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The volume now issued finishes Volume II. of the original, of which a portion appears in Volume III. of the English Translation. The first chapter of this volume corresponds to Chapter VII. of Volume II. of the original, which treats of the Divinity of Christ. The remaining third volume of the German Edition will occupy three volumes in the English Translation, making seven volumes in all.





CHAPTER I.—The Doctrine of the Homousia of the Son of God with God Himself

  (1) From the Beginning of the Controversy to the Council of Nice 2-59
Lucian and the Lucianists 3
Account and explanation of Lucian’s doctrine 4

Arius and the outbreak of the Arian Controversy, the parties, the first developments up to the Nicene Council

The Formulæ to which Arius took exception 12
The Doctrine of Arius 14
The Doctrine of Bishop Alexander 21
The Doctrine of Athanasius 26
Estimate of the two opposing Christologies 38
The Council of Nice, the parties 50
The Nicene Creed 53
The Homousios and the influence of Hosius 56
Apparent result 59
  (2) To the Death of Constantius 59-80
The situation after the Nicene Council 59
The policy of Constantine 60
Constantine’s sons: Constantius 62
The predominance of the Eusebians 64
Marcellus of Ancyra 65
The Councils of Antioch 67
The Council of Sardica 68
The Formula of Antioch 69
Councils at Milan, Photinus of Sirmium 70
Constantius sole ruler; Councils at Sirmium, Arles, Milan 72
The strict Arians, the Homoiousians and the Homœans 74

The imperial policy of union at Sirmium, Rimini, Seleucia, Nice and Constantinople; victory of the Homuœan Confession

  (3) To the Councils of Constantinople 381, 383 80-107
The agreement between the Homoiousians and Homousians 81
xThe Synod of Alexandria and the concession of the orthodox 83

The new orthodoxy in the East; the Cappadocians and their scientific doctrine of the Trinity

The split at Antioch 89

Valens; the domination of the Arians in the East; the Homoiousians go over to orthodoxy; alliance with the West

Damasus; tension between the old and the new orthodoxy 92
Gratian and Theodosius 93
Theodosius takes his stand on the new orthodoxy 94

Council and Creed of Constantinople in the year 381, triumph of the new orthodoxy in consequence of politics and science

Serious tension with the West 101
Adjustment of differences in 382; service rendered by Ambrose l01, 103
End of Arianism; Council of 383 104
APPENDIX.—The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit and of the Trinity 108-137

The wholly indefinite condition of the doctrine of the Holy Spirit in the first centuries; Irenæus, Tertullian, Origen; development of the doctrine in accordance with the analogy of the doctrine of the Logos

Arians and Athanasius 112
Macedonians (Pneumatomachians) and Athanasius 114

The doctrine of the Cappadocians; consubstantiality of the Spirit; uncertainties

The Westerns 117
Condemnation of the Macedonians in 381 118
  II. The doctrine of the Trinity held by Apollinaris and the Cappadocians 119
Comparison with Tertullian’s doctrine of the Trinity 121
Aristotelian and Subordinationist element in the doctrine of the Trinity 124
Tritheists, Johannes Damascenus 125
Doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Spirit in the East and West 126
Photius maintains the old doctrine of the Trinity 127
Philosophy and Trinitarian dogma 128
The Western doctrine of the Trinity; Augustine 129
The filioque and the Athanasian Creed 133
The three so-called Ecumenical Creeds 135

Concluding remarks on the form in which the doctrine of the Trinity came to be accepted


CHAPTER II.—The Doctrine of the Perfect Likeness of the Nature of the Incarnate Son of God with that of Humanity


Introduction: Views regarding the humanity of Christ up to the middle of the Fourth Century


Close connection between the Trinitarian and Christological problems from that time

Tertullian’s doctrine, the root of the orthodox doctrines 144
The humanity of Christ according to the Arians mere σάρξ 146

The Christology of Athanasius and Marcellus; origin of the formulæ, μία φύσις, δύο φίσεις


The doctrine of Apollinaris of Laodicea as the first rigidly developed Christology


The condemnation of this doctrine; the perfect likeness of the humanity of Christ with human nature is elevated to the rank of dogma


The doctrine of the Cappadocians regarding the humanity and the unity of the God-Man

The difficulty of the Problem which now emerged 163

CHAPTER III.—Continuation: The Doctrine of the Personal Union of the Divine and Human Natures in the Incarnate Son of God

    Introduction 164
  (1) The Nestorian Controversy 165-190
The Christology of the Antiochians 165
The Christology of Cyril 174
Outbreak of the Controversy, Nestorius 180

The attitude of the Roman Bishop Cœlestin, his repudiation of the Western view

The Anathemas 186
The Council of Ephesus 186
The Formula of union of the year 433 189
Cyril gains the upper hand 190
  (2) The Eutychian Controversy 190-226

Survey of the position of the Alexandrian Patriarchs in the Church; Rome, Alexandria and the Byzantine State

Significance of the political conditions for the Eutychian Controversy 195
The Church after the union of the year 433 197
Eutyches and the charge against him; Flavian and the Council of 448 199
The appeal to Leo I 201
Dioscurus, the Master of the Eastern Church 201
xiiLeo’s Letters, the Ep. ad Flavianum 202
The Council of Ephesus of 499; triumph of Dioscurus 207
The period until the death of Theodosius II 210
Entire change in the situation; Pulcheria and Marcian 212
Leo I.; he seeks to prevent the calling of a Council 213
The Council of Chalcedon 215
The dogmatic formula 219
Significance and estimate of the formula 222
The twenty-eighth Canon of Chalcedon 225
  (3) The Monophysite Controversies and the Fifth Council 226-252

The Chalcedonian Creed occasions serious conflicts in the East; imperial attempts to set it aside

The Henoticon and the Great Schism of the years 484-519 228
The Theopaschitian Controversy 230

The new scholastic orthodoxy reconciles itself to the Chalcedonian Creed; Leontius of Byzantium


Internal movements and divisions amongst the Monophysites: Severians, Julianists, etc.

Justinian’s ecclesiastical policy 241-252
Justinian and the new orthodoxy 241
Conference with the Severians 242
Failure of a Monophysite re-action, the assistance of Rome 243

The condemnation of Origen and of the Antiochene theology, the Three Chapter’s Controversy

Vigilius of Rome 248
The Fifth Ecumenical Council of Constantinople 249

Solemn recognition of the Chalcedonian Creed, but as interpreted by Cyril; Eastern victory over the West; reactions in the West; Justinian’s latest views; Justin II


The Monergist and Monothelite Controversies; the Sixth Council and John of Damascus

Introduction 252
Political conditions, the Monergist Controversy 254
The Ecthesis 256
The Typus 257

The Monothelite Controversy: Rome, the Byzantine Church and the State

The Sixth Ecumenical Council, sanction given to dyothelitism 261
The Scholasticism of John of Damascus 264
xiiiC.—The enjoyment of Redemption in the Present.
CHAPTER IV.—The Mysteries and Kindred Subjects 268-330

Introduction; emergence of what constitutes mysteries; legitimation of a religion of the second rank; mystagogic theology

  § I.

The Lord’s Supper and the other mysteries; Antiochene and Alexandrian mysticism, their union in cultus; Dionysius the Areopagite

Details regarding Baptism 283

History of development of the doctrine of the Supper in its sacramental and sacrificial aspect; the Lord’s Supper and the Incarnation

More detailed history of the doctrine of the Supper; Origen 290
Eusebius, Athanasius, Basil, Macarius 291
Cyril of Jerusalem, Gregory of Nyssa 292
Chrysostom 297
Dionysius 298
Cyril of Alexandria and the Monophysites 299
John of Damascus.—Conclusion 301
  § II. Worship of Saints; Relics, Martyrs and Pictures 304

The Seven Points of Contact for the legitimising of this Religion of the Second Rank, or heathenism, within the doctrina publica

Reservations 310
Details regarding Angel-worship 311
Worship of Saints and Relics 312
Mariolatry 314 Worship of pictures, the definitive expression of Greek Piety 317
Pictures, Monachism and the State; the controversy over images 319
Synods of 754, 787 and 842 324

Images remain the property of the Church, but the Church remains the property of the State


CHAPTER V.—Appendix: Historical Sketch of the Rise of the Orthodox System

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