scotland; the darknes ever befoir the world suppressing the light, from the death of that notable servand of God, Maister Patrik Hammyltoun, unto the death of Edwarde the Saxt, that most godly and most verteous King that hath bein knowin to have rounge in England, or elles whare, these many243 yearis bypast, who departed the miserie of this lyef the vj of Julij, Anno, &c., 1553. The death of this Prince was lamented of all the godly within Europe; for the graces gevin unto him of God, as weall of nature as of eruditioun and godlines, passed the measur that accustomablye useth to be gevin to other Princes in thare grettast perfectioun, and yitt exceaded he nott sextein yearis of aige. What gravitie abuf age, what wisdome passing all expectatioun of man,624624In MS. G, and Vautr. edit., "all understanding or expectatioun of men." and what dexteritie in answering in all thingis proponed, war into that excellent Prince, the Ambassadouris of all countreeis, (yea, some that war mortall ennemyes to him and to his realme, amonges whome the Quein Dowager of Scotland was not the least,) could and did testifie; for the said Quein Dowager, returnyng from France throwght England, commoned with him at lenth,625625According to the Journal by the English Monarch, which contains a description of the Queen Dowager's sumptuous entertainment during the period she remained at the Court of Edward, from the 22d of October to the 6th of November 1551.—(Tytler's Edward VI., &c., vol. ii. pp. 5, 6.) Bishop Lesley also takes notice of the "gret banqueting and honorabill pastyme maid for intertenement of the Quene Douarier;" and "of the honorabill convoye" she had in returning through England, until she reached Berwick, (Hist. p. 239;) when some of the Scotish Nobility escorted her to Holyrood, where she arrived at the end of November that year. and gave record when sche came to this Realme, "That sche fand more wisdome and solidd judgement in young King Edward, then she wold have looked for in any three Princes that war then in Europe." His liberalitie towardis the godly and learned, that war in other realmes persecuted, was such as Germanes, Frenchmen, Italianes, Scottis, Spainzardis, Polonianes, Grecianis, and Hebrewis borne, can yitt geve sufficient document; for how honorablie war Martyn Buceir,626626In MS. G, "Martin Luther." Petir 244Martyre, Joannes Alasco, ...627627In the MS. a blank space is left, as if for the purpose of filling in some other names; such as Paulus Fagius, Francis Dryander, and Justus Jonas, who, like the three above mentioned, were eminent Foreign divines, and came to England during the reign of Edward the Sixth. Emanuel Gualterus,628628In adding the name Emanuel Gualterus, Knox has evidently confounded two persons: Emanuel Tremelius, a learned Italian, who succeeded Fagius as King's Reader of Hebrew, (Strype's Eccl. Memorials, vol. ii. p. 206,) and Rudolphus Gualterus of Zurich, who had visited England in 1537.—(Strype's Life of Cranmer, p. 449.)—Martin Bucer died in 1551; Peter Martyr, in 1562; and John a Lasco, in 1560. and many otheris, upoun his publict stipendis interteaned, thare patentis can witnesse, and thei thame selfis during thare lyffis wold never have denyed.

After the death of this most verteous Prince, of whome the godless people of England, (for the most parte,) was nott worthy, Sathan intended nothing less then the light of Jesus Christ utterly to have bein extinguissed, within the hole Ile of Britannye; for after him was rased up, in Goddis hote displeasur, that idolatress Jesabel, mischevous Marie, of the Spaynyardis bloode;629629It is scarcely necessary to add that Queen Mary of England was the daughter of Henry the Eighth, by Catharine of Arragon. Her accession to the throne is reckoned from the death of Edward the Sixth, 6th July 1553. She married Philip, King of Spain, 25th July 1554; and died 17th November 1558. a cruell persecutrix of Goddis people, as the actes of hir unhappy regne can sufficiently witnesse.630630During the short reign of Queen Mary, it has been reckoned that not less than upwards of 300 persons were committed to the flames, on account of their religious sentiments. And in to Scotland, that same tyme, (as we have hard,631631See page 242.) rang that crafty practisar, Marie of Lorane, then named Regent of Scotland; who, bound to the devotioun of hir two brethrein, the Duck of Gueise, and Cardinall of Lorane, did onlye abyd the oportunitie to cutt the throttis of all those in whome she suspected any knowledge of God to be, within the realme of Scotland. And so thought Sathan, that his kingdome of darkness was in qwietness and rest, asweall in the one realme, as in the other: but that provident eie of the Eternall our God, who continually watches for preservatioun of his Church, did so dispone all thingis, that Sathane schorte after fand him self far disapointed of his conclusioun tackin. For in that cruell persecutioun, used by that monstour, Marie of England,245 war godlie men dispersed in diverse nationis, of whom it pleaseth the goodnes of our God to send some unto us, for our conforte and instructioun.


And first cam a sempill man, Williame Harlaw,632632William Harlaw was born soon after the year 1500; and, as we are informed by Calderwood, "first was a taylour in Edinburgh; thereafter went to England, and preached some times as a Deacoun, according to the corrupt custome of that Kirk, under the reigne of King Edward. Howbeit he was not verie learned, yet his doctrine was plaine and sound, and worthie of commendatioun."—(History, vol. i. p. 303.) On the death of Edward, he returned to Scotland in 1551, and in 1556, began "publicly to exhort in Edinburgh," and also in other parts of the country. He was one of the preachers, at Perth, who were denounced as rebels for usurping the authority of the Church, 10th May 1559.—(See page 257.) Harlaw, in 1560, became minister of the parish of St. Cuthberts, in the vicinity of Edinburgh, and he continued there till his death. Robert Pont, who had for four years been his colleague, was presented to "the vicaraige of St. Cuthbert's Kirk, vaicand be the deceise of William Harlaw," in December 1578. whose eruditioun, althowght it excell nott, yit for his zeill, and diligent plainess in doctrin, is he to this day worthy of praise, and remanes a fruitfull member within the Church of Scotland. After him cam that notable man, Johne Willok,633633John Willock was a native of Ayrshire. Spotiswood says, he became a Franciscan, and Lesley, a Dominican Friar. Having at an early period relinquished his monastic habit, he went to England, and was employed as a preacher in St. Catherine's, London, and also as chaplain to the Duke of Suffolk. On the accession of Queen Mary to the throne of England, he escaped to the Continent, and practised as a physician at Embden, in Friesland. In 1555, and in 1556, he twice visited Scotland, on a mission to the Queen Regent, respecting trade; and having returned in October 1558, he undertook the public office of the ministry. See the notices in the Wodrow Miscellany, vol. i. pp. 261-264, and the authorities there quoted. as one that had some commissioun to the Quein Regent, from the Duchess of Emden. Butt his principall purpose was to assay what God wald wirk by him in his native countrey. These two did sometymes, in severall cumpanyes, assemble the brethrein, who by thare exhortationis begane greatlie to be encoraged, and did schaw that thei had ane earnest thrist of godlines.


And last came Johne Knox,634634Knox's arrival in Scotland may be placed about the end of September 1555. He set out from Geneva in the previous month, and came to Dieppe, from whence he sailed, and landed on the east coast of Scotland, not far from Berwick. in the end of the harvest, in246 the year of God Jm. Vc. fyfty fyve; who first being loodged in the house of that notable man of God, James Syme, begane to exhorte secreatly in that same house; whareunto repared the Lard of Dun, David Forress, and some certane personages of the toune, amonges whome was Elizabeth Adamsoun, then spous to James Barroun,635635see note 700. burges of Edinburgh, who be reasson that she had a trubled conscience, delyted much in the cumpany of the said Johne, becaus that he, according to the grace gevin unto him, opened more fullie the fontane of Goddis mercyes, then did the commoun sorte of teachearis that sche had hard befoir, (for sche had heard none except Freiris,) and did with such gredynes drynk thairof, that at hir death she did expresse the frute of hir hearing, to the great conforte of all those that repared to hir; for albeit that she sufferred most grevous torment in hir body, yitt out of hir mouth was heard nothing but praising of God, except that somtymes she wold lament the trubles of those that war trubled by hir. Being somtymes demanded by hir Sisteris, "What she thought of that pane, which she than sufferred in body, in respect of that wharewith sometymes she was trubled in spreit?" She ansuered, "A thowsand year of this torment, and ten tymes more joyned unto it, is not to be compared to the qwarter of ane hour that I sufferred in my spreit. I thank my God, throught Jesus Christ, that hes delivered me from that most fearfull pane; and welcome be this, evin so long as it pleassed his godlie Majestie to exercise me thairwith." A litill befoir hir departuyre, she desyred hir Sisteris, and some otheris that war besyd hir, to sing a psalme, and amonges others, she appointed the 103. Psalme, begynnyng, "My saule praise thow the Lord alwyes;"636636This was apparently a metrical version of Psalm 103, but the line does not correspond with any of the known versions of the Psalms in metre. The Wedderburns, however, may have versified a greater number of Psalms than those contained in the volume best known as "The Gude and Godly Ballates:" see note 370.247 which ended, sche said, "At the teaching of this Psalme, begane my trubled soule first effectually to taist of the mercy of my God, which now to me is more sweat and precious, then637637In MS. A, "then if all." all the kingdomes of the earth war gevin to me to possesse thame a thowsand yearis." The Preastis urged hir with thare ceremonies and superstitionis; to whome she answered, "Depart from me, ye sergeantis638638In MS. G, "servantis." of Sathan; for I have refused, and in your awin presence do refuise, all your abominationis. That which ye call your Sacrament and Christes body, (as ye have deceaved us to beleve in tymes past,) is nothing but ane idole, and hes nothing to do with the rycht institutioun of Jesus Christ; and thairfor, in Goddis name, I command yow nott to truble me." Thei departed, allegeing, That she raved, and wist not what sche said. And she short thereafter sleapt in the Lord Jesus, to no small conforte of those that saw hir blessed departing. This we could nott omitt of this wourthy woman, who gave sa notable a confessioun, befoir that the great lycht of Goddis word did universallie schyne throwght this realme.

At the first cuming of the said Johne Knox, he perceaving diverse who had a zeall to godlynes maik small scrupill to go to the Messe, or to communicat with the abused Sacramentis in the Papisticall maner, begane alsweall in privy conferance as in doctrin, to schaw the impietie of the Messe, and how dangerous a thing it was to communicat in any sort with idolatrie. Wharewith the conscience of some being effrayed, the mater began to be agitat fra man to man, and so was the said Johne called to suppar by the Lard of Dun, for that same purpose, whare war conveaned David Forress, Maister Robert Lockart, Johne Willock, and Williame Maitland of Lethingtoun youngar, a man of good learnyng, and of scharpe witt and reassonyng. The questioun was proponed, and it was answered by the said Johne, "That no-wyise it was lauch248full to a Christiane to present him self to that idoll." Nothing was omitted that mycht maik for the temperisar,639639In Vautr. edit. "that might serve for the purpose." and yitt was everie head so fullie ansuered, and especially one whairinto thei thought thare great defence stood, to wit, "That Paule at the commandiment of James, and of the eldaris of Jerusalem, passed to the tempill and fanzeid him self to pay his vow with otheris." This, we say, and otheris, war so fullye ansuered, that Williame Maitland concluded, saying, "I see perfytlye, that our schiftis will serve nothing befoir God, seing that thei stand us in so small stead befoir man." The answer of Johne Knox to the fact of Paule, and to the commandiment of James, was, "That Paule's fact had nothing to do with thare going to the Messe; for to pay vowes was sometymes Goddis commandiment, and was never idolatrie: but thare Messe, from the originall, was and remaned odiouse idolatrie; tharefor the factes war moist unlyik. Secundarly, (said he,) I greatly dowbt whitther eyther James's commandiment or Paule's obedience proceaded frome the Holy Ghost. We knaw thare counsall tended to this, That Paule should schaw him self one that observed the verray small pointes of the law, to the end that he mycht purchase to him the favouris of the Jewes, who war offended at him be reassone of the bruittis that war sparsed, that he tawght defectioun from Moses. Now, whill he obeyed thare counsall, he fell into the most disperat danger that ever he susteaned befor, whareof it was evident, that God approved nott that meane of reconciliatioun; but rather that he plainelie declaired, 'That evill should not be done that good mycht come of it.' Evill it was to Paule to confirme those obstinat Jewes in thare superstitioun by his exampill; worse it was to him to expone him self, and the doctrin which befoir he had tawght, to sklander and mockage; and tharefoir, (concluded the said Johne,) that the fact of Paule, and the seqwell that tharof followed, ap249peired rather to feght against thame that wold go to the Messe, than to geve unto thame any assurance to follow his example, onless that thei wold, that the lyik truble should instantlye apprehend thame that apprehended him, for obeying worldly wyise counsall." After these and lyik reassonynges, the Messe began to be abhorred of such as befoir used it for the fassioun, and avoiding of sclander, (as then thei termed it.)

Johne Knox, at the request of the Lard of Dun,640640John Erskine of Dun.—The house of Dun is in the parish of that name, in Forfarshire, about half-way between Montrose and Brechin. followed him to his place of Dun, whare he remaned a moneth, dalye exercised in doctrin, whairunto resorted the principall men of that countrey. After his returnyng, his residence was most in Calder,641641Calder house, near Mid-Calder, in West-Lothian, was the seat of Sir James Sandilands.—His second son James, in 1543, succeeded "Schir Walter Lyndesay, Knycht of the Roddis, and Lord of Sanct Johns," (he is so styled in Sir David Lyndesay's Register of Armes, 1542, fol. 57,) as Preceptor of Torphichen, and thus became head of the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem in Scotland. In 1563, Lord St. John having resigned the possessions of the Order to the Crown, he obtained a new charter of the lands belonging to the Knights Templars and Hospitallers in Scotland, erected into a barony, with the title of Lord Torphichen.—(Spottiswoode Miscellany, vol. ii. pp. 6, 17-32.) whare repared unto him the Lord Erskin that now is,642642John fifth Lord Erskine, and afterwards sixth Earl of Mar, at this time was Governor of Edinburgh Castle. the Erle of Argyle, then Lord of Lorne,643643Archibald Campbell, Lord Lorne, succeeded his father, the fourth Earl of Argyle, in 1558. and Lord James, then Priour of Sanctandrois,644644   Lord James Stewart was the natural son of James the Fifth, by Margaret Erskine, daughter of John fifth Earl of Mar, and fourth Lord Erskine. This lady afterwards married Sir Robert Douglas of Lochleven; and she appears to have enjoyed a pension from the King; as the Treasurer, in September 1539, in his "Exoneratio," has, "Item, gevin to the Lady Lochlevin, in contentatioun of her pensioun, awing to her zerelie, be ane precept,
    vjclxvj lib. xiij s. iiij d." (£666, 13s. 4d.)

    Her son Lord James Stewart was born in 1533, and when five years of age, in 1538, the King conferred on him the Priory of St. Andrews. In the Treasurer's Accounts, March 1539, are various entries for dresses to the Kingis Grace sonis, Lord James of Kelso, and Lord James of Sanctandrois; and in May, to "the Abbot of Kelso, and the Priour of Sanctandrois." He was also Prior of Maçon, in France. As Prior of St. Andrews, he sat in the Provincial Council held at Edinburgh, in October 1549.—(Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iv. p. 46.) He was sent to France in March 1561, to invite Queen Mary to return to Scotland; by whom, on the 30th January 1561-2, he was raised to the Peerage by the title of Earl of Murray.
and now Erle of Murray; whare250 thei hard and so approved his doctrin, that thei wissed it to have bein publict. That same wynter645645That is, the winter of 1555. he tawght commonly in Edinburgh; and after the Youle, by the conduct of the Lard of Barr, and Robert Campbell of Kingyeancleucht, he came to Kyle,646646Most of these places in Kyle, in which Knox taught or officiated, have already been noticed; being the seats of John Lockhart of Barr, Hugh Wallace of Carnell, Robert Campbell of Kingyeancleuch, Andrew Stewart Lord Ochiltree, and James Chalmers of Gadgirth. and tawght in the Barr, in the house of the Carnell, in the Kingyeancleuch, in the toune of Air, and in the houssis of Uchiltrie, and Gathgyrth, and in some of thame ministrat the Lordis Table. Befoir the Pasche,647647Easter fell on the 5th of April, in 1556. the Erle of Glencarne send for him to his place of Fynlastoun;648648Finlayston in the parish of Kilmalcolm, near the Clyde, to the east of Port-Glasgow. The silver cups which were used by Knox on this occasion, are still carefully preserved; and the use of them was given at the time of dispensing the Sacrament in the Parish Church of Kilmalcolm, so long as the Glencairn family resided at Finlayston.—The title of Earl of Glencairn has been dormant since the death of James 15th Earl in 1796. whare, after doctrin, he lyikwiese ministrat the Lordis Table, whairof besydis him self war parttakaris, his Lady, two of his sonnis, and certane of his freindis; and so returned he to Calder, whare diverse frome Edinburgh, and frome the countrey about, convened, asweall for the doctrin, as for the rycht use of the Lordis Table, which befoir thei had never practised. From thense he departed the secound tyme to the Lard of Dun; and teiching then in grettar libertie, the gentilmen required that he should ministrat lyikwiese unto thame the Table of the Lord Jesus, whairof war partakaris the moist parte of the gentilmen of the Mernse; who, God be praised, to this day constantlie do remane in the same doctrin which then thei professed, to witt, that thei refuissed all societie with idolatrie,251 and band thame selfis,649649Dr. MʻCrie, on the authority of this passage, says, that most of the gentlemen of the Mearns "entered into a solemn and mutual bond, in which they renounced the Popish communion, and engaged to maintain and promote the pure preaching of the Gospel, as Providence should favour them with opportunities. This seems to have been the first of those religious Bonds or Covenants, by which the confederation of the Protestants in Scotland was so frequently ratified."—(Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 179.)—I do not think, however, that Knox's words are quite conclusive on this point: that the mutual agreement or resolution of the gentlemen of the Mearns, had assumed the form of a Band or Covenant, such as "the Common Band," signed on the 3d December 1557, (see page 273,) or those of a later date, which Knox has inserted in the Second Book of his History. to the uttermost of thare poweris, to manteane the trew preaching of the Evangell of Jesus Christ, as God should offer unto thame preachearis and oportunitie.

The bruyt heirof sparsed, (for the Freiris from all qwarteris flokked to the Bischoppes,) the said Johne Knox was summond to compeir in the Kirk of the Black Freiris in Edinburgh, the xv day of Maij [1556,] which day the said Johne decread to keape; and for that purpose Johne Erskin of Dun, with diverse otheris gentilmen, convened to the toune of Edinburgh. Butt that dyet held nott; for whitther that the Bischoppis perceaved informalitie in thare awin proceidyngis, or yf thei feared danger to ensew upoun thare extremitie, it was unknown unto us. But the Setterday befoir the day appointed, thei caist thare awin summondis; and the said Johne, the same day of the summondis, tawght in Edinburgh in a greattar audience then ever befoir he had done in that toune: The place was the Bischope of Dunkellis his great loodgeing, whare he continewed in doctrin ten dayis, boyth befoir and after nune. The Erle of Glencarne allured the Erle Merschall,650650William Keith, fourth Earl Marischall, succeeded his grandfather, in 1530. He accompanied James the Fifth in his visit to France, in 1536; and was nominated an Extraordinary Lord of Session in 1541. See note 339, for Sir Ralph Sadler's opinion of him. It was at his request that Knox, in the year 1556, addressed his Letter to the Queen Dowager. He died 7th October 1581. who with Harye Drummound,651651We find that at the siege of Leith, in 1560, "young Henry Drummond" was slain.—(Lesley's Hist. p. 286; Holinshed's Chron. p. 492.) (his coun252sallour for that tyme,) heard ane exhortation, (but it was upone the nycht,) who war so weall contented with it, that thei boyth willed the said Johne to wrait unto the Quein Regent somwhat that mycht move hir to heir the word of God. He obeyed thare desyre, and wrait that which after was imprinted, and is called "The Letter to the Quein Dowager;"652652This Letter to the Queen Dowager was originally printed in a very small volume, without date, or name of the place or printer, but apparently on the Continent: It is entitled "The Copie of a Letter sent to the Ladye Mary Dowagire Regent of Scotland, by John Knox, in the yeare 1556." which was delivered into hir awin handis by the said Alexander Erle of Glencarne. Which letter, when sche had redd, within a day or two, she delivered it to that proud Prelate, Betoun,653653James Beaton was nephew of the Cardinal, and was preferred to the See of Glasgow in 1551. He has been incidentally mentioned in note 459; and in reference to this, Lesley says that the Governor, after Cardinal Beaton's death, "disponed the Archbishoprike of Sanct Androis to his owne broder, the Abbot of Paisley, and gaif ane gift of the Abbay [abbacy] of Arbroith to George Douglas, bastard sone to the Erle of Angus, notwithstanding that Maister James Beatoun, tender cousing to the Cardinall, was lawfullie provydit thairto of befoir; quhilk maid gret trubill in the countrey eftirwart."—(Hist. p. 193.) It may be added, that when Beaton was translated to Glasgow in 1551, the abbacy of Arbroath was conferred on Lord John Hamilton, second son of the Governor.—(Ib. p. 241.) Bischope of Glasgw, and said in mockage, "Please yow, my Lord, to reid a pasqwill." Which woordis cuming to the earis of the said Johne, war the occasioun that to his Letter he maid his additionis,654654The Letter addressed by Knox to the Queen Dowager in 1556, (as above, note 652,) was reprinted at Geneva, "nowe augmented and explained by the Author, in the yeare of our Lord 1558." It will be included in Volume Third. as yitt may be sein. NOTA. As concernyng the threatnyngis pronunccd against hir awin persone, and the most principale of hir freindis, lett thare verray flatteraris see what hath failled of all that he hes writtin. And tharefor it war expedient that hir Dochtter, now mischevouslye rynging, should look to that which hath passed befoir, least that in following the counsallis of the wicked, she end more miserablie then hir crafty Mother did.

Whill Johne Knox was thus occupyed in Scotland, letteris253 came unto him from the Engliss Kirk that was assembled in Geneva, (which was separated from that superstitious and contentious cumpany that war at Franckfoord,) commanding him in Goddis name, as he that was thare chosin pastor, to repayre unto thame, for thare conforte. Upone the which, the said Johne took his leave from us, almost in everie congregatioun whare befor he had preached, and exhorted us to prayaris, to reading of the Scriptures, and mutuall conference, unto such tyme as God should geve unto us grettar libertie. And hearupon he send befoir him to Deape, his mother in law Elizabeth Bowes,655655Elizabeth Bowes, mother-in-law of the Reformer, sent before him to Dieppe. She was the daughter and co-heiress of Sir Roger Aske of Aske in Yorkshire, and by her husband, Richard Bowes, youngest son of Sir Ralph Bowes of Streathan, had two sons and ten daughters. See Pedigree of the family, in MʻCrie's Life of Knox, vol. ii. p. 407. Knox's first letter addressed "to his mother in law, Mistres Bowis," is dated from London, 23d June 1553. and his wyef Marjory, with no small dolour to thare hartes, and unto many of us. He him self, by procurement and laubouris of Robert Campbell of Kingzeanclewch,656656This very zealous and disinterested friend of the Reformer, as stated in note 345, was a cadet of the ancient family of Campbell of Loudon. remaned behynd in Scotland, and passed to the old Erle of Ergyle,657657Archibald Campbell, "the old" Earl of Argyle, was fourth Earl, and died in the year 1558. who then was in the Castell of Campbell,658658Castle Campbell, now in ruins, is situated in the Ochil hills, immediately above the village of Dollar. It was burned and destroyed by Montrose, during the Civil Wars, in 1645. whare he tawght certane dayis. The Lard of Glenurquhare,659659Sir Colin Campbell of Glenurchy, the ancestor of the Breadalbane family. He was a younger son, but by the death of two elder brothers, he succeeded to the family estates in 1551. He became a stedfast friend to the Reformed religion; and survived till the year 1584. (which yit liveth,) being one of his auditouris, willed the said Erle of Ergyle to reateane him still; but he, purposed upoun his jorney, wold not att that tyme stay for no requeast, adding, "That yf God so blessed thei small begynnynes, that thei continewed in godlyness, whensoever thei pleased to command him, thei should fynd him obedient;" but said, "That ones he254 must neadis visit that lytill flock which the wickedness of men had compelled him to leave." And so in the moneth of Julij he left this realme, and past to France, and so to Geneva. Immediatly after, the Bischoppis summoned him, and for none compeirance, brunt him in effigie at the Croce of Edinburgh, in the year of God 1555.660660This date should evidently be 1556. Knox having remained in Scotland till after Spring, he arrived at Dieppe, in the month of July 1556. Fra the which injust sentence the said Johnne maid his Appellatioun, and caused to print the same, and direct it to the Nobilitie and Commounes of Scotland,661661Knox's Appellation against the sentence of the Bishops, in 1556, was first printed in the year 1558. as yitt may be redd.


In662662There seems to be a confusion in the dates of the events recorded in this paragraph. Knox, as stated above, had left Scotland in July 1556, and returned in May 1559; yet the Comet he mentions was evidently that which made its appearance in September 1558.—(Hevelii Cometographia, p. 853. See also next note.) Christian the Third, King of Denmark, died at the Castle of Coldinghuus, 1st January 1559, aged 56. The Commissioners for a treaty with England met at Dunse, in July 1556; and afterwards at Carlisle, for settling matters in the Borders. This treaty was concluded in July 1557. Yet the Queen Regent, before November 1557, at the instigation of France, was prevailed upon to declare war with England. But the Nobility and Barons would not consent to the proposed invasion. the wynter that the said Johne aboad in Scotland, appeired a comet, the course whairof was from the south and south-west, to the north and north-east. It was sein the monethis of November, December, and Januare. It was called "The fyrie boosome."663663   Bishop Lesley, at the close of 1558, among other "portenta," describes this "flammivomus et barbatus Cometa."—(De Rebus, &c. p. 540.) Sir James Balfour also says, "A fearfull Comett appeired this zeire [1558,] which not only, as the sequell proved, protendit change in Government, but in Religione lykwayes."—(Annals, vol. i. p. 312.) In those days Comets were regarded as the harbingers of disastrous events. Thus Shakespeare, in the First Part of his Henry VI.,— "Comets importing change of times and states;"
   and again,—
"Now shine it like a Comet of revenge, A prophet to the fall of all our foes;"
   and Milton, in Paradise Lost,—
"and like a Comet burn'd, That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In th' Artick sky, and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war."
Sune after dyed Christierne, King of Denmark: And warr raise betuix Scotland and England; for the Commissionaris of boyth realmes, who almost the space255 of sex monethis entraitted upoun the conditionis of peace, and war upoun a neyr point of conclusioun [war disappointed.] The Quein Regent with hir Counsall of the French factioun decreatted war at Newbattil,664664Newbattle, in the parish of that name in Mid-Lothian, was the site of an Abbey founded by David the First, in the year 1140. without geving any advertisment to the Commissionaris for the parte of Scotland. Such is the fidelitie of Princes, guyded by Preastis, when soever thei seik thare awin affectionis to be served.


In the end of that nixt harvest, was sein upoun the Bordouris of England and Scotland a strange fyre, which discended from the heavin, and brunt diverse cornes in boyth the realmes, but most in England. Thare was presented to the Quein Regent, by Robert Ormestoun, a calf having two headdis, whareat sche scripped, and said, "It was but a commoun thing." The warr begane in the end of the harvest, as said is, and conclusioun was tackin that Wark665665Wark Castle: see note 327. should be asseged. The army and ordinance past fordwarte to Maxwell Heucht.666666Maxwell-heugh, is a village on a height to the south of the Tweed, nearly opposite the eastern part of the town of Kelso. The Quein Regent remaned in the Castell of Home,667667Hume Castle: See note 524. and thinking that all thingis war in assurance, Monsieur Dosell, then Lieutenant for France, gave charge that the cannonis should be transported ower the watter of Twead, which was done with expeditioun, (for the French in such factes ar experte;) THE FACT OF THE NOBILITIE OF SCOTLAND AT MAXWELL HEWCHT but the nobilitie of Scotland nothing content of such proceadingis, after consultatioun amongis thame selfis, past to the palzeon668668In MS. G, "pavilion." of Monsieur Dosell, and in his awin face declared, "That in no wiese wald thei invade England," and tharefoir command the ordinance to be reteired; and that it was, without farther delay.669669This was in November 1557.

This putt ane effray in Monsieur Dosell his breathe,670670MS. G, instead of "breath," substitutes very oddly, "This put an affray in Monsieur D'Oysell's breaches." and256 kendilled such a fyre in the Quein Regentis stomak, as was nott weall slockened till hir braith failled. And thus was that enterprise frustrate. Butt yitt warre continewed, during the which the Evangell of Jesus Christ begane wonderouslye to floriss; for in Edinburgh begane publictlie to exhorte, Williame Harlaw; Johnne Dowglass,671671Of these preachers, Harlaw has been noticed at page 245: Douglas and Methven will afterwards be mentioned. who had (being with the Erle of Ergyle) preached in Leyth, and sometymes exhorted in Edinburgh; Paule Meaffen begane publictly to preach in Dondye; and so did diverse otheris in Anguss and the Mernse.


And last, at Goddis good pleasur, arryved Johnne Wyllok the secound tyme from Emden;672672John Willock returned to Scotland from Embden in Friesland, (see note 633,) in October 1558. He continued to preach in different parts of the country, and to officiate publicly in Edinburgh, in the year 1559, when it was unsafe for Knox to remain.—(Wodrow Miscellany, vol. i. p. 213.) whose returne was so joyfull to the brethrein, that thare zeall and godly courage daly encreassed. And albeit he contracted a dangerous seaknes, yitt he ceassed nott from laubouris, but tawght and exhorted from his bed: some of the nobilitie, LORD SETOUN ANE APOSTAT (of whome some ar fallen back, amongis whome the Lord Setoun673673George, sixth Lord Seatoun. is cheaf,) with many baronis and gentilmen, war his auditouris, and by him war godly instructed, and wonderouslie conforted. Thei keapt thare conventionis, and held counsallis with such gravitie and closnes, that the ennemyes trembled. THE ABOLISHING OF IMAGES AND TRUDLE THAREFOIR The images war stollen away in all partes of the countrie; and in Edinburgh was that great idole called Sanct Geyle,674674Sanct Geill, or St. Giles, was the tutelar Saint of the Metropolis, whose name is still retained in connexion with the collegiate Church in the Old Town of Edinburgh. first drouned in the North Loch,675675The North Loch formed a kind of boundary of the City towards the north, in the hollow ground, between Princes Street and the Old Town, and extended nearly from St. Cuthbert's Church to the Trinity College Church, in former times. after brunt, which rased no small truble in the toun. For the Freiris rowping lyik reavins upoun the Bischoppes, the Bischoppes ran upoun the Quein, who to257 thame was favorable yneweh, but that she thowght it could not stand with hir advantage to offend such a multitud as then took upon thame the defence of the Evangell, and the name of Protestantes. THE PREACHARIS SUMMONED And yitt consented sche to summond the Preachearis; whareat the Protestantis neyther offended, neyther yitt thairof effrayed, determined to keape the day of summondis,676676In Pitcairn's Criminal Trials will be found some interesting details, respecting four of the preachers mentioned by Knox, who were denounced "as rebels for usurping the authority of the Church," 10th May 1559, viz., John Christison and William Harlaw, at Perth; John Willock, at Ayr; and Paul Methven, at Dundee; along with the names of the persons who became cautioners for their appearance, (vol. i. p. 406*, &c.) as that thei did. THE PRACTISE OF PRELATTIS, WHAT THAIROF ENSEWED Which perceaved by the Prelattis and Preastis, thei procured a proclamatioun to be publictlie maid, "That all men that war come to the toune without commandiment of the authoritie, should with all diligence repayre to the Bordouris, and thare remane xv dayis:" for the Bischope of Galloway,677677Andrew Durie: see note 687. in this maner of ryme, said to the Quein, "Madame,

Becaus thei ar come without ordour,
I red ye, send thame to the Bordour."

Now so had God provided, that the qwarter of the West-land, (in to the which war many faythfull men,) was that same day returned from the Bordour; who understanding the mater to procead from the malice of the Preastis, assembled thame selfis together, and maid passage to thame selfis, till thei came to the verray prevey chalmer, whare the Quein Regent and the Bischoppes war. The Gentilmen begane to complane upoun thare strange intertenement, considdering that hir Grace had found into thame so faithfull obedience in all thingis lauchfull. Whill that the Quein begane to craft, a zelous and a bold man, James Chalmeris of Gaitgyrth,678678James, son of Robert Chalmer of Gadgirth, by Margaret, daughter of Sir Hugh Campbell of Loudoun. He had several charters under the Great Seal in 1548, of parts of his estate in the shires of Ayr and Wigtoun. He married Annabella, daughter of John Cunninghame of Caprintoun, in Ayrshire. (Nisbet's Heraldry, App. *20, vol. i. p. 4.) said,258 "Madame, we know that this is the malice and devise of thei Jefwellis, and of that Bastard, (meanyng the Bischope of Sanctandrois,) that standis by yow: We avow to God we shall maik ane day of it. Thei oppresse us and our tennantis for feading of thare idill bellyes: thei truble our preacheris, and wold murther thame and us: Shall we suffer this any longare? Na, Madame: It shall nott be." And tharewith everie man putt on his steill bonet. Thare was hard nothing of the Quenis parte but "My joyes, my hartes, what ailes yow? Me679679This use of "Me," instead of "I," or "We," occurs in all the copies. meanes no evill to yow nor to your preachearis. The Bischoppes shall do yow no wrong. Ye ar all my loving subjectes. Me knew nathing of this proclamatioun. The day of your preachearis shalbe discharged, and me will hear the controversie that is betuix the Bischoppes and yow. Thei shall do yow no wrong. My Lordis," said she to the Bischoppes, "I forbid yow eyther to truble thame or thare preachearis." O CRAFTY FLATTERAR! And unto the gentilmen who war wonderouslye commoved, she turned agane, and said, "O my heartis, should ye nott love the Lord your God with all your harte, with all your mynd? and should ye nott luif your nychtbouris as your selfis?" With these and the lyik fair wordis, she keapt the Bischoppes from buffattis at that tyme.


And so the day of summondis being discharged, begane the brethrein universallie to be farther encoraged. But yit could the Bischoppes in no sorte be qwyet; for Sanct Geillis day approcheing, thei gave charge to the Provest, Baillies, and Counsall of Edinburgh, eyther to gett agane the ald Sanct Geile, or ellis upoun thaire expenssis to maik ane new image. THE ANSWER OF EDINBURGH The Counsall answered, "That to thame the charge appeired verray injust; for thei understood that God in some plaices had commanded idolles and images to be259 distroyed; but whare he had commanded ymages to be sett up, thei had nott redd; and desyred the Bischope to fynd a warrant for his commandiment." EDINBURGH APPELLED FROM THE SENTENCE OF THE BISCHOPE OF SANCTANDROSE Whareat the Bischope offended, admonissed under pane of curssing; which thei prevented by a formall Appellatioun;680680This Appellation, according to some payments made by authority of the Town Council, was not later than February 1557-8. appelling from him, as from a parciall and corrupt judge, unto the Pape's holynes; and so grettar thingis schortly following, that passed in oblivioun. Yit wold nott the Preastis and Freiris cease to have that great solempnitie and manifest abhominatioun which thei accustomablie had upoun Sanct Geillis day,681681St. Giles's day was the 1st of September. In the Appendix, No. XIII., some contemporary notices will be given of the disturbances which were occasioned in September 1558, by this idolatrous procession. to witt, thei wold have that idole borne; and tharefor was all preparatioun necessar deuly maid. A marmouset idole was borrowed fra the Gray Freiris, (a silver peise of James Carmichaell682682James Carmichael was for many years one of the Magistrates of Edinburgh. He filled the office of Dean of Guild from October 1552 to 1553, again, from 1555 to 1556, and from 1557 to 1559. In his official capacity, he had the charge of the "Kirk werk," that is of looking after the preservation of St. Giles's Church, and taking charge of the jewels, the gold and silver candlesticks, eucharists, chalices, and other precious things belonging to that Church; but these were all ruthlessly disposed of, by order of the Council, (including the arm-bane of Sanct Geill, or rather the ring with "ane dyamant stane, quhilk wes on the fingar of the forsaid arme of Sanct Geill,") in October 1560. See Appendix, No. XIII. was laid in pledge:) It was fast fixed with irne nailles upon a barrow, called thare fertour. TRIUMPH FOR BEARING OF STOCK GEILL Thare assembled Preastis, Frearis, Channonis, and rottin Papistes, with tabornes and trumpettis, banerris and bage-pypes, and who was thare to led the ring, but the Quein Regent hir self, with all hir schaivelingis, for honour of that feast. West about goes it, and cumis doun the Hie Streat, and doun to the Canno Croce.683683In MS. G, "the comone Crose."—Probably the Girth Cross, at the foot of the Canongate, near Holyrood. But Arnot also makes mention of St. John's Cross, and of a third, near the Tolbooth in that street.—(Hist. of Edinburgh, p. 304.) The Quein Regent dyned that day in Sandie Carpetyne's housse, betuix the260 Bowes,684684Between the Bowes, must mean the West-Bow and the Nether-Bow; or the two principal gates of the Old Town. and so when the idole returned back agane, sche left it, and past in to hir dennar. The heartes of the brethrein war wonderouslie inflammed, and seing such abominatioun so manifestlie manteaned, war decreed to be revenged. Thei war devided in severall cumpanyes, wharof not one knew of ane other. Thare war some temperisaris that day, (amonges whome David Forress, called the Generall,685685David Forress: see note 363. was one,) who, fearing the chance to be dune as it fell, laubored to stay the brethrein. Butt that could not be; for immediatlie after that the Quein was entered in the loodgeing, some of those that war of the interprise drew ney to the idole, as willing to helpe to bear him, and getting the fertour upon thare schulderis, begane to schudder, thinking that thairby the idole should have fallin. THE DOUNCASTING OF STOCK GEILL, AND DISCONFITUR OF BAALIS PREASTIS But that was provided and prevented by the irne nailles, as we have said; and so, begane one to cry "Doun with the idole; doun with it;" and so without delay it was pulled doun. Some brag maid the Preastis patrons at the first; but when thei saw the febilness of thare god, (for one took him by the heillis, and dadding his head to the calsay, left Dagon without head or handis, and said, "Fye upon thee, thow young Sanct Geile, thy father wold haif taryed four such:") this considdered, (we say,) the Preastis and Freiris fled faster then thei did at Pynckey Clewcht.686686See pages 209-213. Thare mycht have bein sein so suddane a fray as seildome hes bein sein amonges that sorte of men within this realme; for doun goes the croses, of goes the surpleise, round cappes cornar with the crounes. The Gray Freiris gapped, the Blak Frearis blew, the Preastis panted, and fled, and happy was he that first gate the house; for such ane suddan fray came never amonges the generatioun of Antichrist within this realme befoir. A MEARY ENGLISMAN By chance thare lay upoun a stare a meary261 Englissman, and seing the discomfiture to be without blood, thought he wold add some mearynes to the mater, and so cryed he ower a stayr, and said, "Fy upoun yow, hoorsones, why have ye brockin ordour! Doun the streat ye passed in array and with great myrth. Why flie ye, vilanes, now, without ordour? Turne and stryk everie one a strok for the honour of his god. Fy, cowardis, fy, ye shall never be judged worthy of your wages agane!" But exhortationis war then unprofitable; for after that Bell had brokin his neck, thare was no conforte to his confused army.

The Quein Regent lade up this amonges hir other mementoes, till that sche mycht have sein the tyme proper to have revenged it. Search was maid for the doaris, but none could be deprehended; for the brethrein assembled thame selfis in such sorte, in companyes, synging psalmes, and prasing God, that the proudast of the ennemies war astonied.


This tragedy of Sanct Geill was so terrible to some Papistes, that Dury, sometymes called for his filthines Abbot Stottikin, and then intitulat Bischope of Galloway,687687   Andrew Durie, Bishop of Galloway, was brother of George Durie, Abbot of Dunfermline, (note 463,) and was born before the year 1500. His name, "Andreas Durie," occurs in the Registers of both Colleges, as having been Incorporated at St. Andrews, in the year 1511; and at Glasgow, in 1513. He probably completed his studies abroad. Upon a vacancy in the Abbacy of Melrose, he had sufficient interest to procure the King's letters of commendation to the Pope, in the year 1526, and notwithstanding powerful rival claims, he succeeded in the following year in obtaining the benefice. Andrew, Abbot of Melrose, was present at the trial of Sir John Borthwick, in 1540; and he appears as an Extraordinary Lord of Session on the 2d of July 1541. On the following day, he was recommended to be successor to Henry Wemyss as Bishop of Galloway, conjoined with the Deanery of the Chapel Royal, and the Abbacy of Tungland upon his resigning that of Melrose, but retaining a pension of 1000 marks, and some other emoluments. In the Provincial Council at Edinburgh, 1549, his name is enrolled as "Andreas Episcopus Candidæ Casæ et Capellæ Regiæ Strivilingensis."—He was the bearer of a letter from Queen Mary, in France, to her Mother, in June 1554.—(Lettres de Marie Stuart, vol. i. p. 24.) Bishop Durie died at Edinburgh, in September 1558. His name occurs in the list of Scottish Poets; but none of his writings are known to be preserved, although his sayings recorded by Knox, indicate a rhyming propensity. John Rolland of Dalkeith, in the prologue of his "Seven Sages," a kind of poetical romance, alludes to the poets who flourished at the Scotish Court, and after naming Lyndsay, Bellenden, and William Stewart, who he says, To mak in Scottis, richt weill he knew that art,
   he immediately adds,
Bishop Durie, sum tyme of Galloway, For his pleasure sum tymes wald tak thair part.
left his rymyng262 wharewith he was accustumed, and departed this lyef, evin as that he leved: For the articles of his beleve war; "I Referr: Decarte yow: Ha, ha, the four Kinges and all maid: The Devill go with it: It is but a varlett:

Fra France we thought to have gottin a Rooby;688688This has an evident allusion to the name of Mons. de Ruby, one of the Frenchmen patronized at this time by the Queen Dowager. Bishop Lesley, in noticing the several appointments made by the Queen Regent, in 1554, says, there was "Ane callit Monsieur Rubie, Frenchman, a procutour of Paris, appointit to keip the Greit Seill, and to be as Vice-Chancelar and assistar to the Erle of Huntlie, then Chancelar."—(History, p. 250.) He was Controller of her Household, in 1557: see note 730
And yit is he nothing but a cowhuby."

With such faith and such prayeris, departed out of this lyeff that ennemy of God, who had vowed and plainelie said, "That in dispyte of God, so long as thei that then war Prelattis lyved, should that word (called the Evangell) never be preached within this realme." THE DEATH OF DAVID PANTER After him followed that belly-god, Maister David Panter,689689   David Panter, or Panyter, who held several Church livings, was much employed in public negotiations abroad. His uncle Patrick Panter, Abbot of Cambuskenneth, and David Panter, were successively Secretaries of State in the reigns of James the Fourth and Fifth, and "being admirably versed in the Latin tongue," their names are honourably distinguished by the series of Letters of our Kings, addressed to Foreign Princes, which Ruddiman published under the title of "Epistolæ Regum Scotorum," &c., in the years 1722 and 1724, in 2 vols. 8vo. In the Treasurer's Accounts, 1544, we find this entry,—
    "Item, the thrid day of Aprile, gevin for vjc. (600) crownis of the Sonn, of fynance deliverit in France to Maister David Panyter, Secretar Ambassatour thair, the sowme of viijc. x lib." (£810.)

    On the same day, a similar payment of 400 crowns (or £540) was delivered to Sir John Campbell of Lundy, Ambassador in France. Panter was promoted to the See of Ross in the latter part of 1545. Sir James Balfour, in his Annals, calls him "a notable adulterer."—(Annals, vol. i. p. 312.) He died, says Holinshed, of a lingering illness, at Stirling, on the 1st of October 1558.—(Keith's Catal. of Bishops, p. 192.)
called Bischope of Ross, evin263 with the lyik documentis, exceapt that he departed eatting and drynking, which, togitther with the rest that tharupoun dependis, was the pastyme of his lyef.


The most parte of the Lordis that war in France at the Quenis mariage, althought that thei gat thare congie fra the Courte, yit thei forget to returne to Scotland.690690Bishop Lesley, in noticing the return of the Commissioners from the Queen's marriage, says, "they came to Deip about the ende of (August,) quhair suddantlie all the principall Nobillmen and Prelatis became seik. But shortlie thairefter, the most of thame, being of the wysest and most valyeant of the realme of Scotland, deceissit their, to the gret hurt of the commoun weill of the realme."—(Hist. p. 266.) The dates of their death are, however, not accurately given, either by Lesley or more recent historians. The Commissioners who were appointed on the 25th and 26th of June 1558, were James Beaton, Archbishop of Glasgow; Lord James Stewart, Prior of St. Andrews; George Lord Seaton, Provost of Edinburgh; and John Erskine of Dun, Provost of Montrose; along with Robert Reid, Bishop of Orkney; George Earl of Rothes; Gilbert Earl of Cassillis, Lord Treasurer; and James Lord Flemyng, Great Chamberlain. The first four being present in the Parliament held at Edinburgh 29th November 1558, to report their proceedings, it was then mentioned, that the Bishop of Orkney was "deceissit, and the Earls of Rothes, Cassillis, and the Lord Flemyng yit remannand in the partis of France."—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 505.) This shows that no tidings of their death had then reached this country: see the three following notes. For whitther it was by ane Italiane posset, or by French fegges, or by the potage of thare potingar, (he was a French man,) thare departed fra this lyef the Erle of Cassilles,691691Gilbert Kennedy, third Earl of Cassilis, as already noticed at page 16, completed his studies under George Buchanan at Paris. In 1554, he was appointed High Treasurer; and was one of the eight Commissioners sent from Scotland as representatives of the Scottish nation, at the marriage of Mary and the Dauphin of France. He died on his return, at Dieppe, on the 28th November 1558. the Erle of Rothose,692692George Lesley, third Earl of Rothes, the father of Norman Lesley, was tried before the Governor for his accession to the murder of Cardinal Beaton, but wan unanimously acquitted. He was the son of William Lesley and Margaret daughter of Sir Michael Balfour of Mountquhannie; and this relationship may have induced James Balfour and his brothers to join their cousin, Norman Lesley, in the Castlo of St. Andrews. The Earl of Rothes had been appointed one of the Lords of Council and Session 11th November 1532; and he attended James the Fifth, in his journey to France in 1536. He was employed in various public commissions; and was sent as Ambassador to Denmark in 1550. He died at Dieppe on the 28th November 1558. His son Andrew succeeded to the title as fourth Earl of Rothes, and was served heir of his father, 20th February 1558-9.—(Burgh Court-Book of Dundee, marked Vol. iv.)264 Lord Flemyng,693693James Lord Flemyng, hereditary Great Chamberlain of Scotland, was the third of his family in succession who held that office, having succeeded his father, Malcolm, Lord Flemyng, who was slain at Pinkie, in 1547. James, as mentioned above, was one of the Commissioners who were seized with illness at Dieppe. On the 8th November, he made his testament; and having returned to Paris for the benefit of medical aid, he lingered there till he died on the 15th December 1558, aged 24.—(Crawfurd's Officers of State, p. 329.) and the Bischope of Orknay, whose end was evin according to his lyfe:694694Robert Reid, although accused by Knox of avarice, applied at least his wealth to laudable purposes; and in the words of Keith, was "a man of great learning, and a most accomplished politician." He entered St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews, in 1511, and took his Master's degree in 1515; and then proceeded to Paris. On his return to Scotland, he became successively Sub-Dean and Official of Moray; Abbot of Kinloss, in 1526; Commendator of Beaulieu, in 1530; one of the Lords of Council and Session, in 1532; Bishop of Orkney, in 1540; and Lord President of the Court of Session, about the end of 1548. During all this time, he was frequently employed in foreign embassies, and other diplomatic affairs. A variety of liberal benefactions on his part have been recorded, such as the foundation of bursaries, the adornment of the buildings at Kinloss, which he enriched with what was considered an ample library, and the endowment of a school at Kirkwall. He also erected an addition to the Bishop's Palace in Kirkwall; and the Cathedral Church of St. Magnus, in that town, still exhibits the fine porch and some additional pillars erected at his expense; and had he survived for a few years, he no doubt would have put a finishing hand to this venerable edifice; the choir or chancel of which serves for the parish Church, (fitted up as usual in defiance of all good taste.) Bishop Reid's munificence was not limited to his own diocese, as a bequest of 8000 merks towards founding a College for the education of youth in Edinburgh, enabled the Magistrates, in 1581, to purchase from the Provost of the Kirk of Field, (St. Mary's in the Fields,) the ground on which were erected the buildings of our University. Lesley styles Bishop Reid a man "of singular wit, judgment, guid learning, and lyve, with lang experience," (Hist. p. 267;) and says he died at Dieppe on the 6th, but according to other authorities, it was the 15th September 1558.—(Keith's Catal. pp. 223-226; Senators of the College of Justice, pp. 14-19.) For after that he was dryvin back by a contrarious wynd, and forced to land agane at Deape, perceaving his seiknes to encrease, he caused maik his bed betuix his two cofferis, (some said upoun thame:) such was his god, the gold that tharein was inclosed, that he could not departe tharefra, so long as memorie wold serve him. The Lord James, then Priour of Sanctandrois, had (by all appearance) lyked of the same bust695695In MS. G, "lickit of the same buist." that dispatched the rest, for265 thareof to this day his stomack doeth testifie: but God preserved him for a bettir purpose. This same Lord James, now Erle of Murray, and the said Bischope, war commonlye at debate for materis of religioun; and tharefoir the said Lord, hearing of the Bischoppis disease, came to visitt him, and fynding him not sa weall at a point as he thowght he should have bein, and as the honour of the country requyred, said unto him, "Fy, my Lord, how ly ye so? Will ye not go to your chalmer, and not ly hear into this commoun house?" ORKNAYIS ANSWER, AND HIS FREINDIS WHOME His answer was, "I am weall whare I am, my Lord, so long as I can tary; for I am neir unto my freindis, (meanyng his cofferis and the gold tharein.) But, my Lord, (said he,) long have ye and I bein in pley for Purgatory: I think that I shall know or it be long whetther thare be such a place or not." Whill the other did exhorte him to call to mynd the promisses of God, and the vertew of Christis death; he answered, "Nay, my Lord, lett me allon; for ye and I never aggreid in our lyiff, and I think we shall nott aggree now at my death; and tharefor lett me allone." The said Lord James departed to his loodgeing, and the other schort after departed this lyef; whitther, the great day of the Lord will declare.

THE QUEIN REGENTIS SENTENCE OF THE DEATH OF HIR PAPISTIS.696696To this marginal note there was added, "Insignia Quidem Elogium;" but those words are deleted.

When the word of the departing of so many patrons of the Papistrye, and of the maner of thare departing, cam unto the Quein Regent, after astonisment and musing, she said, "What shall I say of such men? Thei lieved as beastis, and as beastis thei dye: God is not with thame, nether with that which thei interprise."


Whill these thingis war in doing in Scotland and France, that perfyt hipocryte Maister Johne Sinclare, then Dene of Restalrige,697697John Sinclair was the fourth son of Sir Oliver Sinclair of Roslin, and a younger brother of Henry Sinclair, Bishop of Ross. He was admitted one of the Lords of Council and Session, under the title of Rector of Snaw, 27th April 1510. In 1549, he sat in the Provincial Council at Edinburgh, as Dean of Restalrig. In 1565, he was promoted to the See of Brechin. His brother Henry, Bishop of Ross and President of the Court of Session, having died in 1564-5, the Bishop of Brechin was, on the 13th November, advanced to the Presidentship of the Session. But he did not long enjoy his judicial and prelatic dignities, as he was seized with fever, and died in the month of April 1566. This we learn from Ferrerius, the Continuator of Hector Boethius, who, mentioning that Henry Sinclair, Bishop of Ross, had collected materials for writing a History of Scotland, which were in the hands of John Sinclair, Bishop of Brechin, says, "Sed idem (Præsul) quoque pauculos post menses in febrem peracutam decidit, ex qua derepente o virorum in terris numero exemptus est."—(H. Boethii Hist. App. p. 384, Paris, 1574, folio.) and now Lord President and Bischope of Brechin,266 begane to preache in his Kirk of Restalrig; and at the begynnyng held himself so indifferent, that many had opinion of him, that he was nott far from the kingdom of God. But his hypochrisie could nott long be clocked; for when he understood that such as feared God began to have a good opinioun of him, and that the Freiris and otheris of that sect begane to whisper, "That yf he took not head in tyme to him self, and unto his doctrin, he wold be the destructioun of the hole estait of the Kirk." This by him understand, he appointed a sermon, in the which he promissed to geve his judgement upoun all such headis as then war in controversie in the materis of religioun. The bruyte heirof maid his audience great at the first; but that day he so handilled him self, that after that, no godly man did creditt him; for not only ganesaid he the doctrin of Justificatioun and of Prayer which befoir he had tawght, but also he sett up and manteaned the Papistrie to the uttermost prick; yea, Holy Watter, Pilgramage, Purgatory, and Pardonis war of such vertew in his conceit, that without thame he looked not, to be saved.


In this meantyme, the Clargye maid a brag that thei wald disput. But Maister David Panter,698698See note 689. which then lived and lay at Restalrig, dissuaded thame tharefra, affirmyng, "That yf ever thei disputed, but whare thame selfis war bayth judge and party, and whare that fyre and swerd should obey thare267 decrie, that then thare caus was wracked for ever; for thare victorie stood neyther in God, nor in his word, but in thare awin willis, and in the thingis concluded by thare awin Counsallis, (togitther with sword and fyre,) whareto, (said he,) these new starte-up fellowis will give no place. But thei will call yow to your compt booke, and that is to the Bible; and by it ye will no more be found the men that ye ar called, then the Devill wilbe approvin to be God. And therefor, yf ye love your selfis, enter never in disputatioun; nether yitt call ye the mater in questioun; but defend your possessioun, or ellis all is lost." Cayaphas could not geve ane bettir counsall to his companizeons; but yitt God disapointed boith thame and him, as after we shall hear.

At this same tyme, some of the Nobilitie direct thare letteris to call Johne Knox from Geneva, for thare conforte, and for the conforte of thare brethrein the preachearis, and otheris that then couragiouslye faught against the ennemyes of Goddis trewth. The tenour of thare lettre is this:

Grace, Mercy, and Peace, for Salutatioun, &c.

Deirlie Beloved in the Lord, the Faithfull that ar of your acquentance in thir partes, (thankis be unto God,) ar stedfast in the beleveTHE SECOUND VOCATION OF JOHNE KNOX BY LETTERIS OF THE LORDIS. whareinto ye left thame, and hes ane godly thrist and desyre, day by day, of your presence agane; quhilk, gif the Spreat of God will sua move and permitt tyme unto yow, we will hartly desyre yow, in the name of the Lord, that ye will returne agane in thir partes, whare ye shall fynd all faithfull that ye left behynd yow, not only glaid to hear your doctrin, but wilbe reddy to jeopard lyffis and goodis in the forward setting of the glorie of God, as he will permitt tyme. And albeit the Magistraittis in this countrey be as yitt but in the staite ye left thame, yitt at the maiking heirof, we have na experience of any mair crueltie to be used nor was befoir;268 but rather we have beleve, that God will augment his flock, becaus we see daly the Freiris, ennemyes to Christis Evangell, in less estimatioun, baith with the Quenis Grace, and the rest of the Nobilitie of our realme. This in few wordis is the mynd of the faithfull, being present, and otheris absent. The rest of our myndis this faythfull berare will schaw you at lenth. This, fair ye weill in the Lord.

Off Striveling, the tent of Marche, Anno 1556.699699That is, 10th of March 1556-7. (This is the trew copy of the bill, being subscrived by the names underwrittin,)

Sic subscribitur,

Lorne, (now Ergyle.)
James Stewart.

These letteris war delivered to the said Johne in Geneva, by the handis of James Sym, who now resteth with Christ, and of James Barroun, that yit liveth,700700Sym and Barron were citizen burgesses of Edinburgh, and zealous friends of the Reformer. As here intimated, James Sym, in whose house Knox resided, on his return to Scotland, had died before 1566. At page 245, Knox has given an account of the death of Elizabeth Adamson, Barron's wife, in 1566. James Barron was one of the Magistrates of Edinburgh, and filled the office of Dean of Guild from Michaelmas 1555, to the same term in 1556; and again in 1560 and 1561. At the first General Assembly, held at Edinburgh 20th December 1560, James Barron and Edward Hope were the commissioners appointed for the town, along with John Knox, as minister. His name also occurs in the proceedings of the Assemblies in the years 1562, 1565, and 1569—(Booke of the Universall Kirk, pp. 3, 13, 60, 145.) in the moneth of Maij immediatlie tharefter. Which receaved, and advised upoun, he took consultatioun alsweall with his awin church as with that notable servand of God, Johne Calvin, and with other godlie ministers, who all with one consent, said, "That he could nott refuise that Vocatioun, onless he wald declair him self rebellious unto his God, and unmercyfull to his contrie." And so he returned answer, with promessis to visite269 thame with ressonable expeditioun, and so sone as he mycht putt ordour to that dear flock that was committed to his charge. And so, in the end of the nixt September after, he departed from Geneva, and came to Deape, whare thare mett him contrare letteris; as by this his answer thareto we may understand.

The Spreit of wisdom, constancie, and strenth be multiplied with yow, by the favour of God our Father, and by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ.

According to my promeis, Rycht Honorable, I came to Deape, the xxiiij of October, of full mynd, by the good will of God, with the first schippes to have visited yow. Bot becaus two letteris, not verray pleassing to the flesche, wer there presented unto me, I was compelled to stay for a tyme. The one was directed to myself from a faithfull brother, which maid mentioun, that new consultatioun was appointed for finall conclusioun of the mater befoir purposed, and willed me tharefoir to abyd in these partes, till the determinatioun of the same. The other letter was direct from a gentilman to a friend, with charge to advertise me, that he had communed with all those that seamed most frack and fervent in the mater, and that into none did he fynd such boldness and constancie, as was requisite for such ane interprise; bot that some did (as he writteth) reapent that ever any such thing was moved; some war partlie eschamed; and otheris war able to deny, that ever thei did consent to any such purpose, yf any triall or questioun should be tackin thareof, &c. Which letteris, when I had considdered, I partlie was confounded, and partlye was persed with anguise and sorrow. Confounded I was, that I had so far travelled in the mater, moving the same to the most godly and the most learned that this day we know to lyve in Europe, to the effect that I mycht have thare judgements and grave counsalles, for270 assurance alsweall of your consciences as of myne, in all interprises: And then that nothing should succead so long consultatioun, can not but redound eyther to your schame or myne; for eyther it shall appear; that I was mervelouse vane, being so solist whare no necessitie requyred, or ellis, that such as war my moveris thareto lacked the rypnes of judgement in thare first vocatioun. To some it may appear ane small and lycht mater, that I have cast of, and as it war abandoned, alsweall my particulare care, as my publict office and charge, leaving my house and poore familie destitut of all head, save God only, and committing that small (but to Christ deirlie belovit) flock, ower the which I was appointed one of the ministeris, to the charge of ane other. This, I say, to worldly men may appear a small mater, but to me it was, and yit is such, that more worldly sustance then I will expresse, could not have caused me willinglie behold the eies of so many grave men weape at ones for my caus, as that I did, in tackin of my last good nycht frome thame. To whome, yf it please God that I returne, and questioun be demanded, What was the impediment of my purposed jorney? judge yow what I shall answer. The caus of my dolour and sorrow (God is witnes) is for nothing pertenyng eyther to my corporall contentment or worldly displeasur; butt it is for the grevouse plagues and punishmentis of God, which assuredly shall apprehend nott only yow, but everie inhabitant of that miserable Realme and Ile, except that the power of God, by the libertie of his Evangell, deliver yow from bondage. THE MATRIMONIALL CROUN WAS GRANTED, AND FRENCHE BANDIS WAR ARRYVED I meane not only that perpetuall fyre and torment, prepared for the Devill, and for such as denying Christ Jesus and his knawin veritie, do follow the sones of wickednes to perditioun, (which most is to be feared;) butt also that thraldome and miserie shall apprehend your awin bodyes, your childrein, subjectis, and posteritie, whome ye have betrayed, (in conscience, I can except none that bear the name of Nobilitie,) and presentlie do271 feght to betray thame and your Realme to the slavrie of strangeris. The warr begune, (althocht I acknawledge it to be the wark of God,) shalbe your destructioun, unless that, be tyme, remedy be provided. God opin your eis, that ye may espy and considder your awin miserable estaite. My wordis shall appeir to some scharpe and undiscreitlie spokin; but as charitie awght to interpreit all thingis to the best, so awght wyse men to understand, that a trew friend can nott be a flatterar, especiallie when the questions of salvatioun, boith of body and saule, ar moved; and that nott of one nor of two, but as it war of a hole realme and natioun. What ar the sobbes, and what is the affectioun701701In MS. G, "afflictioun;" Vautr. edit. has "affection." of my trubled heart, God shall one day declare. But this will I add to my formar rigour and severitie, to wit, yf any perswad yow, for feir of dangeris that may follow, to faint in your formar purpose, be he never esteamed so wyse and freindly, lett him be judged of yow boith foolish and your mortall ennemy: foolishe, for becaus he understandeth nothing of Goddis approved wisedome; and ennemye unto yow, becaus he lauboureth to separat yow from Goddis favour; provoking his vengeance and grevouse plagues against yow, becaus he wald that ye should prefer your worldly rest to Goddis prase and glorie, and the freindschipe of the wicked to the salvatioun of your brethrein. LETT THE PAPISTIS THAME SELVIS JUDGE OF WHAT SPREIT THOSE SENTENSES COULD PROCEAD "I am nott ignorant, that feirfull trubles shall ensew your enterprise, (as in my formar letters I did signifie unto yow;) but O joyfull and confortable ar those trubles and adversities, which man susteaneth for accomplishment of Goddis will, reveilled by his woord! For how terrible that ever thei appear to the judgement of the naturall man, yit ar thei never able to devore nor utterlie to consume the sufferraris: For the invisible and invincible power of God susteaneth and preserveth, according to his promeis, all such as with simplicitie272 do obey him." The subtell craft of Pharao, many years joyned wyth his bloody cruelty, was not able to destroy the male childrein of Israell, nether war the watteris of the Redd Sea, much less the rage of Pharao, able to confound Moses and the cumpany which he conducted; and that because the one had Goddis promisse that thei shouldTHE DEUTIE OF THE NOBILITIE multiplie, and the other had his commandiment to enter into such dangeris. I wold your Wisedomes should considder, that our God remaneth one, and is immutable; and that the Church of Christ Jesus hath the same promeis of protectioun and defence that Israell had of multiplicatioun; and farther, that no less caus have ye to enter in your formar interprise, then Moses had to go to the presence of Pharao; for your subjectis, yea, your brethrein ar oppressed, thare bodyis and saules haldin in bondage: and God speaketh to your consciences, (onles ye be dead with the blynd warld,) THAT LETTER LOST BY NEGLIGENCE AND TRUBLES that yow awght to hasard your awin lyves, (be it against Kingis or Empriouris,) for thare deliverance; for only for that caus ar ye called Princes of the people, and ye receave of your brethrein honour, tribute, and homage at Goddis commandiment; not be reasson of your birth andGOD GRANT THAT OUR NOBILITIE WOULD YITT UNDERSTAND progenye, (as the most parte of men falslie do suppose,) but by ressoun of your office and dewtie, which is to vindicat and deliver your subjectes and brethrein from all violence and oppressioun, to the uttermost of your power. Advise diligentlie, I beseik yow, with the pointis of that Letter, which I directed to the hole Nobilitie, and lett everie man apply the mater and case to him self; for your conscience shall one day be compelled to acknowledge, that the Reformatioun of religioun, and of publict enormities, doith appertene to mo then to the Clargie, or cheaf reularis called Kingis. The mychtie Spreit of the Lord Jesus rewle and guyde your counsellis, to his glorie, your eternall conforte, and to the consolatioun of your brethrene. Amen.

From Deape, the 27 of October 1557.

These letteris receaved and redd, togetther with otheris direct to the273 hole Nobilitie, and some particular gentilmen, as to the Lardis of Dun and Pettarrow, new consultatioun was had what was best to be done: and in the end it was concluded, that thei wold follow fordwart thare purpose anes intended, and wold committ thame selfis, and whatsoever God had gevin unto thame, in his handis, rather then thei wold suffer idolatrie so manifestlie to regne, and the subjectes of that Realme so to be defrauded, as long thei had bein, of the only food of thare saules, the trew preaching of Christes Evangell. And that everie ane should be the more assured of other, a commoun Band was maid, and by some subscrived, the tennour whareof followis:—

"We, perceaving how Sathan in his memberis, the Antichristis of our tyme, cruelly doeth rage, seaking to dounethring and to destroy the Evangell of Christ, and his Congregatioun, aught, according to our bonden deuitie, to stryve in our Maisteris caus, evin unto the death, being certane of the victorie in him. The quhilk our dewitie being weall considdered, We do promesse befoir the Majestie of God, and his congregatioun, that we (be his grace,) shall with all diligence continually apply our hole power, substance, and our verray lyves, to manteane, sett fordward, and establish the most blessed word of God and his Congregatioun; and shall laubour at our possibilitie to have faythfull Ministeris purely and trewlie to minister Christis Evangell and Sacramentes to his people. We shall manteane thame, nuriss thame, and defend thame, the haill congregatioun of Christ, and everie membour thairof, at our haill poweris and waring of our lyves, against Sathan, and all wicked power that does intend tyranny or truble against the foirsaid congregatioun. Onto the quhilk holy woord and congregatioun we do joyne us, and also dois forsaike and renunce the congregatioun of Sathan, with all the superstitious abominatioun and idolatrie thareof: And more274over, shall declare our selfis manifestlie ennemies thairto, be this oure faithfull promesse befoir God, testifeid to his Congregatioun, be our subscriptionis at thir presentis:—

"At Edinburgh, the thrid day of December, the year of God Jm. Vc. fyfty sevin yearis: God called to witnesse.702702The "Band" subscribed by the Earls of Argyle, Glencairn, Morton, and others, dated 3d December 1557, has been considered as the First Covenant or engagement of the Scottish Reformers, for their mutual defence, in which they engage "to maintain, set forward, and establish the Word of God, and his Congregation." See, however, note 649

(Sic subscribitur,)

A. Erle of Ergile.
Archibald Lord of Lorne.
Johnne Erskyne of Doun.703703Keith supposes it was Erskine of Dun who signed the letter at page 268, "for the Lord Erskine (he says) had not yet joined himself to that party."—(Hist. vol. i. p. 153.)
Et cetera.


Befoir a litill that this Band was subscryved, by the foirwrittin and many otheris, letteris war direct agane to Johne Knox fra the said Lordis, togitther with thare letteris to Maister Calvin, craving of him, that by his authoritie he wold command the said Johne anes agane to visit thame. These letteris war delivered by the handis of Maister Johne Gray,704704There was a John Gray who took his Master's degree at St. Andrews, in the year 1523. It is uncertain whether the person mentioned in the text can be identified with Mr. John Gray, who held the office of Clerk to the General Assembly, from 1560 till his death, which took place in April 1574.—(Register of Conf. Testaments; Booke of the Univ. Kirk, vol. i. pp. 299, 311.) in the moneth of November, the yeir of God Jm. Vc. fyfty awght, who at that same tyme past to Rome for expeditioun of the bowes705705That is, to procure the Papal Bulls, confirming Sinclair's appointment to the See of Ross, upon the death of David Panter, in October 1558: (See note 688.) But it appears that Sinclair was not consecrated until 1560. of Ross to Maister Henry Sinclare.706706Henry Sinclair, a younger son of Sir Oliver Sinclair of Roslin, was born in the year 1508. He studied at St. Andrews, and was incorporated in St. Leonard's College in 1521. He obtained the favour of James the Fifth, who appointed him a Lord of Session; and he was admitted on the 13th November 1537, as Rector of Glasgow. In 1541, he was Commendator of the Abbey of Kilwinning; which benefice he exchanged with Gawin Hamilton for the Deanery of Glasgow. He was employed in various public matters abroad; and during the absence of Bishop Reid, he acted as Vice-President of the Court of Session. On Reid's death, he was admitted, on the 2d December 1558, as Lord President; and in 1560, he succeeded David Panter in the See of Ross. He died at Paris, after undergoing a painful surgical operation, on the 2d January 1565. Lesley calls him "ane wyse and lernit prelate," (Hist. p. 252,) and Ferrerius refers to his MS. collections for writing a History of Scotland. His name written upon various books and manuscripts preserved in the Advocates Library, and in other collections, evince his great love of literature, in common with several other members of his family.

Immediatlie after the subscriptioun of this foirsaid Band, the Lordis275 and Barons professing Christ Jesus, conveined frequentlie in counsall; in the which these Headis war concluded:—

First, It is thought expedient, devised, and ordeaned, that in all parochines of this Realme the Commoun Prayeris707707It has generally been supposed that the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England, known as the Liturgy of Edward the Sixth, was the one here recommended; and the mention of "the Lessonis of the New and Old Testament, conforme to the ordour," &c., renders this most probable. Dr. MʻCrie has considered this point very fully in his life of Knox, (Note DD, vol. i. p. 437-441,) and comes to a similar conclusion. If, however, the English Prayer Book was then used, it was soon afterwards replaced by "The Forme of Prayers and Ministrations of the Sacraments, &c., vsed in the Englishe Congregation at Geneva: and approved, by the famous and godly learned man, Iohn Caluyn." This volume was originally "Imprinted at Geneva, by Iohn Crespin, m.d.lvi." Small 8vo. There were later impressions at Geneva, in 1558 and 1561. It was very frequently reprinted in this country between 1562 and 1643, and was usually prefixed to the metrical version of the Psalms. be redd owklie on Sounday, and other festuall dayis, publictlie in the Paroche Kirkis, with the Lessonis of the New and Old Testament, conforme to the ordour of the Book of Common Prayeris: And yf the curattis of the parochynes be qualified, to cause thame to reid the samyn; and yf thei be nott, or yf thei refuise, that the maist qualifeid in the parish use and read the same.

Secoundly, It is thought necessare, that doctrin, preacheing, and interpretatioun of Scriptures be had and used privatlie276 in qwyet houssis, without great conventionis of the people tharto, whill afterward that God move the Prince to grant publict preacheing be faithfull and trew ministeris.

These two Headis concernyng the religioun, and some otheris concernyng the Polecy, being concluded, the old Erle of Ergile took the mantenance of Johne Dowglass, caused him preache publictlie in his hous, and reformed many thingis according to his consall. The same boldness took diverse otheris, alsweall within townes as to landwarte; which did not a litle truble the Bischoppis and Quein Regent, as by this lettre and credite, committed to Sir David Hammyltoun 708708Sir David Hamilton of Preston, as heir of his father Robert Hamilton, had charters of the lands of Priestgill and Langkype, in 1541 and 1545. He was one of the attendants of James the Fifth in his voyage to France in 1536.—He survived till November 1584: see the detailed account given in Anderson's House of Hamilton, p. 346. fra the Bischope of Sanctandrois to the said Erle of Ergile, may be clearlic understand.

The Bischoppis Letter to the old Erle of Ergyle.

My Lord, After maist hartlie commendatioun. This is to advertise your Lordship, we have direct this berar, our Cousing, towart your Lordschipis, in sick besynes and effaris as concernes your Lordschipis honour, proffeitt, and great weall; lyk as the said berar will declare your Lordsehipe at mare lenth. Praying your Lordschipe effectuously to adverte thairto, and geve attendance to us, your Lordschipis freindis, that ay hes willed the honour, proffeit, and uter wealth of your Lordschipis house, as of our awin; and credite to the berar. And Jesu haif your Lordschipe in everlesting keaping.

Of Edinburgh, the xxv day of Merche, Anno 1558.

(Sic subscribitur,) Your Lordschippes att all power,

J. Sanctandrois.


Followis the Credite.—Memorandum to Schir David Hammyltoun, to my Lord Erle of Ergile, in my behalf, and lett him see and heare everie Articule.

In primis, To repeit the ancient blood of his House, how long it hes stand, how notable it hes bein, and so many noble men hes bein Erles, Lordis, and Knychtis thairof; how long thei have rong in thei partes, ever trew and obedient bayth to God and the Prince, without any smote to thir dayis in any maner of sorte: and to remember how many notable men ar cuming of his house.

Secoundly, To schaw him the great affectioun I bear towardis him, his blood, house, and freindis, and of the ardent desyre I have of the perpetuall standing of it in honour and fame, with all thame that ar come of it: quhilk is my parte for many and diverse caussis, as ye shall schaw.

Thridly, To schaw my Lord, how havy and displeasing709709In MS. G, "how heavy and displeasing a thing." it is to me now to hear, that he, wha is and hes bein sa noble a man, should be seduced and abused by the flattery of sick ane infamet person of the law710710Not one who belonged to the law, but a person whom the law had rendered infamous.—The reference here is to John Douglas: see page 286. and mensworne apostate, that under the pretense that he geves him self furth as a preachcar of the Evangell and veritie, under that cullour settis furth schismes and divisionis in the Haly Kirk of God, with hereticall propositions, thinkand that under his mantenance and defence, to infect this countrey with heresy, perswading my said Lord and otheris his barnes and freindis, that all that he speakis is Scripture, and conforme thairto, albeit that many of his propositionis ar many yearis past condempned be Generall Counsallis and the haill estaite of Christiane people.


4. To schaw to my Lord, how perrelous this is to his Lordschip and his house, and decay thareof, in caise the Authoritie wold be scharpe, and wold use conforme bayth to civile and cannon, and als your awin municipall law of this Realme.

5. To schaw his Lordschipe, how wa711711Vautr. edit. makes this "how well," which changes the sense. I wold be eyther to hear, see, or knaw any displeasur that mycht come to him, his Sone, or any of his house, or freindis, and especiallie in his awin tyme and dayis; and als how great displeasur I have ellis to hear great and evill bruyte of him, that should now in his aige, in a maner vary in712712In MS. G, "waver from:" Vautr. edit. has "vary of his faith." his fayth; and to be alterat tharein, when the tyme is that he should be maist suir and firme thairin.

6. To schaw his Lordschipe, that thare is dilatioun of that man, called Dowglass or Grant, of syndrie Articules of heresye, quhilk lyes to my charge and conscience to put remeady to, or ellis all the pestilentious doctrin he sawes, and siclyik all that ar corrupt be his doctrin, and all that he drawes fra our fayth and Christiane religioun, will ly to my charge afoir God, and I to be accused befoir God for ower seing of him, yf I putt nott remedy tharto, and correct him for sick thingis he is delaited of. And tharefor that my Lord considder, and weay it weall, how heychtlie it lyes bayth to my honour and conscience: for yf I thole him, I wilbe accused for all thame that he infectis and corruptis in heresye.

Heirfor, I pray My Lord, in my maist hartly manor, to tack this mater in the best parte, for his awin conscience, honour, and weall of him self, hous, freindis, and servandis; and sick lyik for my parte, and for my conscience and honour, that considdering that thare ar diverse Articules of heresey to be laid to him that he is delated of, and that he is presentlie in my Lordis cumpany, that my Lord wold, be some honest way, departe with this man, and putt him fra him and fra his Sonnes cumpanye; for I wold be richt sory that any being279 in any of thare cumpanyes should be called for sick causses, or that any of thame should be bruited to hold any sick men. And this I wold advertise my Lord, and have his Lordschippis answer and resolutioun, ere any summondis passed upoun him, togitther with my Lordis answer.

Item, Yf my Lord wald have a man to instruct him trewlie in the fayth, and preache to him, I wold provide a cunning man to him, wharefoir I shall answer for his trew doctrin, and shall putt my saule tharefoir, that he shall teach nathing but trewly according to our Catholik faith.

Off Edinburgh, this last of Merch, 1558.

(Sic subscribitur,)

J. Sanctandrois.713713In the other copies, the signature is simply "Sanct Androis."

Item, Attour, your Lordschipe shall draw to good remembrance, and wey the great and havye murmur against me, bayth be the Quenis Grace, theFLESCHE AND BLOOD IS PREFERRED TO GOD WITH THE BISCHOPE. Kirk men, Spirituall and Temporall Estaitis, and weall gevin people, meanyng, crying, and murmuring me greattumlie, that I do nott my office to thole sick infamouse persons with sick perversett doctrin, within my Diosey and this Realme, be ressoun of my Legasey and Primacey;714714The Archbishop here alludes to his being Legatus Natus, or Pope's Legate, as well as Primate of the Scottish Church. quhilkis I have rather susteaned and long sufferred, for the great luif that I had to your Lordschip and posteritie, and your freindis, and your house; als beleving suyrly your Lordschippis wisedom should not have manteaned and mulled with sick thingis that mycht do me dishonour or displeasur, considdering I being reddy to have putt good ordour thairto alwayes; but hes allanerlie absteaned, for the luif of your Lordschip and house foirsaid, that I bear trewly, knawing and seing the great skaith and dishonour and lack appeirandlye that mycht come tharthrowght, incaise your Lordschip remeid not the samyn haistelly, whareby we mycht280 bayth be qwyet of all danger, quhilkis dowbtless will come upoun us bayth, yf I use nott my office, or that he be called, the tyme that he is now with your Lordschip, and under your Lordschippis protectioun.

(Subserivit agane,) J. Sanctandrois.

By these formar Instructions, thow may perceave, Gentill Readar, what was the cayre that this pastor, with his complices, took to fead the flock committed to thare charge, (as thei alledge,) and to ganestand fals teachearis. Hear is oft mentioun of conscience, of heresy, and suche other termes, that may fray the ignorant, and deceave the sempill. But we hear no cryme in particulare laid to the charge of the accused;715715That is, John Douglas. and yit is he dampned as ane mensworne apostate. This was my Lordis conscience, which he learned of his fatheris, the Pharesies, old ennemyes to Christ Jesus, who damned him befoir thei hard him. But who rewlled my Lordis conscience, when he took his Eme's wyff, Lady Giltoun?716716In a former page, mention is made of this Lady, who obtained in her days sufficient notoriety. (See notes 333 and 334.) Grizzel Sempill was the daughter of Robert Master of Sempill, who succeeded his father, William, as third Lord Sempill, in 1548. The death of her husband, James Hamilton of Stanehouse, is also mentioned by Knox at page 222. He had been appointed Captain of the Castle of Edinburgh, about September 1543; (Lesley's Hist. p. 174;) and five years later, when he lost his life, he also filled the office of Provost of the City. His eldest son and heir, James, who was slain at the same time, was his father's Deputy, and Director of the Chancery. Notwithstanding the ambiguity of Knox's statement at page 124, we may charitably conclude, it was only subsequent to her husband's death that she became the avowed mistress of John Hamilton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, by whom she had several children: (see note 336.) Two of her sons are thus styled in the Register of the Great Seal: "Legitimatio Johannis Hammyltoun junioris bastardi filii naturalis Grissillidis Sempill filiæ Roberti Magistri de Sempill, et Willielmi Hammyltoun ejus fratris etiam bastardi." 9 Oct. 1551. See also note by George Crawfurd, in his Officers of State, p. 381.—It was probably in virtue of some property she may have acquired that she obtained the title of Lady Gilton; as there is no evidence of her having contracted any second marriage. On the 11th July 1550, (not 1553, as usually stated,) William third Lord Creichton of Sanquhar, was slain in the Governor's chamber by Robert Master of Sempill; who was acquitted by the Governor, on the 10th September 1550.—(Pitcairn's Crim. Trials, vol. i. p. 354*.) "He escaped punishment, (says Pitscottie,) by means of John Hamilton, Bishop of St. Andrews, brother to the Governor, who entertained the Lady Stenhouse, commonly called Lady Gilton, daughter to this Robert Lord Semple, as his concubine." From the date of the remission, it must have been her brother who had committed this murder. Buchanan and other authorities likewise attribute his acquittal to the same influence; and one compiler says of the Archbishop, in very plain terms, "Amangis many utheris his harlottis, he interteayned this harlot Semple, nather bewtifull, of good fame, or utherwayis in any sort notable, except his awin kynsman, and followed him as scho had bene his lauchfull wyffe."—(Johnston's Hist, of Scotland, MS., Advocates Library.) Considder thow the rest of his persuasioun, and281 thow shall clearlie see, that honour, estimatioun, luif to housse and freindis, is the best ground that my Lord Bischope hes, why he should persecut Jesus Christ in his members. We thowght good to insert the Answeris of the said Erle, which follow:—

The most remarkable notice of this lady occurs in the Records of the Town Council of Edinburgh, 26th November 1561, on which day the Provost and other members of Council ordained "actis to be set furth, charging Grizzell Simpill Lady Stanehous adulterar, to remuif her self furth of the town betuix and Mununday nixt, under the panys contenit in the proclamation set furth aganis adulteraris." As the Archbishop of St. Andrews had a residence in Edinburgh, it was no doubt her living openly with him, that occasioned this peremptory enactment. Without enlarging further, it may be added, that she acquired the lands of Blair, in the lordship of Culross, and was sometimes called "Lady Blair." She died in October 1575, and in the Confirmation of her Testament Dative, she is styled "ane honorabill Lady Gryssell Sympill, Lady Stanehous."

Memorandum.—This present wryte is to mak Answer particularly to everilk Article, directed be my Lord of Sanctandrois to me, with Schir David Hammyltoun; quhilkis Articles ar in nomber IX, and hear repeted and answered as I traist to his Lordschippis contentment.

1. The First Article puttis me in remembrance of the ancianitie of the blood of my Hous, how many Erles, Lordis, and Knychtes, hes bein thairof; how many Noble men dis282cended of the same hous, how long it continewed trew to God and the Prince, without smot in thare dayis, in any maner of sorte.

[Answer.]—Trew it is, my Lord, that thare is weall long continewance of my Hous, be Goddis providence and benevolence of our Princes, whome we have served, and shall serve trewly nixt to God: And the lyik obedience towardis God and our Princes remanes with us yitt, or rather bettir, (praised be the Lordis name,) nother know we any spot towardis our Princess and hir dew obedience. And yf thare be offence towardis God, he is mercifull to remitt our offences; for "He will not the death of a synnar." Lyik as, it standis in his Omnipotent power to maik up housses, to continew the samyn, to alter thame, to maik thame small or great, or to extinguish thame, according to his awin inscrutable wisedome; for in exalting, depressing, and changeing of houssis, the laude and praise most be gevin to that ane eternall God, in whais hand the same standis.

2. The Secound Article bearis the great affectioun and love your Lordschip bearis towardis me and my House; and of the ardent desyre ye have of the perpetuall standing thairof in honour and fame, with all thame that is cuming of it.

[Answer.]—Forsuyth, it is your dewitie to wische good unto my Hous, and unto thame that ar cuming of the same, not allanerlie for the faythfulnes, amitie, and societie, that hes bein betuix our foirbearis, but also for the lait conjunction of blood717717Archibald fourth Earl of Argyle, in 1529, married to his first wife, Lady Helen Hamilton, second daughter of James first Earl of Arran, and sister of the Duke of Chattelherault. Their son Archibald succeeded as fifth Earl of Argyle about the end of 1558. See page 290. that is betuix oure saidis Houssis, gif it be Goddis pleasur that it have success; quhilk should give sufficient occasioun to your Lordschip to wische good to my Housse,283 and perpetuitie with Goddis gloir, without quhilk nothing is perpetuall, unto whome be praise and wirschipe for ever and ever. Amen.

3. Thridly, your Lordschip declares how displeasand it is to yow, that I should be seduced be ane infamed persone of the law,718718See note 710. and be the flatterie of ane mensworne apostate, that, under pretence of his furth geving, maikis us to understand, that he is ane preachear of the Evangell, and tharewith rases schismes and divisionis in the haill Kirk of God; and be our mantenance and defence, wald infect this countrey with heresye; alledgeand that to be Scripture, whilk thir many yearis bygane, hes bein condemned as heresye be the Generall Counsallis and haill estate of Christiane people.

Ansure.—The God that creatted heavin and earth, and all that thairin is, preserve me fra seduceing; and I dread otheris many under the cullour of godlynes ar seduceid, and thinkis that thei do God a pleasur, when thei persecute ane of thame that professes his name. What that man is of the law we know nott: we hear nane of his flatterie: his mensworne aith of apostasie is ignorant to us. But yf he had maid ane unlefull aith, contrair Goddis command, it war bettir to violate it then to observe it. He preaches nathing to us but the Evangell. Giff he wald otherwiese do, we wold nott beleve him, nor yitt ane angell of heavin. We hear him sawe na schismes nor divisiones, but sic as may stand with Goddis word, whilk we shall caus him confesse in presence of your Lordschip and the Clargie, when ye requyre us thairto. And as to it that hes bein condempned be the Generall Counsallis, we traist ye knaw weall that all the Generall Counsalles hes bein at diversitie amanges thame selfis, and never twa of thame universallie aggreing in all pointis, in samekle as thei ar of men. But the Spreit of284 veritie that bearis testimony of our Lord Jesus hes nott, nether can not, err; "for heavin and earth shall perishe or ane jote of it perishe." By this, my Lord, nether teaches he, nether will we accept of him, but that whilk aggreis with Goddis synceir word, sett furth be Patriarkis, Prophetis, Apostles, and Evangelistis, left to our salvatioun in his expresse word. And swa, my Lord, to condempne the doctrin not examinat is not requyred; for when your Lordschip pleassis to hear the confessioun of that manis faith, the maner of his doctrin, which aggreis with the Evangell of Jesus Christ, I will caus him to assist to judgement, and shalbe present thairat with Goddis pleasur, that he may rander recknyng of his beleve and our doctrin, to the superiour-poweris, according to the prescriptioun of that blood of the eternall Testament, seilled be the immaculate Lambe, to whome, with the Father, and the Holy Spreit, be all honour and glorie, for ever and ever. Amen.

4. The Ferd Article puttis me in remembrance, how dangerous it is, gif the authoritie wald putt at me and my House, according to civile and cannon lawes, and our awin municipale lawis of this Realme, and how it appeareth to the decay of our house.

Ansure.—All lawis ar (or at the least should be) subject to Goddis law, whilk law should be first placed and planted in everie manes hearte; it should have na impediment: men should not abrogat it for the defence and upsetting of thare awin advantage. Gif it wald please Authorities to put at our housse, for confessing of Goddis word, or for mantenance of his law, God is mychtie yneuch in his awin caus: He should be rather obeyed nor man. I will serve my Princess with bodye, harte, goodis, strenth, and all that is in my power, except that whilk is Goddis dewitie, quhilk I will reserve to him self alone: That is, to wirschipe him in trewth and285 veritie, and als near as I can, conforme to his prescrived worde, to his awin honour and obedience of my Princess.

5. The Fyft Article puttis me in remembrance how wa your Lordschip wald be to hear, see, or know any displeasur that mycht come to me, my sone, or any of my house, and speciallie in my tyme and dayis, and als to hear the great and evill bruyte of me that should now in my aige in a maner begyn to warie fra719719In MS. G, "waver from." my faith, and to be altered thairin, when the tyme is, that I should be maist suir and firme thairin.

Ansure.—Youre Lordschippis gud will is ever maid manifest to me in all your Articles, that wald not hear, see, or knaw my displeasur, for the quhilkis I am bound to rander your Lordschip thankis, and shall do the samyn assuredly. But as for wavering in my faith, God forbyd that I should sa do; for I beleve in God the Father, Almyghtie maikar of heavin and earth, and in Jesus Christ his onlie Sone our Salveour. My Lord, I vary not in my faith; bot I praise God that of his goodnes now in my latter dayis hes of his infinit mercy oppynned his bosome of grace to me, to acknawledge him the Eternall Wisedome, his Sone Jesus Christ, my omnisufficient satisfactioun to refuise all maner of idolatrie, superstitioun, and ignorance, whairwyth I haif bein blynded in tymes bygane, and now belevis that God wilbe mercyfull to me, for now he hes declared his blessed will clearlie to me, befoir my departing of this transitorie lyiff.

6. The Sext Article declaired that thare ar delationis of syndrie pointis of heresye upoun that man, called Dowglas or Grant, whilk lyes to your charge and conscience to putt remeady to, or ellis that all the pestilentiouse doctrin he sawis, and all whome he corruptes with his seid, wilbe requyred at your handis, and all whome he drawes fra your Christiane286 faith; and yf ye should thole him, that ye wilbe accused for all thame whome he infectes with heresey; and tharefoir to regard your Lordschippis honour and conscience heirintill.

Ansure.—What is his surname I knaw nott, but he calles him self Dowglas;720720Spotiswood says that Douglas was a Carmelite or White Friar.—(Hist. p. 94.) It is not improbable he may have been the same person whose name appears as a Determinant in St. Salvator's College in 1554. In that year another John Douglas had the same rank in St. Mary's College, where he became a Licentiate in 1555. It is, I think, quite certain that John Douglas, who was Chaplain to the Earl of Argyle in 1558, and who may have assumed the name of Grant to escape apprehension, should not be confounded with the Provost of St. Mary's College, as Keith and other writers have done. The latter was born about the year 1494, and was descended from the Douglasses of Pettendreich. He studied at St. Andrews at the same time with John Wynrame, and was a Determinant in St. Leonard's College in 1515, and a Licentiate in 1517. Whether he was the person who entered the Carmelite Order, may be left to conjecture; but on 1st October 1547, he was elected Provost of St. Mary's College. In 1551, "Magister Joannes Douglas Prepositus Novi Collegii Mariani," was elected Rector of the University; and being annually elected to this office for the unprecedented period of twenty-three successive years, (1572-3, being called "Vigesimus tertius Rectoratus Johannis Douglas,) and being a constant resident in St. Andrews, it is obvious he could not have been the obscure person who was protected by the Earl of Argyle. for I know nother his father nor his mother. I have heard him teache na Articles of heresye; bot that quhilk aggreis with Goddis word; for I wold manteane na man in heresey or errour. Your Lordschip regardis your conscience in the punishement thairof. I pray God that ye sua do, and examyn weall your conscience. He preaches aganis idolatrie: I remit to your Lordschippis conscience yf it be heresye or not. He preaches aganis adulterie and fornicatioun: I referr that to your Lordschippis conscience. He preaches aganis hypocrisye: I referr that to your Lordschippis conscience. He preaches aganis all maner of abuses and corruptioun of Christes synceir religioun: I refer that to your Lordschippis conscience. My Lord, I exhorte yow, in Christis name, to wey all thir effaris in your conscience,721721"How the Bishop's conscience (says Dr. MʻCrie) stood affected as to these points, we know not; but it is certain that his practice was very far from being immaculate."—(Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iv. p. 209; Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 320.) and considder287 yf it be your dewitie also, not only to thole this, but in lyk maner to do the same. This is all, my Lord, that I varye in my aige, and na uther thing, but that I knew nott befoir these offenses to be abhominable to God, and now knowing his will be manifestatioun of his word, abhorres thame.

7. The Sevint Article desyres me to way thir materis in maist hartlie maner, and to tack thame in best parte, for the weall of bayth our consciences, my Hous, freindis, and servandis, and to put sic ane man out of my cumpany, for feir of the cummer and bruyt that should follow thairupoun, be reasson he is dilated of sindry hereseyis: and that your Lordschip wald be sory to hear ony of our servandis delated or bruited for sic caussis, or for halding of any sic men; and that your Lordschip wald understand my ansuer hearintill, or ony summondis passed thairupoun.

ANSURE.—I thank your Lordschip greatlie that ye ar so solist for the weall of me and my House, and is sa humane as to maik me the advertisment befoir ye have summoned, of your awin good will and benevolence; and hes weyed thir materis, als heychtlie as my judgement can serve me, bayth for your Lordschippis honour and myn. And when I have reassoned all that I can do with my self in it, I think it ay best to serve God, and obey his manifest word, and nott be obstinat in his contrarie: syne to give thare dew obedience to our Princes, rewllaris, and magistratis, and to hear the voce of Goddis propheittis, declairing his good promisses to thame that reapentis, and threatnyng to obstinat wicked doaris, everlesting destructioun. Your Lordschip knawis weall the man: he hes spoking with your Lordschip: I thought yow content with him. I heard na occasioun of offence in him. I can nott weall want him, or some preachar. I can nott put away sic ane man, without I knew him ane offendar, as I know nott; for I hear nothing of him, but sic as your Lordschippis288 self heard of him, and sick as he yitt will professe in your presence, whenever your Lordschip requires. Sic ane man that is readdy to assist him self to judgement, should not be expelled without cognitioun of the cause; for lyik as I answered befoir in ane other Article, when your Lordschip pleassis that all the spirituall and temporall men of estaite in Scotland beis convened, I shall caus him render ane accompt of his beleve and doctrin in your presences: Then gif he deserves punishment and correctioun, lett him so suffer; give he be found faythfull, lett him leve in his faith.

8. The Aucht Article proponis to me, that your Lordschip wald tack the laubour to gett me a man to instruct me in your Catholick faith, and to be my preachear, for whais doctrine ye wald lay your saule, that he wald teach nathing but trewly conforme to your faith.

ANSURE.—God Almychtie send us many of that sorte, that will preache trewlie, and nathing but ane Catholik universall Christiane faith; and we Heland rud people hes mister of thame. And yf your Lordschip wald gett and provid me sic a man, I should provid him a corporall leving, as to my self, with great thankis to your Lordschip; for trewly, I and many ma hes great myster of sick men. And becaus I am able to susteane ma nor ane of thame, I will requeist your Lordschip earnestlie to provid me sic a man as yo wrait; "for the harvist is great, and thare ar few lauboraris."

9. The last and Nynt Article puttis me in remembrance, to considder what murmour your Lordschip thollis, and great bruyt, at many manis handis, bayth Spirituall and Temporall, and at the Quenis Grace hand, and utheris weall gevin people, for nott putting of ordour to thir effaris; and that your Lordschip hes absteaned fra executioun heirof, for luif of my house and posteritie, to the effect that my self should remaid it, for289 feir of the dishonour mycht come upoun us bayth for the same; whilk beand remeaded, mycht bring us out of all danger.

ANSURE.—My Lord, I knaw weall what murmur and indignatioun your Lordschip thoillis at ennemies handis of all estaitis, for non-persewing of pure sempill Christianes; and I know, that gif your Lordschip wald use thare counsall, that wald be blud-schedding and burnyng of pure men, to maik your Lordschip serve thare wicked appetites. Yit your Lordschip knawis your awin dewitie, and should not feare the danger of men, as of him whom ye professe. And verrely, my Lord, thare is nathing that may be to your Lordschippis releaf in this behalf, bot I will use your Lordschippis counsall thairintill, and further the samyn, Goddis honour being first provided, and the treuth of his eternall word having libertie. And to absteane for my luif fra persuyt, as your Lordschip hes signified, I am addetted to your Lordschip, as I have writtin diverse tymes befoir. But thare is ane above, for whais fear ye man absteane fra blude-schedding, or ellis, my Lord, knok on your conscience. Last of all, your Lordschip please to considder, how desyrous some ar to have sedition amongis freindis; how mychtie the Devill is to saw discord; how that mony wald desyre na better game but to hunt us at uther. I pray your Lordschip begyle thame: we will aggree upoun all purpose, with Goddis pleasur, standing to his honour. Thare ar diverse Houssis in Scotland by us, that professe the same God secreatly. Thei desyre but that ye begyn the bargane at us; and when it begynnis at us, God knawis the end thairof, and wha sall byd the nixt putt. My Lord, considder this: mak na preparative of us. Lett nott the vane exhortatioun of thame that regardis litill of the weall and strenth of bayth our Houssis, sture up your Lordschip, as thei wald to do aganis God, your awin conscience, and the weall of your posteritie for ever. And thairfoir now in the end, I pray your290 Lordschip, wey thir thingis wysely; and gif ye do utherwyise, God is God, wes, and shalbe God, when all is wrocht that man can wirk.

This ansuer receaved, the Bischope and his complices fand thame selfis somewhat disapointed; for the Bischoppes looked for nothing less then for such ansueris frome the Erle of Ergile; and thairfoir thei maid thame for thare extreame defence; that is, to corrupt and by buddis to styre up the Quein Regent in our contrare; as in the Secound Booke we shall more plainly heare.

Schorte after this, God called to his mercy the said Erle of Ergyle from the miseries of this lyef;722722Archibald fourth Earl of Argyle, in 1525, was designed son and heir-apparent of Colin Earl of Argyle. He succeeded to the title before 1533. In 1543, he was opposed to the proposed alliance of Edward the Sixth and Mary Queen of Scots; and distinguished himself at the battle of Pinkie, in 1547, and at the siege of Haddington, in the following year. The precise time of his death is not ascertained; and his Testament is not known to be preserved. But he died towards the close of 1558, as on the 21st August that year he granted a charter to his son Archibald, then Lord Lorne; on the 2d December following, in the confirmation of the same charter, it is expressed that he was then deceased. whareof the Bischoppis war glaid; for thei thowght that thare great ennemye was takin out of the way: but God disapointed thame. For as the said Erle departed most constant in the trew faith of Jesus Christ, with a plane renunciatioun of all impietie, superstitioun, and idolatrie; so left he it to his Sone in his Testament, "That he should study to set fordwarte the publict and trew preaching of the Evangell of Jesus Christ, and to suppress all superstitioun and idolatrie, to the uttermost of his power." In which poynt small falt can be found with him723723Knox in thus alluding to the conduct of Archibald fifth Earl of Argyle, evidently points at his continued adherence to Queen Mary, at the time when the above passage was written. to this day. God be mercifull to his other offensses. Amen. 10 MAIJ, ANNO 1566.724724In MS. G, and Vautr. edit., this date is introduced into the text, as 10th of May 1568. If this was not a clerical mistake, it might be held to indicate that the intermediate MS., from which Vautrollier's edition, as well as the Glasgow MS. was taken, had been transcribed in that year.

—————————————————725725On the margin of the MS. is written, apparently in Knox's own hand, and then deleted, "Here tak in the Beggars Summonds warning the Freres." In Vautr. edit., in MS. G, and in all the other copies, it is introduced in this place, where it stands wholly unconnected. The paper referred to occurs at the end of the original MS., (fol. 388,) as a single leaf, entitled "The Blind, Crooked, &c., to the Flockis of all Friars within this realme," &c. It will be seen that the Author had finally resolved upon inserting it near the beginning of Book Second.

The Bischoppis continewed in thare Provinciall Counsall726726See note 768, and >Appendix, No. XIV. for some notices of this Provincial Council, in 1558-9. evin unto that day that Johne Knox arryved in Scotland.727727Knox himself fixes the date of his arrival in Scotland to the 2d of May 1559: see page 318. And that thei mycht geve some schaw to the People that thei mynded Reformatioun, thei sparsed abrod a rumor thairof, and sett furth somewhat in print, which of the People was called "The Twa-penny Fayth."728728In the MS. it was originally "The Threepenny Faith." Spottiswood and other writers, (see Keith, vol. i. pp. 5, 149,) have erroneously imagined that this refers to the Atechisme, "set furth, in his Provincial Counsale," by Archbishop Hamilton; which has this colophon, "Prentit at Sanct Androus, be the command and expensis of the maist reuerend father in God, Iohne Archbischop of Sanct Androus, and Primat of ye hail Kirk of Scotland, the xxix. day of August, the zeir of our Lord m.d. lii." 4to, 220 leaves. But besides the difference of six years in the date, and the absurdity of supposing that a volume of that size could have been sold for such a price, the Catechism was never intended for the laity, but was specially enjoyned to be used by "all and sindry Personis, Vicars and Curattis," both for their own edification, and for reading a portion of it to "thair awin parochianaris,"—"quhen thair cummis na precheour to thame to schaw thame the word of God."—Of the Twopenny Faith, published in 1559, no copy is known to be preserved.

1. Amonges thare Actes, thare was much ado for cappes, schavin crounes, tippettis, long gounes, and such other trifilles.

2. Item, That nane should enjoy office or benefice ecclesiasticall, except a Preast.


3. Item, That na Kirk-man should nuriss his awin barnes in his awin cumpanye: but that everie one should hold the childrein of otheris.

4. That none should putt his awin sone in his awin benefice.292

5. That yf any war found in open adultery, for the first falt, he should lose the thrid of his benefice; for the secound cryme, the half; and for the thrid, the hole benefice.

But hearfra appelled the Bischope of Murray,729729It is said that Hepburn, Bishop of Moray, imagining that the last of the enactments which Knox has specified had a special reference to his licentious conduct, justified himself, not by an appeal to the Canon Law, but to example set by Archbishop Hamilton, who presided in the Council. and otheris Prelattis, saying, "That thei wold abyd at the Cannoun law." And so mycht thei weall yneuch do, so long as thei remaned interpretouris, dispensatouris, maikaris, and disannullaris of that law. But lett the same law have the trew interpretatioun and just executioun, and the Devill shall als schone be provin a trew and obedient servand unto God, as any of that sorte shalbe provin a Bischope, or yit to have any just authoritie within the Church of Christ Jesus. But we returne to oure Historye.


The persecutioun was decreid, asweall by the Quein Regent as by the Prelattis; but thare rested a point, which the Quein Regent and France had nott at that tyme obteaned; to witt, That the Croune Matrimoniall should be granted to Frances, husband to our Soverane, and so should France and Scotland be but one kingdome, the subjectes of boyth realmes to have equall libertie, Scotismen in France, and French men in Scotland. The glister of the proffeit that was judged heirof to have ensewed to Scotishmen at the first sight, blynded many menis eyis. But a small wynd caused that myst suddantlye to vaniss away; for the greatast offices and benefices within the Realme war appointed for French men. Monsieur Ruby730730At page 262, notice is taken of the appointment of Monsieur de Ruby, in 1554, as Keeper of the Great Seal; and he is there said to have been Comptroller in 1557. For this we have the authority of Lindsay of Pitscottie, who says, "Soone thairefter, she (the Queen Regent) changed her Officeris of State, and maid ane Maister Ruby Comptroller, quho used sick rigour in his office, that incontinent he was deposed."—(Chronicles, sub anno 1557.) But it must be added, that Pitscottie is very inaccurate in many of his statements; as Vielmort, according both to Knox and Lesley, held the office of Comptroller; and the latter expressly says, that Ruby "kepit the Great Seill during the hoill time of the Queen Regent's government," (Hist. p. 252;) that is, from 1554 till 1560. And in 1558, in an Act of Parliament, he is styled "Mc Ynes de Rubbay Garde des Seaulx dicelle Dame," apparently meaning Queen Mary.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 513.) According to another authority, he held the Great Seal until 1564, when he was succeeded by David Rizzio.—(Scott's Staggering State, App. p. 175. See Tytler's Hist. vol. vi. p. 60.)293 keapt the Great Seall. Vielmort was Comptrollar.731731Bartholomew Villemore, it is said, had been named Comptroller by Queen Mary, in March 1560-1, but he was never admitted.—(Scott's Staggering State, App. p. 144.) But Bishop Lesley mentions his appointment as Comptroller by the Queen Regent in the year 1554.—(History, p. 250.) Melrose and Kelso732732Lord James Stewart, the eldest of the natural sons of James the Fifth, is noticed at page 71, as having been educated under George Buchanan, and as Commendator of the Monasteries of Kelso and Melrose: see also note 644. But the date of his death is there erroneously stated. Instead of 1548, it happened in August or September 1558. The Queen Dowager nominated her uncle, Charles Cardinal of Lorraine, and brother of Francis Duke of Guyse, to be his successor, "be vertue of the Acte of Naturalization," (Lesley's History, p. 267;) but the Cardinal never obtained possession of these lucrative benefices. The Commendatorship of Melrose was afterwards conferred on James Douglas, a cadet of the Morton family. should have bein a Commend to the poore Cardinall of Lorane. The fredomes of Scotish merchantis war restreaned in Rowan, and thei compelled to pay toll and taxationis otheris then thare ancient liberties did bear. To bring this head to pass, to witt, to gett the Matrimoniall Croune, the Quein Regent left no point of the compas unsailled. With the Bischoppis and Preastis, sche practised on this maner: "Ye may clearlie see, that I can not do what I wald within this Realme; for these heretickis and confidderatis of England ar so band togitther, that thei stop all good ordour. Butt will ye be favorable unto me in this suyt of the Matrimoniall Croune to be granted to my Dowghtaris housband, then shall ye see how I shall handill these heretickis and tratouris or it be long." And in verray dead, in these hir promessis, sche ment no deceat in that behalf. Unto the Protestantis she said, "I am nott unmyndfull how oft ye have suyted me for Reformatioun in religioun, and glaidly wald I consent thairunto; but294 ye see the power and craft of the Bischop of Sanctandrois, togetther with the power of the Duck, and of the Kirkmen, ever to be bent against me in all my proceadingis: So that I may do nothing, onless the full authoritie of this Realme be devolved to the King of France, which can nott be butt by donatioun of the Croune Matrimoniall; which thing yf ye will bring to passe, then devise ye what ye please in materis of religioun, and thei shalbe granted."

Wyth this commission and credytt was Lord James, then Priour of Sanctandrois, direct to the Erle of Ergyle, with mo other promessis then we list to reherse. By such dissimulatioun to those that war sempill and trew of harte, inflambed sche thame to be more fervent in hir petitioun, then hir self appeared to be. And so at the Parliament, haldin at Edinburght in the moneth of October,733733Parliament did not meet till the 29th of November 1558. the yeir of God 1558, it was clearlie voted, no man reclamyng, (except the Duck734734The Duke of Chattelherault gave in, at the Parliament held at Edinburgh on the 14th December 1557, a protestation "tuiching the marriage of our Souerane Lady;" and another protest, on the 29th November 1558, "tuiching the Crowne Matrimoniale."—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 605, 507.) for his entress;735735In MS. G, "except the Duke for his interest.") and yitt for it thare was no better law produced, except that thare was ane solempned Messe appointed for that purpose in the Pontificall.

This head obteaned, whaireat France and sche principallie schote, what faith sche keapt unto the Protestantis, in this our Secound Book shalbe declared: In the begynnyng whairof, we man more amplie reherse some thingis, that in this our First ar summarly tweiched.